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" It will flonriih, if natural iiti, ctaemiita, antiqnariei, philolo 
science, in different part* of Atia will commit their observation: 
■end them to the Atiatic Society at Calcutta ; It will languish, 

nieatinntsball be long Intermitted; and will die away, if thej abal. , 


Calcutta : 






No. 79.— July, 1838. 

I. — Excursions to the Eastward. No. 1. 

Extracts from the Journal of a Political Mission to the Raja qfLigor 
in Siam. By Capt. James Lonr, M. N. I. and M. A. T. C. 

When the Burmese war broke out in 1824 I bad tbe bonor of being 
deputed by the honorable Mr. Phillips, then at the bead of tbe go- 
vernment of Prince of Wales' Island as envoy to the raja of Ligor with 
the view. of obtaining some co-operation of the Siamese with the Ran- 
goon expedition, and especially by means of a fleet of boats. It is un- 
necessary here to enter into political details ; but it may be briefly 
remarked that the Mission returned after a tedious negotiation of three 
months without being able to effect all the objects contemplated. This 
was owing to the suspicious temper of the Siamese court, which could 
not for a long while credit that the British arms would finally prevail. 
At a subsequent period when aware of tbe mistake, this haughty and 
ambitious, yet politic court discovered that; the difctoriness of its coun- 
cils had shut it out from any share in the conquered territories. 

The schooner Commerce of 60 tons burden, Capt. Chevers, an 
American commander, was taken up for the conveyance of the Mis- 
sion. A native officer with a party of sepoys formed the escort, and 
camp equipage was provided in case it might be wanted for a march 

We sailed on the 7th May, 1824, and proceeded up the Keddah 
coast. On the right, Gunong Jerrei the Keddah peak forms a very 
prominent feature of the coast. Its height is about 4000 feet*. It is 

* By the Trigonometrical Survey mode by Mr. Wooma of the nary its height 
i*~3894 feet. 

4 D 

584 Excursions to the Eastward. [July, 

very steep where it faces the sea ; and here the streams of water which 
flow over the smooth dark granite rock, when struck by the sun's rays, 
appear like fleecy clouds wreathing the mountain. 

The formation of this mountain is primary. The secondary and 
tertiary formations are not easily discoverable until we reach the 
small islands called the Buntings, which lie nearly opposite to it. 
At its base strata of laterite, and other conglomerates and accumula- 
tions of debris prevail. In the deep narrow valleys lying betwixt the 
shoulders of the mountain I observed tin ore of an excellent quality 
in the form of grains. The Chinese were making what they called a 
mine, which was merely a square excavation about thirty feet wide and 
from two to three feet deep. The ore was loosely deposited below 
quartz and schistose gravel. 

Suspended from the ceiling of the smelting house were wooden mo- 
dels of all sorts of native arms and implements intended to charm 
away evil spirits. 

Jerrei and Cherrei, by both of which appellatives this mountain is 
known to the Malays, are corruptions of the term Srai which was the 
ancient name of the Keddah country when entirely peopled by the 
Siamese race, about A. D. 1340. A commercial colony from the 
' westward under a chief named Marrono Mahawangsa which set- 
tied near the base of the mountain Srai was the cause of the country 
becoming a place of greater resort than before that event for traders 
from India. The above named chief changed the name of the country 
to Keddah, but the Siamese continue to call it Srai or Chrau I shall 
have occasion in a subsequent paper to state some further particulars 
respecting the condition of this country in former times. 

8th. Anchored off the mouth of the Keddah river. The anchor- 
age is good in the north-east monsoon ; but in the south-west monsoon 
it is a disagreeable if not an unsafe one, the shore being a lee one and 
the swell heavy. 

The Yokkabat, one of the Siamese government officers, came off to 
say that the governor would give me an audience next day. I accord- 
ingly waited on him at his sala or thamoneeup or hall of audience. 
Phra Phak Deb Barebrap is a young man of about twenty years of 
age. He is an illegitimate son of the raja of Ligor ; he entered the 
hall immediately on my arrival. He was preceded by two men carry- 
ing dap deng or swords of state. These are about five feet long and 
have red velvet scabbards. On the right and left were soldiers bear- 
ing dap he which are also swords of state having golden hilts. Princes 
in Siam have generally twenty sword-bearers on each side of them 

1838*3 Excutiions to the Ea$tward. 685 

when sitting in dorbar. I bowed in the English fashion to the young 
chief and then amt down on a chair which had been placed for me six 
paces in front of the raised platform, on which he had seated himself 
with his legs crossed and supported by cushions. Behind me the native 
officer and havildar with their swords on, stood along with several other 
attendants. The Siamese interpreter to the Mission placed himself on 
the carpet at my feet. Close on the left squatted both the minister of 
the chief and also his interpreter. The object of this interview was to 
explain to the Siamese the nature and objects of the Burmese war, and 
to obtain permission to cross the Peninsula to Ligor. The chief posi- 
tively refused to comply with the latter request until he had the sanc- 
tion of his father. 

The Mission therefore would proceed. I told him. up the coast in 
order to open a more speedy communication with the Ligoreans. The 
young governor smoked segars during the whole audience. The minister 
alluded to is a very fat man, and the uneasy, unnatural posture which 
etiquette compelled him to keep, gave him the appearance of a huge 
baboon, the resemblance being heightened by the manner in which, ac- 
cording to the Siamese fashion, his hair was brushed up in front. 

The interpreter passed and repassed betwixt the chief and myself on 
his knees and elbows, a tedious and disgusting operation, but charac- 
teristic of the procrastinating nature of Siamese diplomacy. 

The governor was naked from the waist upwards. His hair was 
short and his head uncovered* 

The lower half of his person was clothed in a dress of silk and gold. 
This is the common dress in lower Siam, and the raja of Ligor and 
his sons affect simplicity, partly it may be supposed through policy, 
and the fear of exciting the cupidity of the minions about the court of 

Many however of the inferior officers wear silk vests or tunics em- 
broidered with gold or silver, and also long crape scarfs which they 
either use like cloaks, or wind round them as sashes. The favorite 
color for these last is black. 

The town of Keddah stands on the south bank of the river, and 
consists of a single street of mean artap houses*. It is protected by a 
brick defence, comprising an area of about eighty yards by fifty. With- 
in are the houses of the governor and his officers and soldiers. The 
wall of this work varies in height from eight to ten feet. Several large 
iron guns are mounted on the wall facing the river. There is no 

* This term is given to the eastward to houses constructed of light materials 
and thatched with artap or Dipah leares. 
4 D 2 

586 Excursion* to the Eastward! [July, 

ditch on this side and the space betwixt the foot of the wall and the 
river's bank is a gentle slope of a dozen yards. This fort, as the na- 
tives term it, could not withstand for a quarter of an hour an attack bj 
a regular force. 

Piles had been driven into the river below the town leaving only a 
narrow passage. In descending, the tide carried our boat against these, 
, and it narrowly escaped being wedged in betwixt two of them. 

11th. Set sail in the direction of Sit too I, a small town on the 
bank of a river of the same name. Finding that it would delay us did 
we ascend this river we returned to the vessel. The bason into which 
it empties itself and which is formed by islands is very shallow. Pro- 
ceeding along the coast the general aspect is monotonous. Here and 
there an open spot covered with long grass and interspersed with fine 
trees seems to give an earnest of cultivation. But a nearer approach 
dissolves the spell. In fact the cultivation on the Keddah coast, with 
a very few exceptions, does not begin until a distance of a mile or two 
from the sea. 

I have in a former paper* described the Laneavy Islands and others 
adjacent to them, and shall therefore here omit that part of the journal 
which relates to them. 

16th. Having encountered nothing but contrary winds we ran in for 
Trang harbour, but were forced to come to an anchor before reaching 
it, after having with great difficulty and hazard weathered two high 
limestone rocks which lie off the south end of Pulo TiUbong. There 
being no endurable cabin, the tents were got up and spread out so as to 
shelter us from the torrents of rain which fell during the night. 

17th. Finding that no progress could be made, the boat was got out 
and I proceeded to the island to examine it. There was a very heavy 
swell and a double surf at the shore of the small bay on the south side 
of the island w^ere we landed, and we narrowly escaped being swamped. 
The island is uninhabited, and had been deserted since the Burmese 
descent on Junkceylon in 1808 ; several droves of wild buffaloes were 
seen on a plain in the middle of the island. At these a few shots were 
fired without much effect. On returning to the Bay no boat could be 
found. At length the Arab who had been left in charge of it was dis- 
covered seated in moody silence below a tree. He significantly point- 
ed to the surf, adding " she lies there' 1 As this was our only boat, and 
the Commerce was hull down, our case appeared somewhat desperate. 
Fortunately the rope attached to the anchor on shore held fast, and by 
help of this and the exertions of all hands after two hours hard work 
* As. Res. Trans. Phyi. class, part I. paper VI. 

1838.] Excursions to the Eastward. 687 

the boat was got on shore. It was Ml of sand and two of the planks 
were stove in. The jackets of the men were employed to close these 
apertures, and then by dint of constant baling our party reached the 
vessel in safety. 

19th. Anchored in Trang harbour within bowshot of a small 
ereek. The channel is narrow, and it deepens towards the anchorage 
at this creek which runs up into the east side of the island. This 
spot is about three miles distant from the guard house at the mouth 
of the Trang river, and about twelve from Khoan Taut the chief village 
of the district which also lies on the banks of the river. 

Pulo TiUbong was formerly inhabited, but the wars of Salang which 
exposed it to Burman ravage scared the people away. On the sandy 
beach on the eastern side we found the remains of a stockade which had 
been constructed with shinbeans or roughly planed planks, about two or 
three inches in thickness, of the wood called by the Siamese mat kheutnp 
and khayu geatn by the Malays. These planks were about ten feet 
above the ground in height. This is a very hard and durable wood, and 
of a dark color. Although it had been exposed to the weather in this 
stockade for upwards of twelve years, it seemed to have only increased 
in hardness by age. 

In a cave in a high rock which guards the northern entrance to the 
harbour, I discovered twelve human sculls placed in a row ; they proba- 
bly belonged to some of those men who had fallen in the wars- just 
alluded to. This cave contains many fine stalactitical masses. 

There is a channel betwixt the island of Titibong> and the main shore- 
which is generally used by the Chinese junks which go up from Penang.. 
There is no safe channel for vessels from TUibong harbour to the 
river's mouth. The harbour ends in a deep excavation of 9 feet, being- 
merely the channel which is formed by that portion of the waters of the. 
river which flow in this direction. 

Trang is a thinly peopled district. About three thousand persons of 
both sexes may be taken as the utmost extent of the population. 

The river and its adjacent shores are chiefly valuable to the Siamese 
on account of the facilities which both afford for boat building, and of 
some tin mines at the skirts of the hills. Trang river bears properly: 
only one embouchure although the maps represent it otherwise. Junks 
go up it for ten or twelve miles (by the course of the river). About 
six hours' rowing up it divides pito two branches. 

Khoan Tani is the chief village. Poultry and some other refresh- 
ments can be obtained. The finest kinds of fish swam at the mouth of 
the river and in the harbour. 

588 Excursions to the Eastward. [July, 

The Chinese of Penang export from Trang tin, a little ivory (which 
is contraband,) bird's nest, hogs, poultry, and rice. A Chuliah or jaur 
Pakan* manages the raja's mercantile transactions. The river is quite 
undefended. From Khoan Tani Ligor can be reached in seven stagesf . 
Tigers abound on the route. Expresses are generally conveyed by 
parties of seven men, who make the beat of their way without always 
keeping together, the strongest carrying the express last and leaving 
the weaker behind. 

2 1 st. About midday the Than Palat or superintendent of the dis- 
trict with his two colleagues came on board. They appeared nnder 
considerable alarm. 

Letters were despatched by their assistance to their master at Ligor, 
for .it was found that these men had less authority vested in them than 
the Governor of Keddah possessed. The apprehensions of an attack by 
the Burmese had not yet subsided here, and the news of the British 
having gone to war with that people gave evident satisfaction to these 
officers. The Than Palat observed, that although the Siamese and 
the Burmese had a common origin, and have now one religion in com* 
mon, yet their minds never in any manner allied. The English, they 
observed, could easily accommodate themselves to Chinese and Siamese 
customs, because they eat the same kind of food. These men were 
well dressed in white silk crape vests, with short sleeves. The under 
dress was composed of checquered silk. They partook freely of wine 
and biscuit, and became soon so loquacious that some state secrets escap- 
ed them, or which they doubtless considered such, although in reality 
as regarded us amounting to nothing. 

We left Trang on the 26th, and alter encountering rainy and boiste- 
rous weather, rendered"more annoying from the want of any decent 
accommodation on board, we reached Junkceylon on the 29th. 

The harbour of this island is too well known to require a description 
here. There is neither village or hut on the beach, and at first sight 
a stranger might suppose that the island had been deserted. After 
searching about for some time in the boat for the Thartia stream or 
creek, we observed a boat with natives in it close to the beach. On see- 
ing us they tookto .flight although armed with muskets and other wea- 

• The descendant of a Chuliah or Coromandel man and a Malay woman. 

f 1 Tha cheen. "^ 

2 Don thamma praang. I 

3 Kroong mo-an. f No population. 

4 Kastang. | 

5 CUong khan. J 

1838.] J2*curiion* to the Eastward. 589 

pons. They were overtaken, and proved to be a party of Siamese. A 
shaven priest of Buddha kept the helm. Recovering from their alarm 
they shewed us the creek we were looking for. The opening into it 
through the mangrove trees is very narrow, and might be mistaken for 
a mere inequality in the general line of jangal. Although we had left 
the ship at sunrise, we did not reach Thct Rua town until about sun- 
set. This was owing to the narrowness of the stream which prevented 
ears being of any use. The heavy ship's boat was towed up by fixing 
a rope to trees ahead and hauling on it, and by the boatmen dragging 
it against the current ; they being at the same time up to the neck in 
Loant Bam Prong the Siamese officer in charge of the island re* 
me with much politeness and hospitality in his own house*. His 
►, a stout good-humoured dame, of about thirty, immediately set to 
work in the kitchen to prepare me a supper or rather dinner. The 
kitchen was on the same floor with the apartment allotted to me, and I 
could perceive the whole process of cookery, which was certainly by 
no means of that description which could injure the appetite of any 
traveller of moderate expectations. The dinner, consisting of poultry, 
eggs and vegetables, was served up in clean China plates and cups, 
with spoons of china-ware; custards, confections and fruits formed 
the second course. My host declined partaking of the viands. This 
was done out of respect, not prejudice; for after I had dined, the 
dishes were removed to the next room, where he and his lady, who 
had cooked an additional dinner, dined. By this time the lower 
part of the house was full of people. But they behaved with much 
decorum. They all smoked cigars. The conversation was kept up 
betwixt the chief and me, accompanied by the flare of daramer torches 
until past midnight, and during it I could perceive that fealty to the 
emperor was a thing which lay very lightly on the heart of my com- 
panion. On our arrival the women were but scantily clothed, their 
busts being for the most part exposed. Next day, however, they 
all appeared, with the addition of the phri 9 which is a long piece of 
cloth, plain or variegated ; one end of it is put partly wound about the 
waist, and the remainder is brought over the left shoulder and then car- 
ried across the breast : they wore their hair short. The women bring 
water from the river in bamboos of ten or twelve feet long closed at 
one end. They carry them slightly inclined on their shoulders and 
place them upright against the walls of the houses. This plan is very 

• Built in the usual light style of the country and only distinguishable from 
the cottage* around it by being larger. 

590 Excursion* to the Eastward. [July, 

inconvenient, since the bamboo which is heavy must be lowered when 
water is required by any of the household. Joints of the bamboo are 
in general use for carrying water on a journey, and rice can be suffici- 
ently boiled for food in a greeri one, without the latter splitting. We 
returned to the ship on the 31st, after presenting some trifling presents 
to the chief and his lady, amongst which was some wine and brandy for 
eye-water, as she was pleased to term it. 

Salang is the Siamese name for this island. It seems to have been 
originally peopled by the Thai or Siamese race, who have not paid that 
attention to it which policy should have dictated, seeing that it possesses 
valuable tin mines and forms one of the keys to their coast. Its im- 
portance as regards British influence has been much exaggerated, and 
since the fall of Tenasserim and its occupation by British troops the 
island has become of hardly any political importance to us. It could 
easily be taken at any time if rendered necessary by war. 

Salang or Junkceylon. 

The most correct account perhaps extant of this island is that con- 
tained in " Forrest's Voyage to the Mergui Archipelago" But since 
his time (about 1784) many changes have taken place, not by any 
means contributing to its prosperity. 

Salang is 27* miles long by 10 at most in breadth, lying about E. S. 
£. and N. N. W. It is diversified by hill and dale. The hills are of 
moderate elevation, slope gradually, and are clothed with wood to their 
tops; while the levels are covered with grass and forest, excepting where 
cultivation has been carried on. Both the east and west coasts may 
be closely approached by large vessels, but the west being a lee shore 
the chief harbour has been chosen on the east side. A dangerous nar* 
row passage only navigable by small prows separates the north point 
of the island from the main land, while the most southerly point is bold 
and rocky and difficult to clear unless the wind be quite favorablef. 

The bland abounds in streams, the principal of which is that which 
leads to Thdrooa the residence of the governor. 

The harbour is excellent, and it is corered by two islands in front, 
while a hill sufficiently high to give it the command of a great part of 
the harbour, juts boldly out from the main island. 

* 25 miles according to Horsburgh. 

t When returning from Mergui in the latter part of 1825, the vessel I was 
in was forced by the wind and currents so close on this point, that had the last 
tack she made not weathered it she mast have been wrecked : we were within a. 
cable's length of the rocks. 

1688.] Account ofJunkceylon. 591 

Junkceylon was long the field on which the Siamese and Burmans 
decided their claims to supremancy. This circumstance is alone suffi- 
cient to account for the desolate condition it has been reduced to. But 
that the Siamese have yet possession of it up to the period of the war 
betwixt t)ie British and Burmese is more than might have been expected 
from the relative power of the contending parties, for the Burmans had 
long before driven the Siamese out of Mergwi and Tavoy*. 

The last invasion happened about 1808 headed by a Burman 

The troops were collected in Martaban, Tavoy and Mergui and 
amounted about 1 2,000 men. They were successful at first, but when 
they endeavoured to retreat with their booty and prisoners they were 
pursued by the Siamese and the Keddah Malays who were auxiliaries ; 
numbers were slain, others were shipwrecked, and only about one half 
are supposed to have returned to Tenasserinu 

The population of Salang is only now about 5,000 souls, which is not 
half of that rated by Forrest. Tharooa contained in this time eighty 
houses ; there were only 18 in it when visited by me in 1824. 

The Siamese are anxious to encourage the settlement of their own 
race here. But the genius of their government is better suited to 
retard than to facilitate the increase of the species. The Siamese 
court is too bigoted to that stumbling-block to nations, — custom, to per- 
ceive that artificial means which bear no reference to the first natural 
and simple maxims of political science can never be effectually employ- 
ed to increase the population of a country. 

The kings of Siam have been taught to look on tl\eir subjects as 
property which may be managed as they like, and tbey have made them 
slaves, because they can then best administer to their own luxury, avarice, 
and ambition. The minds of the Siamese are therefore depressed ; no 
rank is perfectly hereditary, no private property however arduously ac- 
quired is safe, every man iu the empire is liable to be forced from his 
fsmily to serve in the army for years without pay, and life itself is of- 
ten taken away for actions which even under many despotisms, and 
certainly under no reasonably free condition of society, would be 
termed faults. 

• The Siamese affirm that they conquered the island from the Burmese in 
1916 of Buddha, A. D. 1373. The expedition was commanded by Prince Cbau 
Kai Tha of Liffor iu person. 

They had to retake it from the Burmese in 1786, when four thousand of the 
latter nation were killed and made prisoners* The Siamese were compelled to 
cede Tavoy and Mergui to the Burmese in 1793. 
4 a 

592 Excursions to the Eastward. [Jolt, 

To fill up the vacant spaces in their population the Siamese were con- 
stantly in the habits of kidnapping their neighbours the Peguers and 
Burmans ; frequently translating the population of whole villages at 
once. Then having planted them like exotics on a new soil they vain* 
ly supposed that strength was added to the state. 

They did not leave off this practice on the Tenasssrim frontier 
until long subsequent to the occupation of Tavoy and Mergui by the 
British. They have derived one advantage, yet a dubious one, from 
this system. It is the organization of a body of mercenary Peguan 
troops. Were not the families of these men strictly retained as hos- 
tages they could not for a moment be depended upon. 

The population of Salang is almost exclusively Siamese ; the ex- 
ceptions being Chinese. 

The men are stout, and well enough proportioned ; and the women 
although not handsome, have fair complexions. 

There are a few priests on the island and a pagoda. These priests 
or chankoo do not seem to be fed so well as those of their sect general- 
ly are in Siam ; for several were observed returning from fishing with 
sets, an occupation at variance with the rules of the order. 

On the east side of the island at Lem phra chau point, there are 
rocks which the Siamese affirm have been hewn into the figures of a 
dog and a crow. Some pieces- of rocks perhaps do bear distant resem- 
blances to such figures*. However it was not in my power to go to 
the place. 

Opposite to this point they also imagine that they can distinguish 
beneath the wave on a rock a Ra-e (een, or impression of the divine 
foot of Buddha. 

The worship of the dog may be traced to remote antiquity. In 
Egypt it was prevalent, and in Bkuce's Travels we find that the 
Kowas or watch dog of the skies is venerated in Abyssinia, not only 
was he raised by the antients to a conspicuous station in the heavens, 
but he was placed as the deep mouthed guardian of the infernal 
regions. In Hindu and Siamese mythology a portion of hell is given 
over to his power. 

This singular species of worship was once openly professed by many 
Indo-chinese tribes, but now slight remnants of it alone remain. Thus 
amongst the Siamese there are many persons who on undertaking a 
journey or upon any unusual occasion invoke the great dog to avert 

* But on such vague reports I have frequently been induced to walk many 
wiles in the hope of finding statues, inscriptions, &c. and hare generally been 
quite disappointed* 

1888^ JunkceyloH—Salang. 5» 

all evil from them. The people of Scdang had statues of this dog, the 
last of which was it is said carried off by some Malays. There is little 
doubt that the Malays also were once infected by this superstition, and 
it is worthy of notice that although so many centuries have elapsed 
since they were converted toMuhammadanism,yet it is curious to observe 
the large number of their former superstitious observances which they 
still retain and cling to, although denounced by Muhammad, 

The animals in Junkceylon are buffaloes, hogs, and deer. There are 
no wild elephants, but leopards are rather numerous in the wilder parts ; 
common poultry was procured, but a large supply must not be expected 

The situation of Junkceylon is sufficiently far to the northward of the 
line to give it all the advantages which the two regular monsoons afford, 
without subjecting it to the greatest violence of either. 

Its climate is temperate, and the air is refreshed even in the dry season 
by copious showers. From June until November may be deemed the 
rainy season. The air is then cooled by the dry northeast monsoon. 
From February to June the weather is warmest. The soil of the 
island is various — clayey within the mangrove belt on the east side, 
sandy along the open beach on the west, and where hilly composed of 
the debris of the granite rock and vegetable matter. The extensive 
tats and gentle slopes are fitted for most tropical production, and 
the lower ranges of hills seem peculiarly adapted to the cultivation of 
indigo and coffee. 

The island might not perhaps furnish grain for a crowded population, 
bttt its products would probably ensure a supply to it, under such a 
state from other quarters. 

Many of the hills near the east shore seem to have been once culti- 
vated to their tops. The harbour and creeks swarm with excellent fish 
and the shores with oysters. 

Salang yields a very scanty revenue to its present possessors, but 
under good regulations it might be rendered more valuable. The reve- 
nue may perhaps be thus computed. 

Yearly duties arising on sales of tin, ...... Drs. 3000 

Customs and profits arising from the services \ 2000 

of the subject, J " 

Sps. Drs. 5000 

Tin is the product which gives to this island its chief value, for how- 
ever neglected the mines may now be from deficiency of miners, we 
find in Capt. Fob rest's account that they yielded in his time about 500 
4 ■ 2 

594 Excurtion* to the Eastward. [July, 

tons of tin yearly. It may however, be surmised that several of the best 
mines have been pretty well exhausted* 

This quantity agreeably to a calculation made by me when visiting' 
the smelting-house, and which will be noticed presently, must have afford- 
ed to the king and the contractor of Siam a clear annual profit of 
76,224 Spanish dollars, prices being then from 60 to 65 dollars per 
bahar. It is however supposed that the above quantity did not form 
the maximum of productiveness, and that with the long island of Pulo 
Panjang, containing, (even now) un wrought tin veins and beds of 
ore, Salang could have been made and perhaps might still be made to 
yield a much larger supply. The tin of Junkceylon is now carried to 
Phoonga where it is either sold to Penang traders or despatched across 
the peninsula for the Siam market. 

The following remarks will be found equally applicable to the tin 
mining and smelting operations of Salang and Phoonga. 

The Chinese are the only people employed by the Siamese in the 
smelting of the ore at their various tin mines, and the former general- 
ly enter into a contract for a period of a year, at a stipulated rate. 

The charges for mining, smelting, &c. stand thus for one bahar*. 

1. Price paid at the smelting house for ore, 19 20 

2. Charges for furnace and 6 men at £ dr. per day, 1 50 

Prime cost,. . 20 70 

3. The king takes at first, 24 

4* Ditto ditto ditto on the sale, v 2. 


Total cost to the smelterf , Drs 46 70 

The operation of mining is quite speculative, but on this account it 
has greater charms for the natives who require excitation of mind to 
disturb their indolent habits. 

They dig pits from the depth of 10 to 100 feet. The ore is found 
either in a gritty form, or imbedded in a quartzose gangue. They 
are contented with the produce which the single shaft yields them, and 
rarely venture to mine laterally. This ore is then broken and washed. 
Although there are few parts of the island which do not contain ore, 

* A bahar contains about 466 lbs. avoirdupois, so that 5 tons are equal 
to 24 bakars and 16 lbs. 

t Now, 1837, the average price of tin in the Straits is about 48 dollars per 
bahar. Consequently unless the duty should be greatly reduced the mines 
must be abandoned. 

1830.] Phoonja. 596 

yet the mines at the places noted below* are most productive as I was 

The furnace used by the Chinese is about three feet high and one 
foot and a half in diameter at top, and nearly the same below. 

Alternate layers of ore and charcoal are put into it, and pump bel- 
lows are kept incessantly at work during four days Its* one night ; after 
ten or twelve hours blowing, the tin begins to run . off. The coke is 
extracted at intervals and is afterwards again subjected to the action of 
the furnace* 

The produce during the above period is from 5£ to 6 bahars. 

They then take a day's respite. 

It has been stated that the government charges, on tin, an export 
duty of about two dollars per bahar. This, however, is only the case 
when return is made in specie. If in goods and provided the quantity 
purchased exceeds 20 bahars, the duty is 125 dollars, which is not 
increased although the transaction should be carried to a much larger 
amount. The contractor, or more properly agent receives one per 
cent, on the sales when the king does not direct the governor to make 
a specific contract, and the inferior officers of government and the 
chief himself must be propitiated by presents. 

Eight per cent, is charged on the bartering of goods. 

The Siamese possess several small ports northward of Junkceylon, 
These are now only visited by petty trading native prowsf. 

Although Junkceylon is under the Phoonga government yet being 
a well known island and one where a considerable trade centered before 
the British got settlements to the eastward, I have preferred treating 
it separately. 


On the 1st June, 1824, our captain at my request weighed and 
stood out of Junkceylon harbour. 

Many majestic rocks (laid down confusedly in some maps under the 
name Tover), were the marks by which we steered, as no one on board 

• Pittong TahreHn, Sappam, Ban ke rim, Ban dawn, Ban na nai, Ban 
Sapkan, Ban nayang, Ban sako. Ban ihoongyang, Kamra, Kitoong, Chaloong, 
Pakkla, Tillong near Papra, and Pkoktar. The tin ore smelted at Phoonga is 
brought from the following places lying on the coast of Tenasserim above 
Papra, Takoa pa 9 Powung, and Kra. The ores from these places are consi- 
dered inferior to the Salang ore. 

t These places beginning from Junkceylon and at Papra are Naikeemo, Phok- 
lawt, Bandaun, Bangkhree on a small river, (the Bangir or Baniger of the 
maps,) Naahoow, Takoa Kong, Bandala, Bangklok, Pre* Kooioom, Kraa, Pook* 
hak Takoapa, Rendong. 

596 Excursions to the Eastward. [Jult, 

had ever been in this bay. Theae rocks from their shapes are called 
by the Siamese the Yot Phoonga, or pyramids of Phoonga. 

Just as we approached the rugged chain alluded to, we were much 
surprised to observe a handsome brig lying at anchor ; this harbour 
being if not absolutely unknown to European traders is now but very 
rarely visited by any. She turned out to be an American merchant- 
man, " the Hope of Boston," with a small crew of eight or ten men. 
The commander was ashore in his whale boat, and had left his crew 
under a mate ; when we met him afterwards he told us that his crew 
had taken us for a pirate (although we had English colors up), and 
had nearly given us a salute, when passing within half pistol shot, 
with all their guns and fire-arms. To this speech our captain made a 
suitable reply. He too, although an American himself and one too in 
heart, coolly said, that it was most lucky for the Hope of Boston that 
she had kept quiet, since Bhe must soon have become a legal prize to 
his brig, defended as she was by four six pounders and a party of twenty 
sepoys, besides lascars and officers. This American trader had many 
muskets for sale on board, but. the Siamese did not seem pleased with 
their quality. Indeed, the J** were of a most ordinary description, being 
hooped round the barrels and stocks, and not resting at the half cock* 
It is not easy to impose any spurious article of trade on the Siamese, 
especially fire-arms ; but they will exchange their tin for good ones, 
although luckily not so much to the advantage of the European or 
American trader as to render it an object of much importance to him 
to bring out large supplies. 

Our brig having been anchored about a mile off Phoonga river, I 
decided to go up at once to the town, being aware that should the 
Siamese governor take alarm he might excuse himself from allowing 
me to visit the town. 

I therefore immediately left the ship with an escort of ten sepoys 
and rowed up the river. It was found to flow through a level country 
covered with mangroves and other jungle from which we were saluted 
by the chatterings of tribes of monkeys. 

The tide being partly against us we did not reach the ppening to the 
cultivated plain until after six hours' rowing. Here some Chinese 
junks were observed at anchor*, and we were hailed from the custom 
house and told to stop. On pretence, however, of not understanding 
them we pushed up to the town. The people were apparently under 
considerable alarm, and we were afterwards informed that the gover- 
nor's son, who was acting in his father's absence, had ordered the alarm 

• From 50 to 60 tons burden. 

183a] Pkoonga. 597 

drum to be beat on learning from tbe American commander, who had 
got up before us, that a boat manned by British sepoys was on its 
way to the town. Having reached an open place close to the gover- 
nor's house, and supposing from the confusion observable in the crowd 
on shore, that our visit might be construed perhaps as a hostile one, 
I directed the boat to be moored, and that no one should presume to 
quit her without leave. 

I then landed and went, accompanied by a native sepoy officer, and 
four privates with side-arms only, to pay my respects to the governor's 

He received me with much politeness, but under manifest restraint 
and uneasiness in a hall, in the midst of which was a raised platform 
railed in. On this platform mats, carpets, and cushions were laid. 

I accommodated myself there being no chairs as well as might be to 
the cross-legged position in which the chief reclined. This young man 
entrusted the first part of the conversation to his father's colleague, and 
interpreter, who were seated before him. On looking round I was at a 
loss to conjecture the cause of the apprehension shewn by him, for there 
were about an hundred armed men in the hall, their weapons chiefly 
spears and swords. To calm the young chief I explained to him that 
my visit was of a friendly kind, and to obtain some supplies of which 
we were in need ; and I told him that next day when fewer persons 
would be present we might if he chose have a long interview. Confec- 
tions were brought in upon brass trays ; and I then returned to the bank 
of the river where a house had been prepared by the chief's people for 
my reception. 

It was in the ordinary style of the country constructed of bamboos 
and leaves, and decorated inside with qhintz hangings and couches, mats 
and carpets. 

I had scarcely occupied this apartment when an ample dinner arrived 
from the governor's kitchen. It was served up on high metal trays with 
three and four shelves each, and consisted of pork variously prepared, 
roasted and stewed ducks and fowls, fish, hard-boiled eggs, plain and 
seasoned rice and vegetables. The desert was composed of plain and 
preserved fruits, ciistards, and confections. 

The seasonings to their dishes were pepper and spices, balachong or 
caviare-oil, salt, and limes. Every part, almost, of an animal is eaten. 
When a buffalo is killed the common Siamese will prepare the skin 
for food by scorching it, and then beating, washing and boiling it : after 
these operations it is cut into thin slices and dressed. Game of all 
kinds, both birds and beasts, abound in the country, and all of the 

596 Excursions to the Eastward. [July, 

former, excepting vultures, hawks, and owls, and all of the latter, except 
beasts of prey, are used as food. 

The Siamese, like the Chinese, are great gourmands when they can 
afford to be so, but while the latter prefer pork to every other sort of 
food, the Siamese prefer venison and ducks. Some Lau (samchoo of 
the Chinese), an ardent spirit, formed part of this entertainment. 

Crowds came to- gaze at us until it became dark, when the sound of 
the bugle helped to scare them away. 

The governor's interpreter, a native of Coromandel, remained until 
late, no doubt to sift my real intention in entering the place. With 
the adroitness of his tribe* he proffered whatever his master s house 
could afford, not sparing the inmates of the seraglio ! His people in 
the interim were busied in discovering what profit he could make out 
of the two stranger vessels. 

Phra Puak dee pho thau the young chief received me at his 
house next day. 

I informed him that I was proceeding on a Siamese mission from 
Penangy and that I was happy of the opportunity chance had given me 
of informing him that the British had gone to war with the ancient 
enemies of Siam, the Burmans. His countenance instantly brightened, 
and with animation he proffered bis elephants and attendants to convey 
me immediately across the peninsulaf . 

It was with real regret that the terms of my instructions did not au- 
thorize my proceeding to the capital, and had even a latitude in this in- 
stance been excusable, I was under obligations to enter into conferences 
with the raja of Ligor, which might have prevented my availing myself 
of it But the readiness, with which the route across the peninsula was 
opened to me contrasted well with the suspicious temper of the wary 
chiefs of the more wily Ligorian. 

The day, after this visit I went to take leave of my hospitable enter- 
tainer previous to embarking. Having before expressed a desire to see 
a Siamese theatrical exhibition, I was gratified on being told that the 
actors and musicians were ready to commence. We proceeded to a 
thatched house called the Rong Lakhanor theatre. 

The piece under performance was the Ramakean, a free version of 
•the Hindu heroic poem Rdmdyan. This kind of dramatic exhibition 
is termed Len khon. 

* Called Chulias to the eastward of the Bay. 

t First, Penang where the Ban Don and Chaiya rivers join three stages on 
one elephant ; thence down the Chaiya river in boats three stages to the sea. 

From Phoonga to Ta Thong a dependency of Ligor on a river famous for the 
boats built on it, is a journey of four days. 

1838.3 &*&*&»» of the *V«** «>& 

Pkra Ram (or 5W Rama) and his ape general Boulaman (or Hon* 
Unman) attended by his army of apes appear in their proper shapes on 
the stage. On the right was a throne for the king, and on the left an 
elevated space for Thoteakan or the " ten-headed*" who was the Hindu 
Ravan or tyrant of Ceylon. The tyrant appears attended by his 
queen and encompassed by his attendants. 

As masks are worn in this department; of the Siamese drama the actors 
do not speak, but merely adapt their gesticulation to what is read by 
the prompter, or speaker rather* placed behind screens. The dialogue 
is frequently lively, but being in verse has too often a monotonous effect 
on the ear. A band of music was ready to supply breaks in the ao 
tion and to accompany certain battle, and other scenes. 

This hand consisted of drums, trumpets, flutes, the metallic sticcado* 
musical trough, and kettle drums, cymbals and gongs ; when the ac- 
tresses, or, as they then happened to be, boys in girl's clothes, danced, 
they kept excellent time to the music, and I was particularly struck 
with the greater ease and elegance which the Siamese dancers possess 
over those of any people in Hindustan. Here sprightly figures rather 
prevailed, while in India it requires a dancing girl to have a very great 
share of beauty to prevent the spectator from becoming speedily relieved 
by sleep from her display of studied gesture and cramped action. 

The dresses of the dramatis person© seemed appropriate, but perhaps 
rather gaudy. 

Fhra Ram had a green mask, and Sookkrbef (Svogriva) his 
minister a golden one. The tail of the general Houlaman becomes during 
a skirmish the prize of the opposite party, to the infinite diversion of the 
audience. The policy of the Siamese government leads it to take ad- 
vantage of the good nature of its subjects, and in gratuitously admitting 
them to such amusements, makes them willing to forget for awhile in 
mirth and song the miseries they endure from the unmitigated tension 
of its rule*. 

We left the theatre much gratified at the novelty of the whole per* 
formance, and on my return home I found that a sumptuous dinner had 
teen sent by the young chief for myself and party. But perhaps he 
had not considered that Mussulmans and Hindus Would not dare to 
touch the viands he had sent. No doubt they were discussed by his 
own people afterwards. 

The dinner consisted of the following dishes: a half grown pig roasted 
whole, several ducks and fowls stewed, hashed and baked, stews of 
various kinds, a large tray of preserved fruits, including dorians, &c. cus* 

• Under the bead peetry will bt feud tome farther notices on the •ubjett. 
4 tf 

600 Excursions to the Eastward. [JvlT, 

tarda and fresh fruits ; neither coffee, tea, milk or hatter seem to enter 
into the common fare of these people. Butter they never make ; milk is 
seldom used in its plain state ; and tea is a luxury confined to the chiefs 
principally. They dress their food with hogs' lard. 

The chief positively refused to receive any present from me for his 
attentions, but I sent some suitable ones to his father on a subsequent 

Phoonga river. 

The east branch is said to be the largest, but the west branch is that 
most frequented. I was prevented from surveying the former by our 
accidentally missing our direction in returning, and pursuing the branch 
by which we had ascended. The windings and creeks of these rivers 
are so intricate that it requires a long acquaintance with them to render 
them familiar. The sketches of the valley and the pyramids will shew 
better than description can the nature of the country. Phoonga lies 
in an oblong plain or valley formed by two ranges of rocky hills which 
approach each ether very closely at the north end, but less so on the 
south. The outlet to the north is therefore very narrow. 

The river enters through this opening, and then winding prettily 
down the valley at length enters a tangled forest of mangroves and 
other trees, amongst which it finds its way to the sea. 

The influence of the tide extends higher than to Phoonga, but at 
low water a ship's boat cannot well ascend beyond the place where we 
landed close on the town. 

Its breadth, or rather the breadth of its bed opposite the town, varies 
considerably but may be stated on an average at thirty yards. 

Its banks on the sides opposed to the force of the current, especially 
on that towards the town, are steep, and in some places ten feet high, 
but at and below the custom house they are low and covered at high 

The valley is about three miles in its extreme length, but the breadth 
is not more than two miles at the widest part, and the average may 
be given at three quarters of a mile. 

The soil is chiefly a clay mixed with a reddish earth, and seems fer- 
tile. The greatest part of the valley is occupied by cottages with 
gardens attached, the rest by rice fields and pasture ground for buflkloea 
and a few oxen. 

Fruits are very plentiful, especially the dorian. They were in season 
when we were there, and every house having a supply, the air was 
most strongly perfumed. 

The scenery is peculiar and picturesque, and were the banks of the 

1836-3 Tin mints of Phoonga. ,601 


river dressed and improved would be highly so. The towering rocks, 
somewhat fined down and softened in their rude features by the shrubs 
which cling to them even where overhanging their bases, produce an 
agreeable contrast to the mildness of the landscape below. In one 
-place on the east side a chalky cliff obtrudes itself; I attribute the 
chalky appearance to the agaric mineral, which seems to be abundant 
in these rocks, and which oozing from their crevices produces this sin- 
gular effect. The river itself washes the base of the limestone preci- 
pices lower down which are seen to great advantage while sailing up. 

• The dip of the strata of the most northerly of this range was to the 
south, but behind the town on the west side is a rock the strata of 
which are regular and horisontaL 

* The climate is rather warm during .midday, but the mornings and 
nights are remarkably cool. The sea breeze reaches the town some- 
times, when it blows strongly* 

The town does not consist of more than 70 houses, as the population 
is found principally in detached cottages : about 30 of the above number 
belong to Chinese settlers. Their houses are large and convenient, 
and are regularly built so as to form a street. The house of the chief 
is a little larger than the rest, but has scarcely any exterior decoration 
and is formed of wood and other light materials. The hail is of wood, 
carved in some places. These are inclosed by a palisade of planks and 

On the south of the chief's residence is the Chinese tin smelting- 
house where one furnace was employed. 

From such information as was collected by me there, it would appear 
that the population, independent of Malays, of this place may be estimat- 
ed at six or seven thousand souls. There are about six hundred active 
Chinese in this number. Two thirds of these are Macao men, who are 
considered by the natives both here and at Penang as the most trou- 
blesome class of Chinese emigrants. Several hundreds of Malays are 
interspersed in the creeks about the mouth of the river. ^ The, Siamese 
do not permit many of them to stay near the town. * 

A great portion of this population is employed during the dry season, 
which is half the year, at the tin mines. They return during the other 
months to cultivate rice. '" 

The chief sends as many Siamese to the mines as he pleases, or can 
dispense with, and while there they receive provisions only. The ore 
which they dig is sold to the Chinese contractor, and the profit of it 
goes to the chief. The ore is brought down either on elephants or in 
canoes, which can find their way two or three days up beyond Phoonga. 
4 i 2 

001 JSxcurmam to th* E*$twar&. [ JtJIT, 

The Chinese, miners, however, are not taxed. Indeed the Chines* 
always enjoy privileges under the Siamese government, whioh are 
denied to the natural subject. They are exempted from the duty imposed 
em every Siamese ef earring the state when called on, either in the 
capacity of soldiers* artisans, or day labourers, and they are left at more 
liberty to enjoy what their industry produces than the native is. 

The reason is obvious : — the Chinese, independent of their belonging 
to the dominant nation to which the Siamese pay tribute, are a more 
intelligent, ingenious and laborious race than the Siamese, to whom also 
they have the art to render themselves absolutely necessary, and as 
the religious institutions of both people are free from the unsocial re- 
strictions of caste, they assimilate easily together. We may likewise 
'suppose that the Siamese would not Hke to irritate a class of men who 
are so numerous in all their towns, and who hare come from a country 
the supremacy, as just observed, of which over Indo-Chinese nations 
'they acknowledge. 

Although the chief of Phoonga takes advantage of the power given 
him and enriches himself at the expense of his subjects, yet his govern- 
' meat is not so oppressive as that of the raja of Ligor. Hie people also 
are more attached to him, than those of Ligor to the latter, or in other 
words do not hate him so violently as the Ligoriane hate their prince. 
The difference shewed itself in one instance. In the raja's country every 
article supplied for my table was extorted from his subjects, but at 
Pkoonga, the chief bought out of the baaar all the provisions* &c, he 
sent to me. 

The females at Phoonga secluded themselves mere than those at 
Smktng did* which I attributed to their own modesty, for jealousy in 
net a characteristic of the men in Siam. Women in this country are 
allowed much freedom ; but it may be questioned whether they would 
not willingly part with a large portion of it to get rid of the drudgery it 
entails* The obligation which the men lie under to serve the state 
-during a certain number of months in a year according to circumstances, 
throws the labor which they ought to perform on the shoulders of the 
women. These are therefore driven to the necessity of subsisting 
themselves during the absence of their husbands ; they prepare the rice* 
"fields, plant vegetables,- and attend to the loom, or to keeping of small 

The governor of Phoonga has two associates. His revenue is 
derived from the available labor of his own private trade, and perqui- 
sites derivable from transactions of foreign traders at his port. He 
has three China junks which trade to Pmang; these carry to that island 

188a 3 E**ur*i*n$ to ft* Ba*tm*rd, 80B 

tin, rice, and small articles of native exportation, and return with cloth, 
ehintrtee, glass ware and other manufactures. 

He pays no regular sum to the emperor, but at the expiration «f 
every three or four years he sends, or takes a valuable present to him. 
The emperor of course receives all the profits thai accrue from the 
sale of tin, the governor makings his on the ore sold to the smelter. 

Pkoonga swarms with priests. They have four monasteries, but no 
temple deserving of notice. I visited the principal Wat or monastery 
early one morning. The superior, a man of eighty years of age by his 
own account, received me very politely. He seemed to think it requi- 
site to account for the mean appearance of their sacred edifices, by ob- 
serving that the materials had been collected for the constructing of 
others, but that the constant dread they were in of fiurman invasion 
prevented them from carrying their intentions into execution. He then 
complained of a disease to which he was subject and asked me for some 
medicines. His complaint however being the irremediable one of old 
age/ consolation was the only relief which could be offered. 

The Siamese are very fond of European medicines, and like several 
eastern nations fancy that every white man is a physician. This con- 
vent seemed to be a hospital for dogs, which from the smallest to the 
largest sue overspread the court, scarely leaving room to walk. The 
Siamese are forbidden to destroy life, which may account for this pre- 
posterous kindness. From what I observed it would appear that in 
Phoonga there is at least one priest for the cure of every hundred 
souls! But the poor people do not benefit -much by their advice. K 
they assist in daily filling the brass jar or Beat which the Chaukoo 
carries about to receive contributions, and make a few periodical offer- 
ings at the shrine of Phra Phoet or Buddha, which are afterwards 
transferred to the houses of the priests, they fancy they have amply 
fulfilled the duties of their religion ; and leave the priest to repay them- 
selves by prayers offered up either for success, or to avert some expect- 
ed calamity. The priests here had some Bali books which few of them 
comprehended ; most of them can read such with about as much advan- 
tage to themselves as the generality of Mussulmans in Hindustan do 
the Koran. 

Refreshments can be had here on reasonable terms, such as poultry, 
hogs and fruits. 

They have a few cattle (bovine) but they were unwilling to dispose 
of them. f 

They have many tame elephants. The chief gave me the use of his 
while there, and also of a small pony called a horse which he had got 
from Penang. 

604 Excursions to the Eastward, £ July, 

The exports* and imports at Phoonga may be thus stated. 
Exports. — Deebook or tin, 600 bahara, and of which an indefinite 
•number of bahars are sent to Siam. 

2. Kra tan or tortoiseshell, which k brought from the LancaxUs 
and other islands in small quantity. 

3. Rang nok or edible birds' nests. 

4. Nga chft&ng, ivory. 

5. Khau san, rice. 

Imports. — Fine English long cloth (white) about 8Q. cubits long and 
2 or 2£ broad. 

2. Superfine scarlet broad cloth* 

3. English chintzes, 7 cubits long, 2 cubits and 8 inches broad. 

4. Bengal ditto. 

5. Ditto white long cloth 40 cubits long, 2 cubits and 3 inches 

6. Baftas, 24 cubits long, 2 cubits and 1£ inches broad. 

7. Madras moreis, 18 ditto long, 2 and 8 inches broaoV 

8. Nagore gaga moreis, 70 cubits long, 2 cubits 2£ inches broad. 

9. Handkerchiefs 8 to a piece. 

10. Carpets. 

11. Bengal velvets 24 cubits long, or 40 cubits long, 2 cubits broad 
with border. 

12. Occasionally a box or two of opium can be sold here ; the sale 
of this article may be increased by improper means since it is forbidden 
to Siamese. 

13. Chrystal ware, cutlery, &c. 

These exports and imports are applicable to other Siamese ports on 
this coast. The common duties on mercantile transactions are here 
eight per cent, besides the native agent's fees which are one per cent, 
(although he will try to charge two or more) ; besides if bales of goods 
are brought separately on shore the chief claims on their being opened 
one piece of the goods contained in each. If many bales are opened at 
once then the charge is the same as if only one had been opened. This 
regulation is perhaps to induce the merchant to bring his goods quickly 
on shore. If elephants are sold the agent receives 2£ per cent. 

In small transactions not exceeding five or six hundred dollars, duties 
are not exacted. The chief since I was at Phoonga has shewn a dis- 
position to diminish these duties to encourage trade with Penang. 

The chief and his associates together with inferior officers expect 

• Deeboak, is properly a generic term for metals, but her* tin is hardly 
known by any other name. Takoa is the specific appellation* 

1838.] Return to Trang. 603 

presents after the transactions have closed. But it will be to the trader's 
advantage to make a handsome present in the first instance. 
• In all Siamese ports the foreign trader must lay his account with ex- 
periencing vexatious delays, and trouble arising perhaps more out of 
the complicated nature of the forms and charges than from their being 
actually burdensome. 

Rice is sold here at the rate of twelve gan tangs per Spanish dollar, 
but both at Salang and at this port it is of an inferior quality to that at 
Keddahm* ' Their mode of preparing it for the market is also calculated 
to diminish its value. The grains are seldom whole and for the most 
part broken into crumbs. They cultivate all along the coast large 
quantities of the Khau Neeau of the Siamese, or Malayen braspooloot 
or Oryza glutinosa of Rozb. which is well adapted for the culinary 
purposes of the natives, particularly for confections. 

We returned to Trang on the 7 th June, and having fired a gun, the 
signal agreed on betwixt the Siamese chiefs and me, three envoys who 
had just arrived from Ligor came on board. The head envoy Khoon 
AK80N, I had known at Penang. These men after a conversation 
which lasted for four hours set off for Ligor. They said they had 
travelled in coming day and night, on their elephants, and had accom- 
plished the journey from Ligor ia three days and one night. The 
Siamese compute journeys by nights. Runners can perform it in four 
days easily. 

- 18th June. The mission debarked on a high neck of land lying on 
the west bank of the river. The tents were pitched close to the tem- 
porary house which had been erected for myself by the raja's people. 
The schooner was now despatched with letters to Penang. Exercise 
was enjoined to the escort and people not only to keep them in health, 
but on the alert, as the temper of the Siamese had not been perfectly 
ascertained. Indeed the secretary to the government at Penang ac- 
quainted me by a secret despatch that people from Ligor had informed 
Turn that it had been debated at Ligor whether the mission should be 
cut off either by force or by poison. But I put little faith in this re- 
port as I discovered that the principal reason why the Ligorian had 
neither allowed the mission to proceed to Ligor, or had come down in 
person to receive it, was his having just before been placed in commu- 
nication with two colleagues who had arrived from Bankok to watch 
his acts. The reported danger appeared to me a fabrication of the 
Keddah people ; and small as our escort was, the party of one hun- 
dred armed men who had been seni to keep a look out on us, would 
have been easily disposed of in case of treachery appearing. These 

TOflT Excursions to the Eastward* (Jul?* 

men had a few muskets and swords. They practised singly occasion* 
ally at a mark, using a rest, and that very fairly. When they saw the 
sepoys also practising, but firing balls by sections, the novelty of the 
exhibition seemed to have a due effect and deterred them from any 
future display of their drill. 

24th. Until this date we had boisterous weather, volumes of clouds 
rolling in from the sea and partly breaking in showers in their passage 
to the hills. About eleven o'clock of this day twenty boats were descried 
descending the river. These dropped anchor close to our camp but kept 
a perfect silence, and the people in them would not answer our questions. 
This proved to be the advance of a fleet escorting the young raja of 
Ligor who had been sent to meet me. In about an hour afterwards 
the sound of kettle drums announced the young chiefs approach. The 
boat of the latter occupied the centre along with eight others, and the 
stern was covered by a canopy like a carriage hood. About twenty 
more boats were divided on the right and left wings. 

The large kettle drum in the centre one, the privileged instrument of 
a governor of the first rank, was now struck louder and louder, and at 
every pause the crews of all the boats shouted at the full extent of their 
voices. The right centre boats were each manned by twenty sailors or 
soldiers (for the Siamese make hardly any distinction betwixt these two 
classes) dressed in coarse red cloth jackets, and the boats on the flanks 
had similar complements of men, but these wore blue cloth jackets. In 
general red is the color used by the near attendants on, or guard of the 
king and his great officers ; common soldiers, if they do wear any 
upper garments, which is not very often the case, have them of dark 
-colored woollen or cotton cloth. The chief, being a mere child of about 
nine years of age, was accompanied by several nursery female atten* 
dants to take care of his person and cook his food. This boy was ad- 
dressed by his followers by the titles of Boot [putra or king's son] 
and chao nooee, the little lord*. He was carried from the landing* 
place to the reception hall in a handsome litter, borne on men's sboul* 
ders by means of four poles like the TeUicherry ton j on of India. The 
whole of his men who had landed, being 300, then arranged themselves 
iii three lines, one line within the open verandah of the building and 
two without, and in the peculiar attitude of their nation. About one 
hundred of these men had muskets without bayonets, the use of this 
last weapon being quite disregarded by the Siamese. The rest had 
long swords. About one-half of the whole number had triangular 
woollen cloth caps, the rest were uncovered. The whole were in fact 

* He baa since [1837] become a courtier at Bankok the capital of &iam. 

1838.] Excursions to the Eastward. €07 


squatted with their legs tacked under them. The musketeers with 
their muskets held up in front the butt resting on the ground ; the 
others with their swords sloped. 

Shortly after the arrival of this youthful diplomatist I proceeded to 
visit him. The escort drew up in front of the hall with ordered arms, 
and after exchanging my bow with the Bootha I sat down in a chair 
which his people had purposely brought. The principal men who had 
come with him to negotiate for him occupied chairs on my right and 
left. Bootha was richly dressed in a fully embroidered satin or silk phi 
yok. This article of dress closely resembles the Malayan sarong and 
it is worn either with or without trousers underneath it. Upwards 
from the waist his body was naked with the exception of several massive 
gold chains, which with their pendent jewels, seemed almost to weigh 
him down ; he wore handsome golden bracelets and anklets, and he 
had many valuable diamond and other kinds of rings on his fingers. The 
crown of his shaven head was surmounted by a skull cap of gold fila- 
gree of handsome workmanship. This covering is called mougkoot 
which is a Bali word signifying a crown, and which is applied in histo- 
rical works to denote a diadem. 

So impatient was the boy to see the sepoys perform their exercise, 
that despite his council of grave men, and before other business 
could be begun his curiosity required to be satisfied. The crouching 
troops of the Ligorian had thus an opportunity of witnessing, and with 
manifest surprise, the precision which discipline bestows. It is doubt- 
ful if a Siamese soldier can hold himself erect. A slavish submission 
to their rulers has physically affected the whole of the male population, 
and a slinking, slouching gait is their most prominent outward charac- 

After the conference I presented the youth with a few articles of 
British manufacture and two globes, (cele3trial and terrestrial ) He 
was very desirous to learn the use of these last, but there was no time 
for this operation. The Siamese are pretty expert according to their 
own fashion at map-making, although their geographical ideas do not 
wander far to the south or west of Siam, Some of their plans may 
be reduced to some degree of consistency and precision by adapting a 
scale of time to them, as the Siamese carefully note the time occupied 
in travelling from place to place. 

After the conference Bootha shook me warmly by the hand, and 
took his departure in the same order as he had arrived. 

It is needless here to enter into a detail of the conferences which took 
place. It was proved that the Ligorian would not adventure on his 
own responsibility to side with the British against the Burmese, and as 
4 a 

6*08 Grammar of the Balochky Language. £JTcl*, 

I saw that the time would be gone by, wherein co-operation could be 
useful before the fiat of the government of Siam could be obtained ; 
and not deeming it prudent to act any further lest that haughty court 
should considers compliance with the proposition which had been 
made to it as conferring an obligation, I returned with the mission to 

Penang, 1824. Revised, 1837. 

II. — Epitome of the Grammars of the Brahuiky, the Balochky and the 
Panjdbi languages, with Vocabularies of the Bar a ky t the Pashi, the 
Laghmani, the Cashgari, the Teerhai, and the Deer Dialects. By 
Lieut. R. Lbbch, Bombay Engineers, Assistant on a Mission to Kdbul. 

2. — Grammar of the Balochkt Language. 
This language is spoken throughout all those parts of the country 
called Balochisthdn, that are either independent or owe such fealty only 
to the rulers of the plain, as does not bring them down from their hills 
for a long enough time to have their language corrupted into Jathkt, 
by which name they designate the Sindkt. 


The peculiarity consists in the frequent recurrence of the Arabic tAal j 

the English th in the word those, and the Arabic <*j thai the English ih in 

the word think. The scheme of alphabet adopted is the same as that 
employed for the Brahuiky in the last number. 


There is no gender in Balochky ; for they say, 
Thara chiai bachhai astain ? Have you a son ? 

Thara jink ai chiai astain ? Have you a daughter ? 

A y mard kkhth. That man has come. 

Ai Barochaiii aJirAta. This Baroch woman has come. 


Neither is there any number in the substantives even in those that end 
in a vowel, which Are few in comparison with the whole, for they soy, 
yak kardyd, one hilt, do kardyd, two hilts. 


Declension of a compound noun. 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. Juwin mard a good man 

Gen. Juwin mardi of a good man The same* 

Dat. 6f Ace. Juwin mardara to a good man 

Abl. Juwin mardi thai from a good man 


is made in the following manner; 
Ai sharrind This in good 

Ai gu i sharrind This is better than that 

Ai aj durustan sharrind This is better than all 


Grammar of the Balochty Language* 



DaL3$ Aec. 


let Personal Pronoun* 



Mana me 

A j man, iman 
or manMai 








■}*-« *:*!-*" }*- 



2nd Personal Pronoun. 




Than thou 

Thl thy 

Thara thee 

Aj than or from thee 

3rd Personal Pronoun* 


Singular. Plural. 

A' that 

aj ahuma or 
ahumi Mai 

from you. 



of that The 


Dot. & Ace. 




A'higya £&ai 

from that 








of this The i 






Aiahiya Mai 


from this 
Reciprocal Pronoun. 








of self The 


Dat.Sc Ace. 


to self 


Ach waMiy 

from self 
Cardinal numbers. 








































si gist 






du&zdah Eighty 

chyar £ist 


sainzdah Ninety 




i Hundred 
Ordinal Numbers. 










4 o 2 


Grammar of the Balochky Language. 

[JutT # 




Dat S$ Ace. 


Point* of the Cempae*. 

north Roshasitn 

south Roshaisht 


Ki who 

Ki whose 

Kiyara whom 

Aj ki or U\yk Mai from whom 
Chi,ai what ? 



The same. 

The verbs will be found dispersed through the early part of the dia- 
logues, or in a future Appendix, as it will require considerable time and 
labor to collect tenses from men who have never heard of words spoken 
except in sentences, and who would be confused if asked how to express 
" thou understandest" in their language. This tense can only be elicited 
by asking the expression answering to a whole sentence in which that 
tense is contained, as "thou understandest not what I say" — and as it 
would be time lost, after having ascertained the verb to reject the rest of 
the sentence, I have left them to be extracted from the dialogues. 
















A 'a 























a camel 

a female 
a he-goat 
a she-goat 

Vocabulary of Noun*. 

Shakhal sugar Barochani 

a colt 
a gown 
a carpet 

a bullock 










a cow 

Lq^wara wife 






















a maid 

Ambra * 

Ambal J 










a slave girl Siyan. 















J an ornament Jo <}o 
\ on the shieldGiroAA 























a woman 



























goat's hair 


Grammar of the Bahehky Language. 










Murda napA 

























Mazai aph 




































jaw tooth 




deep water 
















Khan gai 

Mala in gaz 






































> black pepper 

( coriander 
\ seed 
Sohraimirch redpepper 

I star ay A 

the male do. Chi 
female do. Photi 




















grindstone Whan 

kick Khada 

breast lioth 

true Lhiph 

false Granch 

crow Tubl 

bird Gawaish 

rope Hunhan, 

stone Gindhar 

horn Khor 

tail Khar 

shoes Gunga 

hunger Lang 

a ring in the Trizatk 
nose sep- 


Mudh whi- 


do. in nostril 










Pup pi 

{father's bro- trih 
ther Ka&Ao 

. , zaAAt 

mother s * 

brother Wast | Wa*ftah 


roast meat Wad 

»— * G^and 

a crow «., . .. 

f father's sis. Khimjir 

!, * er . . Dadi 
J father sbro- 

\ ther's son jhan 

husband's mo- 
ther-in-law Amal 










a deer 

a mouse 


a cloth 
a dive 
male do. 

{father's sis- 
ter's son 

/mother's fsv 
\ ther 


f mother's sis- 
\ ter 

a calf 

J father's mo- 
\ ther 


(any intoxi. 
\ eating drug 


Gramma* of the Bahchhy Language. 



Gwaak kmii 
Bil da,i 
Girl or dar 
Gir biya 
Shir gwash 
Murtosh \ 
shutAa f 

ChughHl dai 


Vocabulary of Verb*. 



let go 







he's dead 

Gir birtiy 

sit down Pat 
stand Byar 

eat Birau 

drink PhfcAa bl 

W haphs 
he is asleep Girl 
take away Gindh 


Rumba gin run 

throw away Shafshk 










Zir gir 
Jir gir 
Cbaka \ 
phirni J 


pour out 












Nangara ba 

walk about Phaja bya 

lift up 




Vocabulary of Adverbs, Conjunctions, S$c. &;c. 









A pahnada 

in front 

intheeveO Night d 
ning J J 

also Demashta 

on that side Ai pahnadi on this side Jhala 
above Navaidi always Bukd 

lnna nadai > 

or nah 

formerly Nlr mash 

















assault the 








Phrases and Dialogues. 

Khush dura jod hir kul hir 
Maihar bach ha biaM chuk 
Chudari dairo daima thimidai 
Hi rain sangta sajohina shal hir ba 

Are you well and happy ? 
Quite well ! sons and brothers 
Children, house, and all 
Well ; friends and acquaintance all 

Greeting in Return. 

Hir lothi thara ditto khush bltho Quite well thank you, I am delighted 

to see you 
Thi balk bukd Where is your village ? 

A istiya biya Come slowly 

Airkab biya Dismount 

Bazai gwakh Is your city far (literally, a long call) 

Halka rawa^ Go to the town 

Thi nam chain What is your name ? 

Thi sardar kidam ai Who is your sirdar 

I&Atar sala chiMtar dan pida hltha How much grain has been produced 

this year? 
Wala juwan atAan I was well formerly 


Orammar of the Balochky Language. 


Wali thau juwin a/Aai 

Wali i juwin a/Aa 

NA salim bi/A 

Mi wali jut-in a thus 

Ni hino bUAa 

Wali shuma Hydariwidh a/Aan 

Wali Pathan Baloch yar at Asi* 

Man Sipiithan 

Thau Sepiithai 

Mara dafja/Aoeht wirtbl 

A noukar a/A 

Mi tergi noukar alAan 

Shuma durust noukar af Aon 

Hame durust noukar atfan 

Thou man! sipihibi 

Shuma durust mi noukar biyai 

Ai halki juwin gutAai bigain. 

Mi piloa baryi hamaifAi jangai bl 

Ais hi ghwara gig 
Khiwara bachha 
Mi ah aid biyi 

Hydrabid ma ranvgin hi wa&AU 
Thau buku marawgai 
A buku maravgai 
Mi durust Hidrawad rarvun 
Shumi go mi juzzai 
A gulkhantharau 
A gulk tAosht 
Drith koshuMa 
Napbthi hakalaksa 
Thau kadhin thari khi 
Mi bia(A jangi khushtha 
Sakhai duz ai 
Khalithi bhorni 
Tbi bachhir chiAAta sil bi/Aaga 
Maroshi sakhai haur gwadth 
Mi jarr mithaga 
Ai shiyir sami nniha/A 
Si mirosh patAi sigvkhi 

Hamai khiswi maka aishyir 

jwin na khanath 
Sami khani nawin mini baidi 

ma digiri 
Jalbini jnngokhi 
Jalbini phirai mand kilAim ai 
Daryi AAini chiAAtarai inim 
Mulk inim daihgo digiri 


Maroshi rosh khamin sidthai 
Zi rosh baza 

Marosha chiAAtar mahil wirth 
Marosha makoba milA biz pidi 

Thou wert well before 

He was well before 

He has become unwell 

We were well before 

He has now become a coward 

We were formerly in Hyderabad 

Formerly the Pathaas and Baloch ia 

were friends 
I will become a soldier 
Will you become a soldier ? 
I am afraid the dog will bite me 
He will become a servant 
We will all become servants 
Will you all be servants ? 
They will all be servants 
Be my sipihy 
Be all my si pah is 

Good cloth is produced in this village 
In my father's time there was a baU 

tie here 
I will visit his sister 
Thou son of a slave 
I shall become a martyr 
I will go to Hyderabad this moment 
Where art thou going ? 
Where is he going? 
We are all going to Hyderabad 
Will you go with me ? 
He will run away 
He has run away 
. He has gone out 
He has fired a musket 
When will you come back ? 
My brother died in battle m 

He is a great thief 
He destroys forts 
How old is your son } 
To-day much rain has fallen 
My clothes have got wet 
He is not conscious 
In three days the boundary will reach 

(literal) us 
Don't mention such a thing, he will 

not be pleased with it 
Take care in front the boat will 

Who are the Jalbani's enemies? 
Who is the head man of the Jalbanls > 
What jagire has Daryi AAin ? 
The whole of this city and land is in 

Don't delay 

The heat is less to-day, it is cool 
Yesterday there was much 
How many times do you eat a day ? 
How much wool is produced in the 

mountains in a day ? 


Grammar of the Balockky Language. 


Mathara inamadhyan thaumana 
chiA-Atar ghodou diyi majanga 

Mi pa*A khisga/Aa ma kapthawa 

Ai mardon makoha miri aishi ya 
chaitara par 09 

A balk nazi&Aai 

Maroshi sakha\ pandaifcAfAon. ma- 

Whava kiptha 

Rumblzir juz 

Darman sakhyai tikhin 

Nasha wadthl n! khapthiyain 

Ai naryanani baha baz ai 
Mi dast masarra dashtlsh 
Katola sarra mi sirandhi i airkain 

Baloob go zahama koni/cAa midi 
Gandim baha chiAAtar chotadwa 

Manja chotadwa baz sir an adtht 
Havaida marda mith khaptiyain 
Tani buftAto khapt 
Gudhar wala/A bukhto kbapt 

Pagar aAAt 

Zaham mana ma&Ato buradAa 

Ai madi ranga gindh 

A rah anjo aiii 

Ai mulaka hakamani sakhai 

Bramanl naidag juwan nin 
Hanwa marda khiswa aph na da- 

#a hawa mard baikar ai 

A mard gwasto BhuiAa hawa mar- 
da kikar 

Rindhan Chandyan moun Man sang 
na dalAalAa 

Hamai kilAa ragtar ain 

Hamai kitAa cbl ain 

KatAi hawe mulka man aftAta bawai 
mard una mana phajaha nyaiUA 

Tufaki fAir mana niana&Ata 

Mi mard soudagaria shutAa 

Thau mana salA rupiyai dai i ma- 
got hau niyan 
Mana sikh maArAta phaloga 
Matbi daihar domb bazan 


Ma Balochiya maniyar chai asha 

Wali zal zindagai dohami khanag 

hukam astai 
Phad cbai, nai 

If I give you a fief, what force will 

you give me in time of war ? 
My foot slipped and I fell 
How can we bury those who die in 

the mountains ? 
That village is near 
I have travelled far to-day, I am 

I feel sleepy 
Majce haste and run 
The spirits are very strong 
He is intoxicated with drink and is 

lying down 
Is the price of this horse high ? 
My hand is burnt by the fire 
Put the pillow of the bed under my 

The Balochis fight with swords 
How many chotadas of wheat for a 

rupee ? 
How many seers in a chotada of flour ? 
There is a man's corpse lying here 
The surtout string is loose 
The plaits of the clothes have come 

The perspiration has come 
1 have got a sword- wound 
Look what the man is doing 
That road is difficult 
The. oppression of the rulers is great 

in this country 
It is not right for brothers to quarrel 
A man is not worth any thing that 

does not (water his words) keep 

his promise 
The man has started, overtake him 

The Rindhs and Chandrae don't in- 

What animal is that ? 

What insect is that ? 

When I came into this country the 
people did not know me 

I have been wounded by a musket, 

My husband has gone on a mercan- 
tile trip 

I would not accompany you were you 
to give me a hundred rupees 

I have become home-sick 

Are there many minstrels in your 
country ? 

What is " many" (bread) called in 
Balochky ? 

Is it lawful to marry a second wife 
when the first is alive ? 

Why not ? 


Grammar of the Balochky Language. 


Balochini chitarai guMan khanath 
Sari aarl gala gardani phaafakma 

Ai handa alfanri §090 hinnai 

Adai ehho biyi 

Than go washai iph warai kl na- 

horgal iph warai 
Many* pi rupiyi chiftltar phanji 

MaunlAani midtAaga 
Nim&s mall ra wan 

Thau wa&i daihini ihriyi gindh 

Than chifa mandai t 

Gu/Aa waf Ai jin sari phirai 

A chhai,ri a sarbari 

Sahaib baidi in phalawi maravya 

Baku zora mad I kkokbo dor bl 
Havai jwain mandai ki wah wah 
HawinfcAtar ki sahaib da hawinAA- 

tar ma giran 
Hamai sanduk girin ai 
Giran ai ta zarra thl 
Hewen&Atar mani gilimiyi 
Ai bar sawakk ai 
HaiAin mi tbari dtfAa mani aami 

khapkt kithau juwaig Baloch, ait 
Go ma chatkara ma kan 
Mi britAi go ma radi kitAa 

Ai mard rav khohi sardir salami 
ai madara rib bith 

Zi mani whivi gipthaga maroshi 

Hamai digiri draabk zitAai rntAt 
Nt Shib wihi mi mokalinuun 
Ma hamai faitib durusti laitaini 
GwilA biz mi&AlAa 
Ai halk aunya bitAa 
Roah airkaphto navishin ai 
AcUAi drush na^Aani ztthai path di 

MUAa chiAAtar zat bttha ma khohi 

hili di 
Yakat eavaUA, dohmi sonar, gimi 

shank, chirmi, savz 

Chhk} khayi baataga 

Ambali bastodiJAagapa aahirilAi 

khi band! 
Than phadchai gtrai i thau ganda- 

gai kirai kuita thari kushag 
A madi waiAl butir jatha 
Thau haivai tharai Applitun 
4 H 

How do the Baloch women dress ? 
A aarl on the head, a phaahk on the 

neck, and shalwirs on the legs 
There is no beauty in the women of 

this country 
Holla ! come here 
Do you drink water with sugar or 

water alone t 
How many phanjis are there in one 

They quarrel among themselves 
I will go in the morning— lit. time of 

Look at your face in the glass 
What man are you ? 
Put the clothes on 
He is below, he is above 
The gentleman's boat is going to the 

other shore 
Sahu don't be rough, my ribs ache 
Oh, oh, he is such a fine fellow \ 
I will take as much as the gentleman 

will give 
The box is heavy 

It is heavy, and must have money in it 
I don't require so much 
This load is light 
When 1 saw you I conjectured that 

you were a good Baloch 
Don't joke with me 
My brother practised deception to* 

wards me 
If a man were to go into the moun. 
tain to visit a chief, would a pas. 
sage be granted him 
Yesterday I felt sleepy, but not to- 
Trees grow quickly in this soil 
God be with you, you have your leave 
I have looked over the whole book 
The wind has become strong 
This town is desolate 
The sun has set, it is dark 
Grind some flour and make some 

bread quickly 
Are there many kinds of wool pro- 
duced in the mountains, tell me ? 
The first kind is white, the 2nd is 
red, the 3rd is black, and the fourth 
Who has tied those cories (shells) on ? 
My lover has tied them on in fond- 
ness, who else would do so ? 
Why are you weeping, you have dons> 

something wrong, I will beat you 
That man committed suicide 
Are you a kind of Plato ? 


Grammar iff the Balothfy Language* 


Ai tfi\ go ma goza na dl Don't be bo arrogant 

Zi thnu mana kigso gwashthaga Bo you remember the story you told 

thara, hawan kisso gir aig me yesterday ? 

Hawai mung KitAag boll akha nag What birda are those making tha£ 

noise ? 
God knows such a thing 
A boil haa appeared 
The water is warm and effervesce* 
It is not proper for a man to weep, Ifc 

is the practice of a woman 
Juwarl is very good roasted 
The Baloch women do fine need)* 

How many " her" berries for a paaw 

The rope is shaking 
The Balochls don't know how to swina 
The Balochls don't eat fish in their 

own country 
I saw a sight to day 4 three Kapha* 

lying dead on the river bank wta 

had eaten rotten flesh. 

Khulaa zath hawai Kisawa 
Gada bitta 

Aph garam bi/fta nl gara/Aagi 
Mard giraigh jwag nai zal giraigft 

Zurfainl jwin avo anth 
Balochanl hidthi hidthi doshan 

Panjhi ai hawai Khunar baz anth 

Raiz malndaga 

Balochdn. aph tarsia sama nai 

Balochag ma waMi mulakfr mahi ua 

Maroehi ma tamashai dif &a Kacho 

ain gandagai gojd hudgaina wad. 

fAa darya bharra mudtho khap. 


Lay $ in Baiochky 
Ktdd Gabol GMhi Paehalo 

Talbur BaiwaJcai marl 
Itarust ghulam i chakarl 
Banadi bashka tfaga 

Pa/A naznrth Hadhaiya 

Kf dds, Gabols, Gidhais, Pachajo* Ttt, 

and lawless marie 

all were slaves of Chikar, (R^ndh), 
And he gave them with (his sister,} 

as a dowry to Hadheyo, (Rindh hie 

aon-io-law) wjie refused to 


NolAa ki gnzxth savzaina\ 
Bilaizaryan bazaina 
Chamm* ni sari gwazaina 
Man phathau tajsar 
Baid cham chiragh paraiwar 

Syama chotho drashkabar 

Kison chhobUfta 

Draehka I'sai afcAtaga chhar ana 

Mulko Kichaha^ golana 

Barf diMai mablwini 
Chuchd zindagai baidana 
Askko war! 1 mana 
Baria jawav tharaintha 
leai dandaroanai nisht 
Bab Ktiriitban dUha 
Drashk shair digari rusta 
Gafehai bangwai sarzurfaa 
Nair moshai baraibur bUhk 
Drashk dabai^Aa lal bilAa 


Te olouds that make green* 

don't rain too much.; 

or mine eyes won't close all: nigjbt ; 

I am thine oh crowned head ;. 

the eye light and preserver of the 

with snake locks, like a branching 

Thessory of the tree is this : 
Tea came as he was travelling 
in the quarters of the surrounding 

He saw tferi in the desert—* 
tell how do live, without grain* 
whence do you eat truly r 
Bar! answered him : 
I 'si sat there for a moment ; 
He saw the power of God, 
A tree grew out of the ground : 
At morning prayers it grew up ; 
At midday berries grew on it ; 
In the afternoon they became nee} 



Grammar ofth* Balockky Language 


Drashk barkuno dublma 
Juwan ai niaidamaiw had&bltha 
Chhoke gonaway&n bltta 
Hist chhotwa hamchoba 

Barkat AH juwan marda 
Bingo koh aphbttaa 
RaUai sahir darbaisfaa 

Dtvaabyarl Kalamowa 

Tad kana plr doo babara 

Hardamai malak saehara 
Shaba mardan kUdagata 
Panchtaa pak char yira 

Pakhar sher potra wara 
BaiMaald Rostamara 
Saringi da wa garara 
Jomlai abair potrawara 
8a Bahrain nar masari 
Kaj niahta ba karar* 
Ghodai vai lodta Masata 
Kadd gulaMai swara 
Sinjku tf ant tasi bkhara 
Rabzani nam thewara 
Raul* Kaebl digari 
Rttthai baggai bai sbumera 

JWtba ahafaaran ba karara 
Baikutha tbir dara 


Gul Mammad Biihnl sanwara 
Afrat aathi gwar Maaarit 
Di saaaai bagg katar* 

On one branch two were produced 

fit for men of rank to eat* 

As it happened to him, 

by my bead and locks may it be so 

with me. 
Ah, you are a hero, 
in rocks yon get water : 
The wanderings of the Darvish are 

Gentles my story is finished. 


Gwiisht deraihaq dawaidara 


Gosh Gal Mammad pai&awara 

Chandyan. honl bishara 
Bhorai towartha Maaara 
Gwaaht Gul Mammada sachart 
Gaabda Bahrain Masari 
Hinbara baggai Gusari 
Haiaarai burr Masari 
Jath baggada salami 
paba gatfa abair kasavi 

Dairvl Attn navivi 
-Manawa palk jeadiyi 
Tabal waj shaiMya 
Mir chadtai watharlyi 
Goth u man. bratf arfy* 
Zor Saltan Arafiyi 

Let me call to mind the Pir of the 

new spring 
always the true master 
the king of men ; the producer 
Ye five pure-hearted and ye four 

Be behind the lion's son 
Be both ye Marids and Roetamarls 
Ye Saringtf takers of revenge 
Be all behind the lion's son 
The noble Bahrain the male lion 
In his kingdom sitting at ease 
The Miliaria mounted their marea 
Kadd with a few horsepten 
They all saddled their marea 
His fame for theft was great 
He went to the Kachl country 
And brought away the camels with- 

out number 
And came harmless to bis city 
They divided lots' by arrows and 

The noble Gul Mammad Brahui 
Came with many to the Masari 
Saying give me back my strings of 

Daraihan the revenger said 
I will not give them while I live 
In your ears I tell you Gul Mammad 

Many enemies many 
We Muzarls have bound and ate 
Gul Mammad the true said 
Bahram Masari shall hear 
I will either take camels in return 
Or the Muzarls shall have my head 
By the Jaths he sent a challenge 
Who petitioned to the assembled 

The Khans and Navavs of cities 
Quickly in a moment of an hour 
The drums beat joyfully 
The Mir mounts himself 
With all his brothers 
. By the power of .Sultan Arefiga 


Grammar of the Bahchky Language. 


Bagg nlli gonbatftyi 

Darshanai shir pharaginal 
Masari bat hamalani 
8a ha vai Mir manaawanai 
Basth hatyir kimatinai 
Zin git shihanani 
N&zaha bor narahanai 
Sanj tbasa dorawani 
Bithai nil gwink ukah&nal 

Wanjin dil pijanl 
Ziu git pihalw&nl 
Laikhai af giz Maz&rai 
Zudtwai tfjai tira 
Mir Maaarmiba subkara 

Jatbro kau ra diwaxi 

Adt gondii* maziri 
Nashk biahair potrawin 
Bljalo khan widhwini 
Shair ahihl bahizurini 
Hijiyin sun sntftinl 
MohirFbliA suriyini 
Jang mashkul durghyinl 
Jiwan bor didhwini 
Kadhd wada nai badinai 
Zaham al mas tai durin) 
Bingwi gwasht zawini 
Ghodo paiahimidinai 
God wax khin Jabini 

Hikim kinn daihinl 
8angtl Shair potrawin! 
Sujalu Path Maghsi 
Gonath zahma himatl 
Chindyi Gubzir Razi 
Zaham wakti )i khubizi 
81 gist Jang i Maziri 
Do sala Brahui Jamil! 
Witti zahma bawili 
Trada napti bu/nltaliri 
Dhal dashta bat jidi 

Hashda Pandrini 
Mir Brahui ulkukini 
Nam nazani ganini 

Gadtai shair i turani 
Hakul hi gindayini 
Nam Durhyini girini 
Ishty nashkai majhyinai 

Bith aamho gothumini 
Math bithgo Fauj liyi 
Droku/Ai taif Ai tniyi 

I will not give the camels to mint 

Start ye citizens and villagers 

In front with Hamal 

That great man Mir and hero 

Bind on your valuable swords 

Take hold of your saddle bows . 

The bays dance and neigh 

Saddles, stirrups and worked stirrups 

The noise of the shoes of the feet 
was great 

Our lord with a glad heart 

On the saddle of his mare 

Sixty Miziris were counted 

They pushed their mares to speed 

The Mir is in front, victory will be 

At the stream of the Jatbro mono* 

The Musaris arrive 

The fame of the lion's son is great 

Go on ye great Khans 

Braver than lions 

Haji the pilot of a hundred 

Get in front thou hero 

Fight Mashkul thou supremely brave 

Jiwan on his fine mare 

Kidu hammer of thy enemies 
Thou sword of the fierce durinis 

Bingwa uttered this speech 

I will take my mare before all 

In company was Jaffer Khin JaL 

Governor of the Kinn district 
Were with the lion's son 
Sujalo and Path Maghsi 
Were in company brave swordsmen 
Gulzar and Razi Chindyis 
The players at the battle of swords 
The Muzaxis force was sixty 
Two hundred Brahuis and Jam&lis 
They turned and fled from the swords 
The guns and swords were used 
On the faces and jaws of those with 

Eighteen Pandrinis 
The Mir of the Brahui country 
His name is unknown that it could 

be mentioned 
Those of the lion's locks return 
He came calling aloud 
He takes the name of Darjia 
He quitted this world and kept bis 

They advanced all together 
He had closed with Fauj liya 
His sword was false for it broke 


Grammar of the Balochky Language. 


Latb! yaikghadiya 
Hajaiyan. dawa giriya 
Go midoka bashkaliya 
Husain. Man mardi raliya 
Jang magjo bith sardar 
8unuha Gul ahair Dildar 
Jan Mabammad Jiwan Khana 
Gol Makh Tajd Jamali 
Aj pbat&a gwank siyali 
Daimai kbandati jamali 
Kuabta Gal Mnmmad Gist chara 
JH fatteha kidd gara 
Mishkada sari jamara 
Diwan byari kalamovi . 

They were killed in an hour 
Haji entered into a dispute 
And quarrelled with Bashkaliya 
Husain Khan was among men 
In the battle were these *;irUara 
The brave Gal shair Dildar 
Jan Mammad Jen an Khan 
Gul Makh and Tajd Jamali 
Called them retreating enemies 
Hereafter the Jamalis will lau#h 
Gul Mammad and 94 were killed 
God gave the victory 
He became musk in the world 
Gentles my lay is finished 

A Bcdochky Love Sang. 

Pohwan yadkana Sehwani 

Baahk lal maoa imana 
Kahili kahev murgani 
Hal mahram dostani 
GaishUr birsari hothani 

Lodi saihmaran aAr&ta 
Dast dastnishani adtha 

Monj darin dil boMaMta 

Kadzi baraigain singartfi 
Paishi mullawao banga 
Phulai sannaharai shiptha 
Yakpatl shalana kagyun. 
Ganja bailo norwaha 

Jathanai binindai jahain 
Kulag gorgina gath 
Dost amsaro phalchhat 
Jaidi amsaro lhiwl 

Shaaht mardamai papudsai 
Rindhi baidagai saVftbandan. 
Kill banzara Taitaina 
Bhounri waagir Jalinya 
Shi mahi saihlr thalambi 
Rasi bahmani balaiAa 

Barkat Aly juwan marda 
Railai zaharai darbaisha 
Diwan biyarl kalamowa 

Rindhai kachiri ai kutha 
Gwasht mirain chakara 
Dtish! giro&Aan. chumbara 

Kasa gwfthi na datf 
Gala murld daiwangai 


In the morning Sehwan comes before 

Endue me O Lal with truth 
She's a pigeon a peahen in walk 
The state of my love is a secret 
That very modest and beautiful 

The minstrel has come with his lyre 
And brought a token on his hand 

from my love 
My heart that was dry as wood be- 
came glad 
My bay mare was got ready 
Before the evening call to prayers 
I put ornaments on the head stall 
Without halting at speed I will come 
To the flourishing Beilo on the Nor* 

Where my Jathani is residing 
. The huts of reeds are crowded 
My love is fairest of all 
Among her companions and play. 
, mates the fairest 
I sent a man secretly 
My Rindh dress arranged 
1 opened the curtain of the house 
As the tree smells the flower 
The pain of six months is removed 
May you be pleased with no one but 

Aly is a great hero 
Such are the wanderings of the bard 
Gentles my lay is finished 
The Rinds were all assembled 
Mir Chakar spoke 
" To night how many times has it 

No one had witnessed it 
The fascinated Murld spoke 


Grammar of the Bulochky Language* 


Agai jan mard Koshlnabai 

Rastatnishtai tkt dyag 
Duahi girofcaas sibar* 
Da dnbara shamal kuMa 
Gal Amtrai chakara 
Bhalo Mubarak pusagit 
Hikhai i zift rawan 
Dir banal mulkai kawan. 
Oali mnrid daiw&ngai 
O Sharra bawi manl 
Sharrai na diftai dost man! 
Kitai Barra barai kula 
Macharragag garkutt&j} 
Man dan kuran danwaMa 
Man nailagati yaniyan 
Lohir pa basa phadan" 

Gudakhan gwatf dhawan 


Pachomanai daiwanaga 
Phama byarai Mawadan 
Mull* bazai khaga dan" 
MaJamoi haafainai 
Mulla Mdnahi ai naban. 
Mak nimaxa na padag 
Dast bastago sirai bu&Ataga 
Gad Amir mojga 

Kaulai traahan chothwi 
Mind salaJfcain irkanft 
Jail kadi ke*A gndhan 
Phadkalav pabaW " 
Dast khama pa I'slyA 
Bilapb Mira Chakar* 
Bora ila bastga 
Kul dhwi & haiaaga 
Makhmalang wngadha 
Tahki o ra hrjja rawan 
Hijja. dara Karat khana 
Hani marfcAanai mnrid 
Ma kutwaiya thakati& 
Mast murid cho laidhawa 

Narmaga do rakhanai 
Hinai khwanka phaphad& 
Chakar Amldl banda 
Log athl a aekhawi 
Bara thtya duz bar* 
Diwan biyari kalamowi 

" Formerly lover and mistress were 

not killed 
Mark well and consider It aa true 
To night it has lightened thrice 
No twice it has become light'* 
Mir Chakar spoke 
" Very well Mubarak's son 
At this instant begone 
Remain in the far Ban country*' 
The fascinated Murid spoke 
" Oh my own father 
Tis well you did not see my mistress 
With bare head in the wide desert 
I will wander and make my grave 
With only a Quran with me 
Don't put manacles on me 
At work is the cruel ironsmith 
With the breeze of the south in hk 

They are for me who am mad 
Bring for me a potion 
The Mulla, may give me many charms 
He doesn't know my disease 
I am not a Mulla or Mdnahi 
I will not repeat prayers 
I will now stoop my back is broken 
And to be struck with the Amir's 

I vow to cut off my locks" 
The Mir took off his weapons 
Took off his Btarched clothes 
Left his carpet with Ally* 
His bow with I'sa 
" Mir Chakar may take all 
My mare her picket pegs and ropes 
She will stand starving at her stall 
I will go begging with beggars 
I will certainly go on the pilgrimage 
And offer at the door of the temple 
Hani and the noble Murid 
Were shut up in a room 
Murid like a wild camel 
Bites Hani's cheek 
And her soft lips 
Hani is called from behind 
From Mir Chakar's house 
May his house take fire 
And his mare be stolen away 
Gentles my lay is finished 

IB8&3 Natm aeemmi qfwukmgjbr gold m Assam. 


[/ W.— -Native emest** of washing for gate in Assam. By Monbxbam, 

Jtawfisw Sheristadmr, Bm* Bunder ee. 

[OMUMnuwted by Cnpt. F. Jikkins to the Coal and Mineral Committee..] 

There are no old papers of the Assam time relative to the above 
subject, but the following is compiled from the hearing of respectable 
people and shews the present state of gold washing on this country. 

Before the British tQok possession of this country, the Assam rejaa 
used to take from the sonwal's of Upper Assam a yearly tribute of 
4000 tolahs of gold, and in the time of the Boora Gohynes 2000 
tolaha used to be taketo : when the Government had possession of Upper 
Assam, a tax was levied on the north bank of the river from 400 son- 
walpykes, and at present there are about 150 or 160 gotes of pykea 
m aH Upper Assam, from whom the raja collects a tax. Besidea 
these there are about 250 or 300 of these pykea (old and new) in the 
Bur Senaputtee*s eountry. There are also about 10 or 15 gotes* of 
these sonwals in Bishnath, and Sonaree Chopres ; and some in Lithure* 
Gorokhiay Kahneecholee % and Morung, and there are 50 or 60 houses, 
of them in Sadiya and Soeekhowfk. In the raja's country the great- 
est number of bis sonwal pykea reside on the north bank of the Bur- 
rumpootur : there are only about 26 houses of them on the south bank. 

Assamese sonwal pyket during the 
of Jftownmeat, 


B«r Borooab** Bbeg 1 

SeeriftgFbookaa'sBhag, «. 29 

Taporaeea Phokuns Bhag, . . 6i 

In Seetee Tangonee, 26 

In I*oMs»poor, Soolpsnee, 

Nomei and' Charengeea Boroo- 

ah't Bhag 69 

In Bonacotta, 12§ 

In Narainpoor, .......... 8 

Cackaree aonwals* in Seesee,. 

Lokimpoor and Majalee, 250 

Cackaree sonwals on the 

sooth btnk, 11 

Near the Dehing ri?er, .... » 

Beheea soawab, 44 


Daring; the 
present raja's 










Living now 

and on which 
bank of river. 


South has* 


North bank 


South bank 

North bank 

sonwal pyke* 
where lifing. 





Muttnck, 8lc. 

The kheldars object to the 184J gotes of pykea at present put down 
by the raja, but admitting all their objections, there are not less than 
150 gotes of these sonwal pykes in the raja's country. 

• k gote of sonwals consists of four pykes or individuals. 


Native account of washing for gold in Assam. [July, 

* Gold washing is the occupation of the sonwal pyke8,lmt other pykes 
sometimes join with them and receive their share. The tax is levied on 
the sonwals only at the following rates. At the time of the washing, the 
Burahs, and Sykeas with their sonwal pykes go in a body to the place 
selected by them, and at the close of the year each pyke gives £ a 
tolah of gold for his share of tax ; but there is an extra cess levied for 
melting, &c. according to the quality of the gold ; for the best kind (or 
votom) they give 3 rattees more than the £ tolah, for second best (or 
jnodom) 4 rattees, for third sort (or norrom) 6 rattees or 1 anna^ De- 
cides this there is a commission of one rupee's weight in every 20 taken 
by the Phookuns and Burrooahs, half tolah in 20 by the Teklaha and 
Burrahs, £ tolah by the Bhundar Kagotee, and when the tax in gold 
is presented to the raja, the Chung Kagotee, the Bhundaree Leekeerah, 
the Pachonee, and the Kookoorah chowah Burrah, take altogether 1£ 
tolahs of silver for each tolah of gold. 

In the time of raja Rajeswur Sing, the sonwals of Upper Assam 
alone used to give 6 or 7000 tolahs of gold in addition to the moheea 
or tax that was levied on them, and in raja Goureenath Sing's time 
the sonwals of Upper Assam used to give 4000 tolahs of gold every 
year ; besides this there was gold received from the following places of 
Lower Assam, Ckingah, Sondhonee, Chooteea, and Chatgarree, and 
it was also brought from the Bhooteahs by a sunzattee sent by the raja. 
The best kind of gold is that found by the jongol sonwals, and the 
Kacharee sonwal's gold is the worst. 

The hill streams produce the best gold, and the stronger the current 
of the stream the better the gold ; very slow running streams do not pro* 
duce good gold. The gold found in the Burrumpootur is not good, it 
is washed by the Kacharee sonwals, and this is the reason why the Ka- 
charee sonwals have no good gold. 

List of rivers in Assem which produce gold. 

1 Lohit 

*1 Kakoee 

1 Sonsiri 

I Doha Jooree 

1 Dihing 

M Kuddum 

*1 Jongloong 

In the east 2 Jooree, if 

1 Tengapanee 

•1 Somdiri 

•l Jajee 

the gold is washed with the 

1 Par oo rah 

*1 Dooitra Deejoo 

•1 Qesoee 

consent of the Dofla, 

1 Dehong and 

1 Dikrung 

Under the Dufla 

each party can collect $ of 


hills in Chardoar 

a tolah daily. 

1 Deegaree 

1 Kharaee 

1 Dbol 

1 Boorooee 

1 Doobeea 

I Pomahs 

•1 Seeding 

1 Bor Gang 

1 Pormaee 

1 Garroah 

1 Dibooroo 

1 Bor Deekoree 

1 Roydeng 

Besides the above there 

1 Soobun siri 

•1 Bhoirobbee 

1 Bechnmae 

are several other small 

1 Deejoo 

1 Maosiri 

1 Kallee Jooree 


The names of rivers marked thus * produce the best gold. 

1£3&3 Native accownt of washing for gold in Assam.- ft)# 

There are other rivers felling into these which produce gold, but the 
pest gold is found in the most winding streams with the strongest 

Not having any old papers on this subject there may be some trifliag 
errors in the above estimates, but it is a positive fact that 4000 tolaha 
of gold at the very least were received annually by the Assam raja. 

There are four methods of collecting gold as follows : — 

1. The Kacharees wait until the river rises and when it falls again 
suddenly they scrape up the sand and wash for gold. 

2. All other sonwals collect and wash for gold during the dry sea- 

3. The sonwal of the Rydegeea Phookun's Bhag go up into the 
hills and collect the copat, which they burn to produce gold. 

4. The gold-washers in the Seedang river get the gold by washing 
the mess and slime which they scrape off the recks in the bed of the 

These are the four methods by. which gold is collected, but the gold- 
washers generally collect the gold during the dry season. 

Method of washing and collecting gold from sand. 

Wherever the current is strong with a falling bank above it ending 
in a sharp turn of the river, the sonwals examine the opposite shore 
where the sand from the falling bank is thrown, and if this should 
contain gravel mixed with the sand it is accounted a good place to find 
gold in. 

Each party consists of a patoee and 4 pallees, who wash in one 
trough (or dorongee No. 5); when they find a proper place to commence 
operations they begin by working about in the sand with a sharp pointed 
bamboo (No. 1, or sokalee) to find the depth at which the gravelly sand 
is, they then take it up in a piece of split bamboo, (No. 2, bans chola) 
and examine whether there is any gold dust in it ; if they see 12 or 14 
bits they immediately build their houses and commejce operations. 
They first bund up the deep part of the stream, if it be a small one with 
sand, and if large with stakes and grass : the stream then takes a differ- 
ent direction over the sand ; they allow it to wash away the upper sur- 
face of sand so as to* expose the gold sand, when the bund is re-opened 
and the stream returns to its original bed. The upper sand is then scrap- 
ed off and the good sand collected with a kind of wooden spade (No. 3* 
kater dohtal) ; this shovel is 1^ cubits long by I cubit in breadth, with 
a handle 4 cubits long ; the blade is of the form of a crescent with holes 
at each corner through which a string is passed and two men lay hold 
of and pull this string, while a third person. keeps pressing the spade 
4 x - - " 

624 Native account of washing fir gold in Assam. £ July, 

down in a perpendicular position ; the sand is then taken up in small 
baskets with handles {No. 4 called cookees) and thrown . on a bamboo 
lattice work or strainer (No. 6 ban) which is laid over the trough by a 
(dorongee No. 5.) This trough is made of wood and 3 cubits lon& 
1 cubit broad and 1 span high all round, with a slit 3 fingers wide at one 
end. Water is now thrown over the sand with a calabash having a large 
piece scooped out at the bottom, beside a very small hole on one side (No* 
7, lao) ; the water is thrown on with one hand while the other hand is 
employed in moving the sand about and sweeping off the larger particles 
of gravel from the surface of the strainer ; in this way the sand is spread 
on and water poured over it ; and as the trough fills the water and dirty 
sand run off through the slit in it, while the clean sand and gold remain 
at the bottom of the trough. I forgot to say that the trough is placed 
at a small angle to assist the water and dirt to run off quickly. When 
40 or 50 baskets of sand have been thus washed into the trough the 
sonwals call it a sheea, and if a ruttee of gold is produced from one 
sheea they think themselves very fortunate indeed, for during the long 
days they get about 90 sheeas or washings producing one ruttee each, 
and during the short days about 25 sheeas, each party thus making on 
an average about J of a tolah of gold daily. When they happen to fall 
on a good old stream that has not been disturbed for 5 or 6 years they 
get 2 ruttees of gold from every sheea or washing, and then each party 
makes about £ a tolah daily. 

The gold and sand of the last washing is collected into pottles (or 
chongas) by spreading a leaf of copat or some other plant at the end 
of the trough, and dropping water very gently on the sand through 
the small hole in the calabash, which causes a parting of sands and gold 
to be thrown on the leaf ; when the whole is collected in this way it is 
put into the pottle and tied up and the next washing is commenced on. 
As soon as they have collected enough in the pottles they give up wash* 
ing the common sand, but pour out the gold and sand from pottles into 
the trough again, and putting in about an anna's weight of quicksilver 
for each tolah of gold dust, they pour water over the sand to keep it in 
motion while the quicksilver remains below with the gold dust and 
forms it into a lump ; this lump is then put into a shell and on a fire of 
nahar wood charcoal ; when the quicksilver evaporates and the shell be- 
comes lime ; it is then carefully taken up in a spoon and thrown into water 
when the gold falls to the bottom ; if it be of a brass color it is wrapped 
fa a paste made of clay from the cooking choolas mixed with a little salt 
and burnt in a fire, which gives it a proper color*. 

• This process causes an tbiolute refinement of the surface of the gold : — 
it is toe same used in gold refining by tut natives, but la the latter esse the 

1M8/J Further information on theg *H washings of Assam. 68& 

Hie gold is washed tor in all streams during the months of Maug, 
Falgoon, and Choit, and also in a few streams in the month of Assin 
and Cartick, bat during 4 days in each the sonwals do no work, vis. at 
the new and full of the moon, on the first of the month and on a gene- 
ral holiday all natives have ones a month called ekadosee, (the 11th.) 

The Kacharee sonwals use the same instruments as above* 

The Rydengeea Phookun's sonwals burn the oopat leaf and thus 
produce gold from the ashes as written above. 

The gold-washers in the Seodang dry the moss and slime and then 
wash it in the usual manner. 

This is the way in which gold is washed, which is so uncertain that 
an unfortunate set of men sometimes get only about a tolah after a whole 
months labor. 

IV. — Further information on the gold washings of Assam, abstracted 
from Copt* Hamnat's communications to CapU Jenkins, Agent 
to the Governor General m Assam. 

It is the general belief of the inhabitants of the surrounding coun- 
tries, that the rivers of the valley of A ssam abound in gold, and this is in 
a manner corroborated by the numbers of the inhabitants of Assam> who 
are gold-washers by profession ; and judging from this fact, and the 
compacts which existed between the gold-washers, and the state in 
regard to revenue payments, the quantity of gold received into the public 
treasury must have been considerable. 

The gold-washers of Assam are designated sonewahls, but as they 
were distributed in different parts of the country and placed under the 
aiuthority of Phokans, Boorooahs, and other chiefs, they were generally 
known only by the names of the " Khel" or tribe of chief, under whom 
they resided. They were of all' the classes and castes found in Assam, 
the Beheeahs (a tribe of Ahoms), and the Cassarees, being however the 
most numerous. The sonewahl Cassarees, who formerly occupied 
Sydiah and its vicinity, were a distinct class from those residing, as 
before mentioned, under the orders and authority of different chiefs; 
they were entirely under the orders of the raja himself, and they supplied 
him with gold when called upon to do so. 

The whole of the rivers* in Assam contain (as formerly noticed) 

metal has to be reduced in the first instance to very thin leaves to allow the 
muriatic add fames to penetrate and unite with the alloy.—- Ed. 

• A list has been given in the foregoing paper i but many names differ: 
Capt. H. states that in fact it comprehends all the rivers and torrent streams 
in Assam.— Ed. 

4 I 2 

680 Fntther inf o r mati on en iff* g6U washing* of Assam. £ Juiy; 

more or less gold in their sands, tod the soil of which their banks 
are composed; the most noted however are the Bor-oH, Subon* 
shirty T>esue y and Joglo, the two latter containing the purest and best 
gold, and in the Joglo it is said that this precious metal is found in 
large grains, about the size of a grain of rice. The color of the 
gold also hi both- the last named rivers is of a deep yellow, and it was 
so much prized, that the jewels of the raja's family of Assam were inva- 
riably made up from what was collected in them. 

The gold of the Buramputer is considered the worst, and it seems to 
be a general opinion, that the gold is best, and in greatest quantities,' 
when the bed of the rivers is composed of a mixture of sand and small 
pebbles. I cannot however speak with confidence on this point, further 
than to observe, that the whole of the rivers I have enumerated have 
their sources in the mountains, and they have natnrlEtt^tol^ IT CCHBt^ 
derable portion of their course a pebbly and stony bed* 

The Desue is a small river, and has sometimes little or no water in 
it ; it has a short course from the mountains south of Jorehaut (where 
k rises) to the Buramputsr, and a heavy shower of rain near its 
source causes it to rise suddenly* The gold-swashers carry on their ope* 
ration one and a half days' journey above Jorekauty. where the bed is 

. The Joglo rises in a range of small hills, which stretch across from 
Jaipore towards &«M%a, and after a very short coarse of a few miles 
Jails into the Boors* Diking ; it has throughout a pebbly bed, and towards 
hi mouth the banks are high, and composed of yellow-colored clay, 
similar to the soil of the kills and the tract of country through which 
the Joglo passes. At the mouth of the last named river the bed of the 
Diking is conglomerate rock* rich in iron, and the hills in which the 
Joglo has its rise» abound in iron and coal. 

The sonewabls endeavour to keep their art as secret as possible, 
and wish to make people believe that they have particular methods of 
washing for gold, and that they alone know the most favorable spots 
for carrying on their operations* A few of these peculiarities however 
have been pointed out to me. 

The best time to wash for gold is after a rise of the waters in the 
rivers, and the most favorable spots are where beds of the rivers are 
composed of small rounded pebbles of quartz and sandstone, with a 
mixture of sand, and also in spots, where from natural causes, there is 
an extensive deposit of this. In the Joglo however the soil is scraped 
from the banks, and washed, and I am told that the soil and sand which 
has collected about the roots of trees on the banks, is considered rich 

I6SS.'] Fur&sr information on the gold washing* of Assam. tit 

in gold, but particularly when it has collected in considerable quantities 
round the fibrous roots ef the gigantic fern. 

Hollows and cavities in the loose ferruginous sandstone (which 
abounds in many of the rivers) are likewise cleared of all sand and gra- 
vel, the enter coating of the sandstone scraped off, and all is ca/efully 
washed. This last is said to be sometimes a prolific source of the pre* 
eious metal. 

I hare only twice witnessed the process of gold washing, once in the 
Erawaddie, and once in the Bootes Diking^ and although the method 
by tiie gold-washers differed, the soil washed was the same. The rest- 
due left, after the sand was washed out, was in both cases, a black 
metallic looking sand, which contained the gold, and this blackish sand 
is invariably met with, excepting in washing the outer coating of the 
ferruginous sandstone above mentioned*. 

Srd AprUy 1838. Experiments. — In the Buramputer or LokU which 
ft is called above Dsbong Momkh, and in the vicinity of Tengapannee 
Moukh a party of Caesarees 60 in number, washed for five days, and 
realized 25 rupees weight of gold. Also twenty men for one month 
who collected half, a tola, or eight rupees worth of gold each. An4 
fifteen men for one month, collected each eight rupees worth of gold. 
The above operations have been performed within the last few years. 
< In the Noa Diking both above and below the present village of 
Beesa, a party of twenty Cassarees, washed during three months in the 
latter end of 1837, ibr gold, and realised eight annas weight each, in all 
ten tolas, which was sold at Sydiah, for twelve rupees per tola of gold dust* 

In the Booree Diking a party of Cassaree traders in salt, 24 in 
number, washed for gold during their stay at Jaipore for one month, 
and realised in all twelve annas weight of gold. 

in the cases above mentioned there ia a considerable difference in 
the quantities of gold collected. The last named however, being realised 
when the |»arty were on a trading visit to Jaipore for salt, can hardly 
he considered as a fair specimen, as the washing for fold was looked 
upon more as a pastime and the labour by no means constant. But the 
first mentioned instance may be taken as a very fair specimen of what 
can be earned by geld washing in the Lohit, when the numbers of the 
gold-washers are considerable, and when the object is to procure as 

* Capt, H.'a account of the process and implement* is omitted K as a tolerable 
description has already been given in the preceding paper. Might not the gal- 
vanic magnet be advantageously employed in freeing the washed sand of its fer- 
ruginous particles ? We have frequently employed the common magne't in the 
examination of small specimens of these sands with advantage. The use of mer- 
cury might thai be avoided.— En. 

•28 Further information on the gold toothings of Assam. [Jolt* 

much gold as they possibly can within a short period, which was the 
case in the instance above alluded to. 

The only peculiarity I can find worthy of notice, in regard to the 
foregoing information is, that in washing the sands of the Noa Diking, 
a quantity of beautiful and minute crystals of quarts are left after the 
dirty portion and larger pieces of gravel have been thrown aside, and thia 
description of residue is not observed in any other rivers of the upper 
portion of Assam. 

I have also to remark that it is the custom with the sonewahl Cassa- 
rees of Sudiya to reckon four men to a gote, their method of washing 
for gold requiring for each durrunee, or trough, four men to keep the 
operation constantly going on, the distribution of them, being, one man 
to wash, two to bring the soil, and the fourth to dig — and all relieving; 
each other at intervals. 

5th May. — The information which is herein given may be depended 
upon as correct ; it was taken from the head of a party of sonewahl 
Cassar.ees now residing at Burgohain Pokni, on the south bank of the 
Booree Diking who make a yearly visit to the known sources of the 
precious metal. The dates are not specified, but the washing for gold 
took place at different periods* 

1. In the Lohit or Buramputer above Sudiya, a party of gold-wash* 
ers consisting of 12 men washed for 20 days, and realized 7 tolas of 

2. In \h&,Dholjan or A. B. Buramputer, a party of 20 men washed 
for 16 days and realised 1 tola. 

3. In the Jungi, 15 men washed for 20 days and realised 7§ tolas. 

4. In the Desue or Jorehaut river, 15 men washed for 12 days and 
realized 7$ tolas. 

5. In the Dhunseree river, 15 men washed for 12 or 15 days and 
realised 7£ tolas. 

With reference to the above I have been told that the quantity of 
gold obtained in the three last mentioned rivers or rather hill streams, 
may be taken as a good average of what can be procured from them ; 
they are considered rich with reference to other streams in this province 
which are washed for gold, and the quantity which- could be obtained 
must depend upon the number of people employed. In my inquiries 
regarding particular localities, soil, &c. washed, I can obtain nothing 
additional to what I have already laid before you, a sudden turn in the 
river where there is a deposit of loam sand and small round stones or 
pebbles, and a situation where the level of the country commences to 
ascend towards the hills, seem to be considered the most favorable loca- 
lities with reference to the small streams which I have noticed here. 

1838-3 Inscription on the Delhi Iron pillar. 029 

V.— Lithograph* and translation* of Inscriptions taken in ectype by 
Captain T. S. Burt, Engineers: and of one,Jrom Ghosi taken htf 
Captain A. Cunningham, of the same corps. 

Delhi Iron pillar. 

In last month's Journal I commenced the agreeable task of laying 
before my readers that portion of Captain Burt's budget of in* 
sorptions (gleaned in the short interval since his return to India), 
which was couched in the old Pdli character. I now take up the second 
division, containing those in what has been designated by himself 
the ' No. 2 character of the Allahabad pillar : to which series belongs 
three very interesting inscriptions, two entirely new from central India ; 
and one, known far and wide certainly, as far as its existence and its sup- 
posed illegibility are concerned, but hitherto never placed before the 
learned in its true condition, so as to allow a fair trial at its decipher* 
ment I allude to the short inscription on the celebrated irou pillar at 
Delhi, of which I published in 1884, an attempted copy taken by the 
late Lieut. Wm. Elliot at the express request of the Rev. Dr. Mill ; 
hut it was so ingeniously mismanaged, that not a single word could be 
made out ! and there can be no wonder at this, if the reader will take 
the trouble to compare Lieut. Elliot's plate (PI. XXX. Vol. IV.) with 
the accompanying reduced lithograph of Capt. Burt's facsimile ! I 
should perhaps remark that I lithographed the present plate before 
transcribing it for the pandit, so that there could be no partial bias to* 
wards a desired construction of any doubtful letter. Nothing of the 
kind however was necessary: the letters are well formed and well 
preserved notwithstanding the hard knocks which the iron shaft has 
encountered from the ruthless invaders of successive centuries. I have 
been promised by Capt. Burt an account of this and the other mo- 
numental remains visited in his journey across India ; I need not there* 
fore enter upon the history of the Delhi iron pillar, but shall confine 
myself to the restoration and explanation of the record it contains. 

The language is Sanskrit ; the character is of that form of Nagari 
which I have assigned to the third or fourth century after Christ, the 
curves of the letters being merely squared off : perhaps on account of 
their having been punched upon the surface of the iron shaft with a 
short cheni of steel, and a hammer, as the absolute engraving of them 
would have been a work of considerable labour ; but this point 1 have 
not the means of determining. 

The composition is poetical, consisting of six lines, or three slokas, in 
the sardula vikriijita measure ; — it is observable that the first line is 
written in a much smaller hand than the remainder. 

The purport of the record is just what we might have calculated to 

630 Translation of Ancient Inscription* ffvifh 

find, but by no means what was fondly anticipated, or what witt satisfy 
the curiosity so long directed to this unusual and curious remnant of 
antiquity. It merely tells us that a prince, whom nobody ever heard of 
before, of the name of Dhava, erected it in commemoration of his victo- 
rious prowess. He was of the Vaishnavi faith, and he occupied the throne 
he had acquired (at Hastinapura ?) for many years ; but be seems to 
have died before the monument was completed. As there is no men- 
tion of royal ancestry we may conclude that he was an usurper. 

The only interesting piece of information it contains, is that Dhava'i 
arms were employed against the VdhWcas of Sindku, who were com- 
bining their forces to invade his territories. 

The BdkUkas are generally admitted by the learned to be the Bactri- 
ans, or people of JBalkh ; — but here the expression sindhorjitd vdh- 
likdy the ' conquered Vdhlikas of the Sindhu proves, that at the time of 
Dhava the Bactrian principalities extended into the valley of the 
Indus, — and it further proves what we have been led to suspect from 
the numerous coins with unknown Greek names in the Panjdb, that 
instead of being totally annihilated by the Scythians 120 years before 
Christ, the* descendants of the Greeks continued to rule perhaps for 
a century or two after Christ, in the regions south of the Paropamisan 
range. If the authority of a graven monument of high antiquity be 
received as preferable to the variable readings of books, we should cor- 
rect the fT^fftFT and ^vfcT of the Rauuiyana and of Hbmachandra's 
lexicon, to «lfir*l» 

As in the Allahabad inscriptions, the pillar is called ' his arm of fame,' 
and the letters engraved thereon are the typical cuts and wounds inflicted 
on his enemies by his sword writing his immortal feme I Raja Dhava 
has. left behind him at any rate, a monument of his skill in forging iron, 
for the pillar is a well wrought circular shaft of iron, longer and nearly 
as large as the shaft of the Berenice steamer ! 

Here follows the text as corrected by Kamalakanta, in a few 
letters, which will be seen on comparing it with the plate ; the trans- 
lation I have kept as nearly literal as it can be rendered, which makes 
it difficult to follow. 


Transcript of the Delhi Iron pillar Inscription* 

< u 



Jji? e*a 

«.!•" ^»c 



ot ssil 

frn a 

c-» ,; 

4 Hi 

a. *« 

» a 
">* * 

B a- 

* r 

JS> J. 

3 Off 

•K OH 

■« a 

? ^ 

so 9 rf 

o' c ■• 

«r rnr 

°> ** 

me 3j 

Sit k«V 

■if rfr 

sea ^ 

3^ vi 

'5 3 

'a «? 

w r 

M A 

•S? A 

unl H 

DM » 

a o, 









m x* 


















^tsitl vn 







- unl 


































If 5© i 

1868.] Inscription on the Delhi Iron Pillar. 63 1 

v(*hj44<i* ^faii fauna ftwT i ^ 

t^raraff iwf*ni Prow i *. 

6 tor ut**H* ejfJnifipfT tn^i faHrr wfir iri^^f^wM? 

w 1 . By him, who learning the warlike preparations and entrenchments 
of his enemies with their good soldiers and allies, a monument (or arm), 
of fame engraved by his sword on their limbs, — who, a master of the 
seren advantages*, crossing over (the Indus ?) so subdued the Vdhlikd* 
of Sindhu so that even at this day his disciplined forcef and defences 
on the south (of the river) are sacredly respected by them. 

2. Who, as a lion seizes one animal on quitting hold of another, 
seemed possession of the next world when he abandoned this, — whose 
personal existence still remains on the earth through the fame of his 
(former) deeds, the might of whose arm, even though (he be) now at 
rest (deceased), and some portion too of the energy of him who was 
the destroyer of his foes, — still cleave to the earth. 

3. By him, who obtained with his own arm an undivided sovereignty 
on the earth for a long period, who (united in himself the qualities of) the 
sun and moon, who had beauty of countenance like the full moon : — by 
this same raja Dhava, having bowed his head to the feet of Vishnu 
and fixed his mind on him, was this very lofty arm of the adored Vish- 
xo (the pillar) caused to be erected." 

Inscription from a temple of Vardha and a Dhwajaetambka m the 

vicinity ofErun or Airan in Bhopdl. 

Lientenat Conolly and Captain Burt started from Mhow, on an 
exploring journey. They continued in company as far as Sehore, where 
some copper-plates in Mr. Wilkinson's possession occupied the atten- 

* The Sept* emJtkeni are the same at the tapt&ngani or aeven limbs of govern. 
■Mat, explained in the laet inscription. 

f Jmmavidki, the pandit thinks to be ' a military pott.'— I prefer aiinply <Ut» 
dplsned body of men, or discipline. 
4 K 

632 Inscriptions on an image of [July, 

tion of the former, while the latter hearing of a pillar at Airan hastened 
off by dak to visit it, and was rewarded with the two inscriptions which 
follow, and a few insulated names in various styles from the Airan pil- 
lar and temple. Of the monuments he has kindly promised a full de- 
scription ; the history of their origin as derived from the inscriptions 
themselves however may he succinctly told :— 

The temple was built by Dhanta Vishnu the confidential minister 
of raja Ma'tri Vishnu the son of Hari Vishnu, grandson of Varu'- 
na Vishnu and great grandson of Indra Vishnu ; in the first year of 
the reign of raja Tab a pa ni of Surdshtra (fj : and 

The pillar was erected by Vaidala Vishnu the son of Hasti 
Vishnu, also grandson of V a run a Vishnu, and at the cost of 
Dhanya Vishnu on the 14th of Asarh in the year 165, in the reign 
of Bu DBA gupta in Surdshtra, comprehending the country between 
a river whose name, though partially erased, may be easily made out as 
the Kalinda or Jumna and the Narmada, or Nerbudda. 

Here is a new scion of the Gupta race of kings to be added to our 
lists, and a well defined date, if we could but determine by what era it 
should be interpreted. As yet however we must leave this point un- 
settled, until, by comparison with other records, we may be able to 
arrive at the solution of the problem. 

Transcript of the inscription on the Vardha image. 

ws ira3vf«pff **t*^tt g*remr ** miqifa<i*i«n *n*: 

WRIT* ««HM*Hil (^) Tft I 




















• • 

• • 






c (2- 

off* 2- 








< GS 






rn' < 


















1838.] Vardha and a pillar at Eran near S&gar. 638 


u He is victorious ! the boar-shaped god, who at the time of deliver- 
iog the earth whirled round the mountains by thej erk of his tushes ; 
from the increase of whose body have proceeded the three regions. 

When the great raja Ta'rapa'ni, the very famous and beautiful, the 
king of kings, governed the earth ; in the first year of his reign, on the 
tenth day of Phdlguna .-—before his time the well known Dhanya 
Vishnu the doer of many virtuous deeds, follower of the injunctions 
of the vedas, obedient to his brother the late great raja Matri Vishnu 
(since departed to heaven) and favored by him — who obtained the good 
fortune of the regency by public election, and through the grace of God ;— 
famous as far as the four oceans, ever respectable, and victorious in many 
battles with his enemies, the devoted worshipper of Bhagavdn, — who 
was the son of Ham Vishnu, resembling his father, — the grandson of 
Varum a Vishnu, possessor of his father's qualities, — great grandson of 
Indra Vishnu of the MaitrdyanrfyakHpabha race, the illustrious and 
distinguished, observant of his religious duties and sacrifices with Sukta 
(a hymn of the Rigveda) — a regular sacrifice^ well read in the vedas, 
and a rishi among the brahmans. — By him (Dhanya Vishno) was 
caused to be erected this new temple of Jagan-N&rdyana* N&rAyona, 
in the form of Vara'ha (the boar incarnation) at his own village of 
Nerikona, in the reign, year, month, and day aforesaid. 

Glory to the mistress of Brahmanapura and the king to whom all 
the people belong ! (?)" 

Inscription on a pillar near the same. 

*umwu3 x^Twii- qq ffipfcft *ter*f ^WtTO 

^i*H«imiw*iR( 3ii*Mi«^5Wjirei fliii^tiiU+iMftJ: tKlfa 

*$ v *m «M4K *rraftro rare ^wroifirew *a«ufa«u 

* Or Nardrayan who it himself the water of the universe, 
f The word is written corruptly tryordasy&n in the original. 
X In the original it appears, HflUl+JU fir o a whom is the splendour of Vamtmd* 
§ In the original corrupted to ^TOtfcjJ. 
4 K2 

€84 Inscription on the Eran pillar. [Jolt, 

"**5jfawp OTTO TO«1^W:d*jMl41|Ui4 ^^iffWHfiT^W 


" He is victorious ! (Vishnu) the four-armed, omnipresent the crea- 
tor and preserver of the world, whose bed is the immense water of the 
four oceans and whose ratha-ketu (chariot standard) it Garitya. 

On Thursday the thirteenth lunar day of the month of A'shadha of 
the year 165 when the king Bu'nHA Gu'fta who was the moon of good 
administration, and resplendent in fortune and fame, governed the b ea n * 
tiful country situated between the K&lhutt (Jumna) and the N armm d m , 
by his good qualities (derived) from the Lokap4la*+. In the afore- 
said year of his dynasty, in the very month and day aforesaid : one 
named Vaidala Vishnu who was famous as far as the four oceans, 
ever respectable, who by public election and through the favor of God 
obtained the good fortune of the regency, who was devoted to Shag** 
van — the son of the father-resembling Ham Vishnu ; grandson of 
the father's-talent-possessing Vabuna Vishnu, — the great grandson of 
Indra Vishnu, of the Maitrayan&yakripabha race, a strict observer 
of his religious duties, regular in sacrifices, reader of the veda, a very 
rishi among brahmansf. By him (Vaidala Vishnu) this banner- 
pillar was erected at the expense of Dhanya Vishnu, — for the pros- 
perity of his race, in honor of Janardanaj: the distresser of the 
Punyajanas (RakskasJ. 

Glory ! to him who is a patriotic (prince) and to whom belong all 
the people 1" 

Besides the principal inscription on the Eran pillar, there are as usual 
several names scratched in different hands and at different times ; four 
of which I have selected as specimens, being the only ones in the more 
ancient form of Nigari. They are inserted at the foot of Plate XXXI. 

A, the first, wants something at the end ? supplying a IT conjectural- 
ly it will run— 

• Upholders of the universe. 

t These several epithets are almost literatim the same in both inscriptions, 

X Vishnu'. 

fn Jlj. See. 






fW*o*« shafts* aatj. 

1838.] Inscription from Ohosi near Jaunpur. t 535 

*JP*3*f HI *JUI YUMI* H Ht 

" Well executed in sculpture, by Kaldbhuja Shatnbhu the Shinka or 

The second, marked B, is hardly legible in the middle, but I think it 
may be read : 

"Written by Samanta pautra (the grandson of the general) — the 

The third, C, is very plain and distinct WPfl inw H1H, " the name 
of Samanta Dosha .*" but I should be inclined to think the # w intended 
for a W, and the name Samanta deva, as dosha, (a fault) would hard- 
ly be applied as a name. 

The fourth, D, is insignificant ; the letters are all plain, but the sense 
incomplete Wifa $<4t% (* faftlf) ' written by Khata the son of the 

Inscription from Ghost near Jaunpur. 

Captain Cuhningham has furnished no further particulars of this . 
fragment than are contained in the heading of the facsimile, a long slip 
of paper taken from a detached stone stated to be broken off at either end. 
After an invocation to Hari Visbvix, it commences the usual eulogy 
on the glorious exploits of a raja named Dbarani Varaba, and from 
the style there must evidently have been a long sequel, which if it could 
be recovered might give us some new information on a period not long 
anterior to the Muhammadan invasion. 

Being in verse, the pandit who assisted me in deciphering it has been 
easily able to supply the hiatus in the first line. 1 have blundered in 
copying the facsimile, but by the letter references the order of the lines 
may be traced. 

^rs itjjNiwfatrra ftfttftfli favi mfiftt www wGt 

•www irre *r«hF^T tcs vw*f ^ 

636 Additions to Bactrian Numismatic* [July, 

^PJTY ^rraf^wT frnwr.... ..... .*re T^PT 5m vu 


" Adoration ! (May he) who, when on all sides all earthly things were 
destroyed (by the deluge) floated under the semblance of a sleeping 
yogi to the insulated fig-tree which alone remained for the redress 
of the calamity; — who with ever increasing strength subdueth the 
sun-scorched earth at the end of every kalpa ; — may he, girding up his 
loins, remove from you the fear of the world, — Hari the god of gods I 

There was a raja named Dharana Vara ha illuminating the hori- 
zon with the fame of his appropriating the prosperity of his enemies ;— 
satisfactory in qualities ; without blemish ; and renowned for subduing 
other kings. 

By his army whose elephants, well trained and of moistened temples, 
darkened the horizon, as they rushed to the battle-field miry with the 
blood, marrow and serum of mangled limbs, — whence the sparks of the 
concussing battle-axes (peti) flashed like lightning on all sides — by 
this army has he brought back the royal Lakshmi with the respect due 
to the wives of his enemies !" 

(The rest mutilated and unintelligible). 

VL — Additions to Bactrian Numismatics, and discovery of the Bac- 
trian Alphabet. By James Pbinsep, Sec. As. Soc fyc. 

It is not an easy matter to gratify my numismatological readers with a 
plate of entirely new Bactrian coins so frequently as they would wish ; 
for, independently of the time and labour requisite for engraving them, 
the subject, as to new names at least, maybe looked upon now as near- 
ly exhausted. Opportunities however still occur of verifying doubtful 
readings, of supplying names where they were erased or wanting in 
former specimens, and of presenting slight varieties in costume, atti- 
tude, and other particulars, which tend to complete the pictorial history 
of the Bactrian coinage. 

For these several objects I enjoyed a most favorable opportunity 
during the visit of General Ventura to Calcutta last winter; his second 

1838.] and correction ofBactrian Alphabet. 637 

collection, though possessing few types or names absolutely new, boast- 
ed of many very well preserved specimens of the small silver coinage 
of Menander, Apollodotus, Lysias, Antimachus, Philoxbnes, 
&c. The General most liberally conceded to me, from his abundant 
store, several that were wanting to my own cabinet both of silver and 
copper, and he placed the rest also at my disposal, to draw, examine and 
describe as 1 might feel inclined- Unfortunately I refused to take 
charge of the Indo-Scytliic gold series for examination, finding nothing 
particularly new among them, the consequence of which was that the 
whole were stolen by some sharper at the hotel where the General was 
residing, and none have been since recovered ! I am now speaking of 
last January ! — Since then I have received a coin and drawings of seve- 
ral others from Genl. Court ; — also two or three fromGenl. Allard; 
and latterly the whole produce of Capt. Burnes' search in the neigh- 
bourhood of Cabul has been entrusted to my care. It is the very latest 
arrival from him, (or rather from a valuable member of his expedition, 
Dr. Lord,) consisting of two beautiful coins of Eucratides, that 
stimulates me at once to give forth all that have accumulated in my 
Bactrian drawer since I last wrote on the subject. I must give Dr. 
Lord's coins the first place because one of them is perhaps the most 
curious and important that has yet fallen into our hands. 

Plate XXClI. contains etchings of both of these coins to which I 
would thus draw prominent attention : — they are copied from sketches 
faithfully executed by M. Masson, aided by sealing-wax impressions 
enclosed in Capt. Burnes' letter to me, which were however partially 
injured by their long journey. Dr. Lord thus describes the place and 
circumstances of their discovery. 

" I do myself the pleasure to forward drawings, of two coins which 
(with many others of less value) I have been so fortunate as to find 
during my late visit to Turkistan. The drawings have been made by 
Mr. Masson but should they not prove sufficient I shall be happy to 
forward you not only these but all my stock for examination. The 
double-headed coin I found at Task Korghdn, the other at Kunduz" 

Having been kindly promised a sight of the coins themselves, I have 
purposely reserved space in the plate for the insertion of facsimiles to 
be hereafter executed by my medal-ruling machine. 

Figure m 2. I need not particularly describe as, though new to us, it 
has been published from other specimens in France, The reverse has 
a naked figure of Apollo in lieu of the Dioscuri. 

Fig. 1. Is an unique medallion (that is, a tetradrachma) of Eucra- 

638 Aidi$k>**to fiftctfo*) Numiimmtict [July, 

Obverse. A fine youthful head and bust of the king wearing a plain 
steel helmet, with the bands of the diadem protruding behind. On the 
area above and below— ba^iaet* MErA* etKPAtiahs in the nomina- 
tive case. " 

Reverse. Busts of a matf and a woman looking to the right : hair aim* 
pie and without diadem ; legend above HAloKAfior*, below KANAOaIKh*. 

Supplying the word u*s, we have here the parentage of Eucratides 
developed in a most unexpected way : * The great king Eucratides, son 
of Heliocles and Kanlodice.' The former is a well known Greek 
name, but it is evident from the absence of title and diadem that he was 
a private person, and yet that his son having found his own way to the 
throne, was not ashamed of his unregal origin. The name of his mother, 
Kanlodike however, is unknown and is decidedly not Greek. From the 
sound I have little hesitation in hazarding that it is the Sanskrit name 
nririrTfqarr Kamalddhikd, — meaning * superior to Kamald, or Vends, 
(alias ( fairer than the lily.') This name in the vernacular of the present 
day would be pronounced exactly as the Greek legend has it, kaunla 
a lily, kaunlddhikt, and I think, bearing in mind our other evidence of 
the state of the vernacular dialects in the date of Asoka, there can 
be little doubt of such being the correct derivation of the anomalous 
name thus adopted into the Greek. 

Eucratides then was the son of a Greek officer manned to a lady 
of the country, whom we may set down as of Hindu parentage and 
language; and we may thence argue that a dialect mainly derived 
from the Sanskrit was then used in Bactria, or at least in the Panjtb, 
as in the present day, though now diluted to a large extent with Persian 
and Arabic introduced along with the Muhammadan religion. 

In further proof of this position, we can now also adduce a PdU in- 
scription in the old character procured by Captain Burnes from the 
northern side of the great chain of mountains, near Badakshdn ; (which 
will be published in Plate XXXV. of the next number,) to say nothing 
of the Pali reverses of the Agathocles and Pantaleon coins from the 
same region. 

The natural inference is that we should seek the explanation of the 
legends on the reverses of the Bactrian coins rather through the medi- 
um oiPdli or Zend, as I attempted in 1835,. than as has been preferred 
by M. Jacquet of Paris, through the medium of Syriac and Chaldaic, 
with what success 1 have not the means of judging*. 

• It will be proper here to notice that in 1835, M. Jacqobt, obligingly for- 
warded to me a lithographed page of his readings of the fiactriaa alphabet and 

jtA. •Toe 


Note. — Since the accompanying page wu printed off, I have 
received a letter from Captain Cunningham who, having Dr. Lord's 
con under his eye, is convinced that the reading Kanlodice is erroneous. 
He was first struck with the slanting stroke of the letter n being 
placed in a wrong direction. (N. B. This is not the case in Mr. 
Masson's drawing of the coin, whence the engraving was exactly 
copied. There was nothing therefore to raise suspicion of its correct* 
ness in my mind, as the sealing-wax impression had been flattened by 
the journey, over half of this very name.) On minuter examination the 
first stroke of the supposed n appeared to Captain Cunningham to be 
detached from the rest. He therefore read it as the i of kai and the 
remainder then became very clearly aAoaIKhx the genitive of a genuine 
Greek female name. 

I have not the smallest doubt that Captain Cunningham is right, 
although in the sealing-wax impression before me, the IA are actually 
joined below, and there is no cross stroke to the A of aAOaIKHi, 

My speculations therefore of the Indian origin of Eucratides' 
mother fall to the ground ; and the reader is requested to pass over 
tlwm. The unregal station of his parents still remains a matter of 
probability, on the grounds urged in the text. 

18880 Revision of the Bacfrian Alphabet. 639 

I have long been pledged to my readers (and to the critics of the 
Meerut magazine in particular) to give them a new alphabet for these 
Bait"*" legends, and J think the time has now arrived when I may 
venture to do so ; or at least to make known the modifications which 
have been elicited by the abundance of fresh names and finely preserved 
specimens which have passed under my eye since that epoch. It must 
be remembered that the only incontestable authority for the determina- 
tion of a Towel or consonant is, its constant employment as the equiva- 
lent of the same Greek letter in the proper names of the Bactrian kings. 
Beyond this we have only analogies and resemblances to other al- 
phabets to help us, and the conjectural assumption of such values for 
the letters that occur in the titles and epithets of royalty as may furnish 
an admissible translate of the Greek in each and every case. 

It will be my object presently to shew that this can be done, as far as 
the coins are concerned, by means of the Sanskrit or rather the Pdli 
language ; but in the first place it will be more convenient to bring 
forward my revised scheme of the alphabet as far as it is yet matured. 
Unfortunately the exceeding looseness of orthography and kalligra- 
phy which could net but prevail when one foreign language, (for such 
it was to the Greek die-cutters), was attempted to be rendered by the 
ear in another character, equally foreign to the language and to the 
scribes, that with abundance of examples before me it is impossible to 
select the true model of some letters for the type-founder I 
I begin with the initial vowels : 

9, a. This symbol continues to occupy the place of the vowel a in 
all the new names, lately added to our list, beginning with the Greek 
a, of which we have now no less than seven examples. The other 
short initials appear to be formed by modifications of the alif as in the 
Arabic : thus. 

tf, 1 e 9 is constantly employed for the e of Greek names. 
3 «, is found following it in the word Eucratides, as though put for 
the Greek ?, but other evidence is wanting. 

% i f though seldom met with on the coins is common in the in- 
scriptions, and by analogy may be set down as «. 

.9 and 7, d f an, is employed in words beginning with an. 

The medials seem to be formed in all cases by a peculiar system of 

names, la the modifications I now propose, however, I do not borrow one letter 
from his list, because jn fact he hat followed quite another track. His reading of 
T^TlU it, mjmri, a Syriao word I believe for prince or noble. It was this, 
which led to the expression of doubt of my own former alphabet, and to the just 
satire thereon in the Meerut Magazine. 
4 L 

640 Revision of the Bactrian Alphabet. [July, 

diacritical marks ; of these the t is. the best determined, being found 
applied to almost all the consonants in the form of a small stroke cross- 
ing the letter. The & is uncertain ; it may be -a prolongation below in 
the r, — a foot stroke or tn&tra. The e, I judge from the Manikyala 
inscription, to be a detached stroke behind and above ; in a few cases 
only joined. The u may be the loop so often seen at the foot of the 
written letters. Thus we have *"h ka 9 ^h k6 9 \ hi, "K &#, "fi ho f Ji ku> 
&c. I feel it to be a little premature thus to assign sounds without any 
positive authority : but it was from a similar assumption of the value of 
its vowel marks, that I was led to the discovery of the Indian pillar 

'With regard to the consonants, I ought perhaps to follow the order 
of the Hebrew alphabet, but as the language to be expressed is allied 
to the Sanskrit, it may be more convenient to analyse them in the order 
of the latter. 

*"h, ha. This letter on further scrutiny I find invariably to represent 
k ; and its place is never taken on the coins by *1 as I formerly sup* 
posed. It occurs also with the vowel affix t as \ ki ; also, but seldom, 
with the «, as J* km ? and with the subjoined ris 1 hra. In the 
compounds, hla, kli> a form is adopted more like the Hebrew q p, 
(quere •») T?, X : there are two or three 'examples in support of it. 

5, hh 9 is limited as such to the name of Antimachou — but I find it 
also representing the g in Abugcuou. In the written tablets we have ? 
and 9 and P seemingly identical with it, yet the latter with the vowel t, f , 
is used in some places for dhi (intended for the inflected *. ?) — There 
is no small affinity between P, 3, and *] > (^> the kh of the old Sanskrit 
written invertedly. 

T> ~b, "J{ , g or gh ?— -\ place these forms here because they occur se- 
veral times in the tablets and they bear some resemblance to the g of 
the Pehlevi. 

Of the Sanskrit palatials neither the Greek nor the Chaldaic alphabets 
contain any proper examples — the ch and j are modified to z and **— 
which letters we must expect to find substituted for the Sanskrit class 

r, f , cha ; h, chha. The first of these forms is found at the close 
of a series of words terminating each in the same vowel inflection, ', * ; 
which makes me suppose it to be the Sanskrit conjunction cha 9 uniting a 
string of epithets in the locative case. As yet I have no stronger argu- 
ment for its adoption. 

H, orM,/a (tea?)* The form of the Chaldaic ts *, agrees well with 
the first ; indeed in many coins of Azes the Bactrian form is identical with 

1838.] Revision of the Bactrim Alphabet. 641 

the Chaldaic ; I find that in every case this letter may be best represented 
by the Sanskrit m j, and indeed in the early coins of Apollodotds, 
&cits form 21 seems to be copied from the ancient Sanskrit P, reversed 
in conformity with the direction of the writing. The only inflection I 
have met with of this letter is yju. 

I can make no discrimination between cerebrals and dentals ; because 
the Greek names translated have of course no such distinctions, but 
from the variety of symbols to which the force of d and t must be 
ascribed, I incline to think the alphabet is provided with a full comple- 
ment, though it is in the first place indeed almost a matter of option 
which letter to call a\ & r, or n, they are all so much alike — thus for 
t we have ~1, % % and 1, and with the vowel t, \ % f. 

As the equivalent of d again we have the same *1, *i, % and also 
i, £, P : and for dhi \, and £, the former evidently *l with 1 subjoined ; 
the latter quasi tti or ddi «* sometimes it is nearer "K ri. 

I do not attribute this ambiguity to the letters themselves so much as 
to the carelessness and ignorance of the writers, who might pronounce 
the foreign name Apollodotus, indifferently Apaldtada, Apaladato, 
and even Apalanata. Being obliged to make a choice, I assume as in 
my former paper ; — 

"1, *l, for ta, whence *1 td 9 *\ ti, ^ or T te, and 7 tra 9 

J, go, tha, J thi, J, or "£, the, but in fact these forms are as com- 
monly used for dh y and its inflections. 

S> % i, for da y nda: \ % di; *r de, 3 du ; ^, dh 9 \ dhi. 

*l* €, na. I do not perceive any indications of the other nasals, and 
indeed they seem to be omitted when joined to another consonant : but 
I find some thing corresponding to the anuswara attached below the 
vowel a, and before consonanta it seems represented by m, as t mcha f 
*4 mW, X mba ? 

P pa* The first of the labials is one of the best established letters. It 
has been discovered also inflected as h pi, h pe g $ pu ; and united 
with either h or s in Oi pha or spa : also with li in *b,pli> and in other 
combinations which wiil be noticed as they are brought forward. I 
suspect further that in Ji, -I 1 , we have pd\ and in fcj, pra : but the data 
are uncertain. 

% Ip, pha or/a f I have no stronger reasons than before for continuing 
this value to ip : — it seems in some few cases to usurp the place of vg 
it is inflected also, as *>, i fu, t/ra. 

3l or a, ha f is still undetermined; in the doubtful name above 
quoted abatA20T» it seems to be replaced by 1 or <H-~-the aspirate is 
also unknown. 
4l 2 

642 Revision of the Bactrian Alphabet* f July, 

V ma ¥. This letter admits of no doubt whatever ; but in the Menander 
form, u/, I now recognise the inflection me, corresponding with the Greek 
name more closely. — Mi is written Y ; md, V or V ; and V may be mil. 
The second or what may be called the printed form of ro has a consi- 
derable affinity in form with the old Sanskrit y or tf , whence it may be 
almost as readily derived as the Burmese form of Pill, q» 

A ya. This letter is unchanged : it invariably replaces z, and jr, and 
sometimes / where the latter would be expressed by the Sanskrit w, or 
J,. It may perchance have been modified from the letter, for in some 
examples it is turned up on the sides thus, u>; the inflected form A yi 
is of common occurrence : ^ yu, less common. 

ft, \ $, ra. It is necessary to preserve these three representatives of r ; 
I incline to think that the prolongation below may be the mdtra or 
the long d inflection, rd; for the first form is used in Ermaiou where 
there is no intervening vowel. It is only distinguishable from cfby 
the foot-mark of the latter, which seems to be often omitted notwith- 
standing: its inflections are % i, S, ri, re, ru. 

•i, la. Further acquaintance has taught me that this is the only 
representative of a in Greek names : the instances wherein the I before 
appeared to be replaced by 1 have been disproved by duplicate coins* 
The inflected form <H, li, has numerous examples among our new ac- 
quisitions. H le f also occurs in inscriptions. 

1 va, and **\ vi, rest on strong but not undisputable authority, as will 
be seen below. 

ru, 1, ha, has been removed from its former position as / on ample 
grounds ; and the value now assigned has I think equally strong support 
—though as far as Greek names are concerned it rests solely on the 
initial syllable of HeUoeles, X, he* There is, again a similarity worthy 
of remark between ru inverted, and the old Sanskrit ha, \j-, (5>. 

*P, «a. To this letter I gave the sound of o on the former occasion 
because I found it the general termination of nominatives masculine 
in Zend and P£li — replacing the Sanskrit viearga, ah or a*. Since 
then I have found the same letter (affected with the vowel t) in two 
Greek names as the equivalent of si, p, and I am too happy on other 
considerations to adopt this as its constant value ; whether the dental e 
of the Sanskrit will best represent it remains to be seen, but the nearest 
approximation in form occurs in the Hebrew o s: there are certainly 
two other characters, *T, or T, and 71, having the force of e or eh. The 
former I should presume to be the Sanskrit sha * from its likeness 
to the old form ft. The latter, T1,may be a variation of A for which it is 
sometimes used, but rather by change of the Greek z to 2, than as 
being the same letter, for elsewhere it takes the place of the Greek * 

1838.] Titles on the Bactrian Coins, 648 

as in AZIAI20T, while A occurs for Z in the same word* In form h 
seems to be the Chaldaic n> or th soft. The inflections of these letters 
yet observed are, p si f *P se', P su ; ft shi, Q shu ; and their combinations 
with consonants are numerous, — "^ sta, 1} std ; ^ sma f ; 1} #to, $ tint J 
It will be naturally expected that the alterations I have been compelled 
to adopt in the value of many of the above letters must produce consi* 
derable modifications in my former interpretation of the Bactrian legends. 
Indeed when I look back at my attempt of 1835, 1 must confess that 
it was very unsatisfactory even to myself. I was misled by the Nak* 
shirrustam trilingual inscription, wherein the title of king of kings has 
been uniformly read as malakdn malakd, though 1 balanced between 
this and the term mahardo, having found pao on the Indo-Scythic 
series. But, once perceiving that the final letter might be rendered as 
so, which is the regular Pali termination of the genitive case, I threw 
off the fetters of an interpretation through the Semitic languages, and 
at once found an easy solution of all the names and the epithets through 
the pliant, the wonder-working Pdli, which seems really to have held an 
universal sway during the prevalence of the Buddhist faith in India* 

The best test of the superiority of a Pdli interpretation will be found in 
its application to the several royal titles of the Greek kings, which were 
previously quite unintelligible. The first of these is simply ba*iaeq* 
which is constantly rendered by TiTllu mahardjasa, the P£li form 
of *j*,Kl«JMj|. It is true that there is some doubt whether the long 
vowel d, is here applied to the h and r ; but we have long since been 
accustomed to the omission of this and even other vowels in the Satrap 
coins of Swdshtra. The word is often written *PiVlu, whence I 
have supposed the dot or dash below to stand for d. 

The next title is BAXIAEn* Bastaeon, which we find replaced by 
TH'IS.'I ?^1u mah&rdjasa rdjar&jasa, a perfectly sound and pro* 
per expression according to the idiom of the Sanskrit. But in one class 
of coins, that of Azbs, there are some very well preserved specimens 
in which the second part of the title is *P^1'*1^ which is evidently 
rdjdtirdjasa (or adhi for the letter has a turn at foot and may be meant 
for 2£ dhij, the regular ^l9rrf*rcraTO of the paramount sovereigns of 
India* The syllable dhi is often written **1 ti, Ms ri or even f ti or gi (?) 
but the vowel i shews what is meant. 

To the title of king of kings is generally added on the Greek side 
the epithet MErAAOr, for which we have an addition in Bactrian of the 
word *P*l1u mahata*a 9 one of the forms of the Pali genitive of mahdn 
(or mahatj great, which makes only mahatah sror : in Sanskrit The 
full title then is thus found to be mahdrdjasa rdjadhirdjasa mahatasa, 

.644 Regal titles on the Bactrian Coin*. £ July, 

which is far preferable to the clumsy and unsatisfactory malakao kak- 
Icao malakooi my former paper, now rectified by the rejection of 1 as ka. 

The next title in the list is snTHPOS, for which we have rather a dubious 
word of four letters either "PIP? dadatasa, or *V1t>.t nandatasa, the for* 
mer equivalent to X^*P- the bestower of dana> a word comprehending 
protection as well as charity ; — the latter to W*W *• * of the giver of 

The epithet of next frequency is aniKhtOt the unconquered, which 
is translated by TTWM apavihatasa (Sans. ^IMftVfiqi) the unbeaten, 
or invincible. It is this word principally which leads me to make r* <h, 
and to distinguish it from *l ti and <H /i, with the latter of which I 
before confounded it 

Next in order comes the somewhat similar expression N2KH*OPOT ; 
but the correct definition of this epithet is preserved in *P^a3L jo* 
yadharasa, the bearer of victory. In one instance the dh is written 
separately *P^J>lAN; in others (like the dh of adhi) it is T >v T3A^,/aya- 
darasay but there can be little doubt of the sense ; and this word is a 
strong confirmation of the value of the letter M, or Hja. 

There is a second epithet of nearly the same signification which is 
common enough on the Seleucidan coins, but comparatively rare in 
those of Bactria, NIKATOPOJ. This epithet was found on the unique 
coin of Amyntas of which Col. Stacy was unfortunately robbed, and 
on one or two others. In the Bactrian translation the same word is used 
in every case as for NlKH*OPOr> namely, VltAHjayedharasa, the pos- 
sessor of victory, or the victorious. 

There remains but one epithet to be accounted for (for *iaOiiatOP02 
of the Apollodotus unique coin does not seem to be translated) : — it 
occurs on the coins of Hblioclbs, Spalurmes, and Archelies; I mean 
AlKAlOr * the just' — a rare epithet in any but the Arsacidan line 
of kings. — This is everywhere rendered by 'PVf^ dhamikasa (Sans. 
Hf&HTO) the exact expression required, and one constantly applied to 
Indian kings. 

I am wrong in saying that the epithets are here exhausted, for on the 
unique coin of Agathodeia in Dr. Swiney's possession, there is a singular 
epithet eEOTPOnOY ' heavenly disposi turned,' yet unaccounted for : of 
this the two or three first letters are lost, and the last two *P1 tasa may 
terminate devamatasa or some such simple translation. It is a curious 
fact that the name of the queen does not appear to be feminine in the 
Bactrian legend ; and the title mahdreyasa is also in' the masculine* 

There is another expression on a coin of Spalurmes, vie. " king's 
brother," 3IIAATM03 aikaiot aaea*Ot toy BAiiAEna, the 


Bactrian transcript of Greek names. 


translation of which at first seemed inexplicable, but by means of another 
coin I think I have solved the enigma, as will be presently explained. 

Another expression for the ' great king of kings* is met with in one 
example only, as far as my information goes ; namely, in the rude square 
coin of Spalirises, of which four specimens have passed through my 
hands : — here the expression runs % P*h*llu % PST'>lu maharajasa mahata- 
kasa (quasi UllflHW) • hut no great stress can be laid on such rude 

Having thus satisfactorily disposed of the regal titles, we may place 
once more under review the whole of the Greek names with their Bac- 
trian transcripts collated from a multitude of specimens. 

Bactrian. Bactrian in Roman character. 

*PA9 Ayasa, (pronounced Ajasa.J 
TTliHA9 Ayilishasa. 
■pTMM Apaladatasa. 
(found only in the old Sanskrit) H A "foC 8 
y^lt WP Fakasaqlitasa, (or yasa.) 

*P5o^l Anti-makhasa. 
Wh^WM Anti-alikidasa. 
*1Y9 Amitaea. 
(unique, Bactrian name erased) 

TTlsa? Abakhashata. 
Lisiasa, or Lisihasa. 
Ma-asa. (or *P^ V mayusaj 
Medanasa or Menanasa. 
Pilasinasa or Plijasinasa. 

Greek name. 




















T>91M or 1>^r^ 

T>£iui or Tttuj 

Then follow a class of coins in which the names are either quite dif- 
ferent on either side, or the Greek is intended for a transcript or trans- 
lation of the native appellation. 

ONXJNOT (of Vonones) •ph-ld'h Spaluhdrasa (or Balah&asa ?) 

snAATPIOT (or MAATM02) 'puf^'K Spahfarmasa . 
SIUAIP120T ^TV+liHOi Spalirishasa. 

Then the group of the Ferres, or Pkraates dynasty, if we may so 
call it, of which some new specimens jwill be introduced presently 
TNAO*EPPOT V^lIC T'ltJ* Farahetasa nundatasa. 

rONAO*APOT T^IT V*\XSV Farahetasa gandadharasa. 

HPONA2«PPOt y^i Wff-ft FharateMisanadharasa ? 

646 Legends on Bactrian Coins. £ Jul?, 

but it may be doubted whether all these are not in reality the same 
name 1 P , 1T^ V P Farahetasa coupled with the title corresponding to 
sothPOS written in a loose manner. 

On the reverse of the coins of the second Hbrmaus (or perhaps the 
third) having a Hercules for reverse, commences another series of native 
names,forming what we have designated theKadphises or Kadaphe* group. 
After the change fromEPMAlOr on the obverse, to kaa+izot, we have 
still precisely the same reverse as before, and it is preserved through a 
numerous series ; — the title of mabirajais not to be found, nor is it easy 
to see where to commence either the Greek reading KQSaVAO Kaa*i- 
zav xaParowor the Bactrian WThTWP >V0| >1J •H'u* which 
may be transcribed dhama *tt* rata Kujulakasa sabashakka (?) Kada- 
pkasa : — in this reading if we can make out nothing else there are at 
least the two names Kosoula (also written Kozulo and Rozola) and 
Kadphizes (also written Kadaphse and KadpkUesJ accounted for. The 
distinctions on the small coin of KOPANOT ZAeor KAA+EC I *m una- 
ble as yet to make out for want of further samples. 

Connected with the same family we then come to the long inscription 
on the Mokadphise* coins which may be read by comparison of a great 
many examples : — 

Mahdrajasa rajadhirajasa eabatracha ihacha mahiharaea dhi ma* 
hadphifasa nandata. 

1 Of the great sovereign, the king of kings both here and every 
where seizing the earth, &c. Mokadphises, the saviour ?' 

I do not insist upon any of these epithets sabatra mahidharase, for 
in fact they vary in every specimen. The dhi also looks in many coins 
more like dha, quasi dhama Kadphisasa. On some the reading is ra- 
ther sabaUua saviratasa mahichhitasa (ifftftpr: sovereign ?) On some 
gold coins again the name more resembles , prijl v hutrr vavahima Kad- 
phisasa, agreeing with the Greek OOHMO KAA+iCHC. 

It remains only to apply my theory of the Bactrian alphabet to the 
inscriptions on the cylinders and stone slabs extracted from the topes at 
Maniky&la, &c. but this is a task of much more serious difficulty and 
one not to be done off hand as all the rest has been ! — I must therefore 
postpone the attempt until I am better prepared with my lesson ; and 
meantime I will proceed to describe briefly the contents of 

Plate XXVIII. 

Fig. 1. is a small silver Euthydemus in Captain Burnbs' collec- 
tion : it resembles exactly the medallions already published of the same 
prince. Weight, 62 grs. See PI. XXV. Vol. IV. fig. 1. 

1888 ] New Bactrian Coin*, Plats XX VII L 647 

Fig. 2/ is a heraidrachma of Demetrius also belonging to Captain 
Bcawes. See one figured from General Vkntora's collection, Vol. 
IV. PL XXV. fig. 2. 

Fig. 8. a silver com of Antialcidas, presented to me by General 
Ventura. Execution very good. Weight 10£ grains. 

Obverss. baxiaB£2 NIKHMPOT antiaakiaOt. Head of the king 
with a fiat helmet shaped like a cocked hat : — chlamys on the shoul- 
ders, and diadem seen under the hat. 

Reverse. Bactrian legend VX l Ji49 , *l9 T>^u,a 1>ahAu mahd- 
rajaeajayadharasa Antialikidasa. Jupiter seated holding a small figure 
of victory: — at his feet to the right, the forepart of a small elephant 
with trunk elevated. Monogram on the left composed of P and <J *. 

Fig. 4. a similar drachma of Lysias, belonging to General Ven- 
toba : unique. 

Obverse. BA2IAEX12 ANIKHTOt AYSiOr. Head of the king, with 
the Demetrius helmet, shaped like an elephant's head. 

Reverse, Bactrian legend, *P9f>«H Tm^9 T>^lu mahdrajasa 
apamhatasa Lisiasa. (The copper square pieces have Lisikasa). 
Hkbcums naked standing, with club and lionskin, as on the coins of 


Figs. 5, 6. Two varieties of Mxnandsr, not yet depicted in the 

journal, given to me by General Ventura, who has many of a similar 

nature. In one the prince wears a handsome helmet, in the other he 

has the simple diadem. The reverse of both agrees with the one 

engraved im. PI. XXVI. Vol. IV. except that Minerva looks in the 

contrary direction. 

Helioclbs, king of Bactria. 

Fig* 7. The firct coin of Heliocles which I have yet seen in India. 
It belongs to General Ventura : a square copper or bronze piece in 
excellent preservation. 

Obverse. BA21AEI12 AIKAIOT HAIOKAEOTX Diadem 'd head of the 
* just king, Heliocles,' somewhat similar in features to Eucratides. 

Reverse. Bactrian legend, 'PA^ArH'tf *PVP £ *Pil^lu mahdrajasa 
dheamkasa HsUyaklayasa\ : an elephant equipped with howdah and 
trappings walking to the right, monogram 2. 

Fig. 8. A less perfect coin of the same king presented by the Gene- 
ral to myself. 

* N. B. The etching of thii coin is a total failure : the plate was laid by for 
several months and the acid wonld then barely touch it. In retracing it the Dative 
engraver has quite wandered from my original, and I perceive it too late for 
alteration on more than half the edition of the plate. 

f The letter *£ might be better read Sra s J£ Sri : which would give a San- 
skrit version of the name, — h4ly<uriya$ya, ' having a sun-like prosperity.' 
4 M 

548 Additions to Bactrian [July, 

In lieu of the head of Heliocles, the obverse hears an elephant, 
naked, walking to the left, Greek legend aa above. The reverse if 
irrecoverably lost. 

It is perhaps unnecessary here to retract my former doubts of the 
existence of a Heliocles in the Bactrian dynasty, since they have 
long been removed by the account of silver medals in France. We 
have as yet seen none but these two copper specimens in India, but the 
probability is that both silver and copper might be found in Bactria 
proper, to the north of the Hindu Kush or Imam. 

An opinion has been started by Mionnet in opposition to many 
European numismatists that Heliocles was no other than Eucrati- 
dbs the second, the parricide. The surname of aIKAIOS so unsuitable 
to such a character he supposes given through fear or adulation ; which 
I agree with M. R. de Rochette in thinking too great an anomaly to 
be allowable : but without seeking to account for this staggering cir- 
cumstance, we can now help M. Mionnet to a very powerful argument 
in his favor from the unique coin of Dr. Lord described in a former 
part of this paper, which proves that Eucratidbs' father was a Helio- 
cles ; and we know that it was common to call an eldest son by his 
grandfather s name, as is indeed universally the custom to the present 
day both in eastern and western countries. 

Fig* 9. I have introduced this duplicate of the single mutilated 
coin depicted in fig. 8. PI. XXI. Vol. IV. among the then doubtful 
group, because General Ventura's present specimen exhibits the 
name in the Bactrian, *PA9, ayasa, and thus proves it to belong to 
the abundant series of AZES' coins. 

Fig. 10. is a square copper coin of Lysias kindly added to my cabi- 
net by General Ventura. 

It is in better preservation than any before published. 

Obverse, BA2IAEG3 anikhtot AT2IOT. Head of Lysias, with dia- 
dem. Mionnet says of a similar coin * represents en Hercule, la 
massue sur I'epaule gauche' — but I do not perceive these characteristicf 
very distinctly. 

Reverse. Bactrian legend T>VM "PIlHihO "Mlno maharajas* 
apavihatasa lisikasa, ' of the unconquered king Lisika.' 

I perceive that both Mionnet and M Raoul de Rochette give 
to Lysias the square coins of Spalyeies or Spalurmbs ; though there 
is no resemblance whatever between them. M. Raoul de Rochette 
writes in the Journal des Savants : Mars 1836, p.- 186 ; 

" Cette .autre medaille de Lysias differe sous tous les rapports de 
celles que nous possgdiona deja du mfeme prince : elle est restee incon* 

1888.] Numumatology, Plat* XXVIII. 649 

nne* a tons les savants et voyageurs Anglais qui, depttis plusieurs 
anuses se soot appliques avec un idle si louable a recueillir ces pre- 
deux monuments de la civilization Grecque enfouis dans le sol do 
1'Inde : et lexemplaire que nous devons d M. U general Allabd, et que 
je publie, est encore unique. La fabrique, qui ressemble a eelle de la 
meclaille du roi anonyme, que fai fait connattrtf, accuse sensible- 
ment une epoque de decadence, d accord avec la forme carree du c et 
de 1* Q qui commencent a parsitre sur la monnaie des Arsacides, a 
partir de Phraate III. a une Epoque qui doit s'eloigner bien peu de 1' age 
de notre Lysias. On pourrait voir un autre rapport entre cette monnaie 
Bactrienne et les medailles du meme prince Arsacide, dans le titre de 
juste, AlKAlor> qui se lit babitnellement sur les medailles de Phraate 

III mais ce qui constitue ici la particularity la plus remarquable 

et la plus neuve, c'est la qualification d* Adelpke> AaEA*OT, affectee par 
Lysias, &c." 

When the mistake of attributing this coin to the wrong person is 
corrected, it is curious how perfectly the observations of the learned 
antiquarian of Paris confirm the conjecture to which I have been led by 
the 'deciphering of the Bactrian legend :— the coin is that of the ' son of 
a king Spalahara or Balahara ;' in bearing the effigy of Hrrcules it 
agrees with the corrupted coins of Hermjeus II. and others of the 
Pherrea or Phrahetasa (Phraates?) type, which appear to belong to 
one family. M. R. de R. agrees with our discoverer Masson in locat- 
ing them in an Indo-Greek dynasty at Nysa, — or near JMldbdd, where 
their coins are found in the greatest abundance. 

I have purposely introduced an engraving of a very perfect speci- 
men of this coin given to me by Mr. Trevelyan who got it from 
Mohan Lal, as figure 3 of Plate XXVII. It it ruled by the medal- 
ruling machine and is of course perfectly accurate, though indistinct. 

It may be remembered that the name of Vononks is not found on the 
Bactrian side of his coins, but a totally different word, >TldOi Balaka- 
rasa as I read it, or perhaps Baldharasa (TOTCT31) the patron of 

* The drawing of the very coin described by M. R. di R. wu published by 
myself in Jane, 1835, but I did not deem the name legible, nor has it proved 
so at ParU f by their making Lysiou oat of Spalurmou. 1 stated my reason for 
not publishing earlier to be, that I might not forestal the As. Soc. of Parts in 
describing General Ventura's splendid collection. 

t It U not obvious in what this great resemblance consists ? — one coin is 
square, the other round :— one has a Greek legend only ; the other a bilingual 
one— the equestrian figure is the obverte in one, the reverse in the other. The 
anonymous coin was first published in the Asiatic Researches in 1831, and in 
the Journal for 1833 and 1834. 

650 Additions to Baetrian [July, 

champions, a. term nearly equivalent to ' Satrap/ Now oh all the eoins 
of Spalyhibs (or SpalurmesJ hitherto found, the initial letter kajs been 
unfortunately cut off; but the three next are VH ... fa&o'ra the same as 
above, wanting only the final genitive inflection : the next letters ifcay 
be read *P^f* putasa for XTFTO) * of the eon/ Putting the whole together; 
we have Tutyd^Vr^/P^VM f% Ba). Idharaputasa dhamikam; 
Buljfiiramaea € o£ Balafarama (either for Balaparama, or " * * 

whose strength is hia armour) the just, the son of B&L ah aha.' Theve* 
f6*e as he was brother of the cotemporary of VoNomre, * the theft 
king' must also have been a son of the same person : and we should 
expect to find another coin of a somewhat similar type struck by him* 
These conditions are satisfactorily combined in the rude square coin jrf , 
gpAURisas, depicted in Plate XXI. vol. IV. and PI. XXXV, of yoL V* » 
fig, 7. He has the same flowing mantle from the shoulders, the sceptre 3? 
of royalty, and his native name appears to be THMOi Baiiruhasa .* 
thus the father's native name is Balahdra ; the eldest son's Baiirie h e, 
and the second son's, Balavarma, and the copper money of the whole 
triad is- distinguished for its exceeding rudeness no less than its confoo 
inability of type ! The silver money of Spalurmes and Spalirisks lass 
not yet been found, or we might probably find that it maintained the 
name, of Von ones the Parthian king, or bis successor, on the obverse, &\ 

The style of those three- names commencing with Bala, — and the 
till*, in particular of the first, Balahdra,— call to mind the Balhdra 
dynasty of north-western- India, of which the epoch cannot be said to he 
yet well defined. One of the earliest foreign authorities the historian 
Masoudi, who wrote in 947 A. D. says : — " The dynasty of Pftoor 
who was overcome by Alexander (had) lasted 140 years : then came 
that of Dabschblim, which lasted 120 : that of Yalith war next ant 
lasted d0 years, some say 130. The next dynasty was that of Coubos* :-*£' 
it lasted 120 years. Then the Indians divided and formed several a' 
kingdoms; there was a king in the country of Sind; one at Ganou}\..: 
another in Cashmir ; and a fourth in the city of Mankir (Minna gara fy- ' 
called also the great Houza> and the prince who reigned there had the 
title qf Balhara*." 

120 + 80 -f 120 = 320 years estimated from Alexander's time. 
brings us to B. C. 8, or allowing a few more years to Poros say 10 or 
20 A. D. Now the reign of Vonones I. as king of Varthia is dated by 

• I * _ w 

Va ill a nt, from A. D. 6 to A. D. 20, so that the accordance of tone, 
is here perfect, and we need seek no other explanation of the paramount 
Persian sovereign's name and effigy on one side, while the other flfte* 
destly bore that of his tributary, because we have witnessed the sanity 
* Wilford'8 Essay, Asiatic Researches, IX. 181. ^&^ 





BactriaR (sins. 

183a] Numismatology, Plate XXVIII. 651 

in the Satrap coins of Surdshtra. The native kings were apparently 
allowed to have the copper coin to themselves. The religion here how- 
ever is polytheistic, the effigy that of Hercules or Baladeva. 

Without insisting upon their being the same person, I cannot help- 
mentioning that the name of Balarishi is found as one of four brothers 
by different mothers who cut a conspicuous figure in Indian fable* 
Belarishi, Vicramarka, BaU> and Bhartrihari ; the second of these is 
the celebrated Vicram&ditya> whose reign falls 56 years before Christ, 
and he was the son of one Gandha-rupa or, as the fable has it, of a 
gandharva in the mortal disguise of an ass : Wilford interprets the 
tale by making VicramddUya the son of Bah ram Gor of Persia by 
an Indian princess, and, to account for the anachronism of 400 years, 
is forced to imagine there were several kings of the same name,— • 
which would be likely enough if he admitted (as seems certain from 
our coins) that Vicramdditya is a mere title. We shall presently 
allude again to this circumstance. 

Fig. 11. From General Ventura's collection. A more perfect 
specimen of a hitherto illegible coin. It is now seen to belong to Mayes. 

Obverse. BA3IAEO* BAJIAEON MErAAOT matot. Front figure 
of the king seated on a chair or throne, a shawl (?) on his should- 
ers, and a club or knotted sceptre in his right hand like that given 
to Mokadphises. 

Reverse, Much worn and indistinct, a female holding some object 
like a scarf with both hands, and having a flowing robe behind, like that 
of the Vononbs group. Bactrian legend T9V ?*nu TA^ST) rdjadhi 
refaea mahatasa moato, and on the field U/1 used numerically (?). 

The discovery of this rare specimen, only the third known of the 
prince whose name it bears*, will be highly gratifying to the numisma- 
tists of Paris. It will in the first place remove the doubt entertained 
by M. Raoul De Rochette himself whether the un-Greek appellation 
Mayes might not be used for Mao, the moon, as a divinity and not 
as a king ; or whether united to the title basiaeti the compound 
may not be equivalent to the name of ApoUodotus ; " ce n'est la, du 
reste, qu'une conjecture que je soumets avec beaucoup de defiance auz 
hmrieres de nos philologues indianistes, desquels seuls il est permis d'es-* 
perer la solution de ce curieux probleme." 

The problem is now solved so far that we find him an earthly sove- 
reign with similar titles to those of Azss, — and that he is not Apollo- 
dot us ! The native name composed of three letters, I should have for- 

* I bare just received another Maya of different type from Capt. Burnks, too 
late for insertion here.— J. P. 

65S Additions to Bactrim [Juir, 

merly read mao, but on tbe new, and I think correct, system now 
adopted, it must be read Md-asa> or Mayuta t as near an approach to the 
Greek, or by the Greek to it, as the relative alphabets would allow. Of 
the name itself, I am inclined to identify it neither with Maia the mo- 
ther of Mercury (though the caduoeus favors this idea, and the Indian 
Mdyd is also the mother of Buddha) nor with Mao as lunus, — though 
Chandra is a common name enough ;— but rather with Mayu ( j t hkw ) 
the son of Kuvera, the god of riches, (whose name also is frequently 
adopted by princes*) and it may have been borne by a contemporary or 
successor of Apollodotus who swayed the sceptre but a short period in 
some part of the Panj&b, if it is necessary to suppose them of the same age. 


Fig. 12. A square copper coin in most respects agreeing with the 
former one, also of General Ventura's collection, but having apparently 
a difference in the orthography of the Bactrian name. On comparing 
the drawing of the silver Philoxenes in the Journal des Savans 
with the rapid sketch I had taken of the same coin while in Calcutta, 
I perceive that I read the name and title wrong ; which is my reason 
for inserting this better preserved coin : — the legend is clearly V££U*r» 
TTV+1P9 *P^lU maharajasa apavikatasa plifasinasa (or Phil&si- 
nasa). On the silver coin the epithet is apavihasasa (quasi ^Mpt^tJtJI^ 
— not to be laughed at ! but I think the * must be a blunder. 

M. Raoul de Rochbtte judges from the military aspect of 
Philoxenes that he was a satrap placed with a regal title on the north 
frontier of the Bactrian kingdom when threatened by the Scythians, 
but the circumstance of none of his coins having been found by Masson 
in the upper field, while several have come to light in the Panjdb, 
would tend to contradict this hypothesis, as much as the ' Ceres Carpo* 
phore, or Abundance personified, and humped bull of his copper coin. 
This learned critic does not allow that the brahmany bull has any 
reference to India, because it is seen on the Seleucidan coins ; but in 
the only specimen I have in my cabinet of a Seleucus with a bull 
reverse, the animal is altogether of the European breed. 

Coins of the Azes group* 

A great deal remains to be done ere we shall be able to clear the 
history of this numerous and interesting series of coins. Every day 
new types and varieties spring up, generally of tinned copper or bronze. 

* See notes on the Allahabdd inscription November 1837, page 972 — PaUk* 
Ugratena, devar&ihtraka Kuvera. As the Parthian kings were styled derajenita, 
this country of the devas may have been in the north, as was Indeed the fabulous 
country of Kuvaa* the god-king. 

1698.] Numismatology, Plate XXVIII. 653 

'ig. 13, is a specimen in good relief lately sent down to me by 
General Allard ; there was another in the collection sent home by 
General Court under care of M. Meifredy, of which I was favored 
with a sight of the drawing. On this the name on the Greek side was 
entire, and thence I am enabled to complete my description. 

Obverse. BACTAeuiC BAdA€bJN MerAAOV ynao*€PPOV, — raja in a 
brahmanical dress, upper part of the body naked— on the head a 
turban (?) with flowing fillets. The small figure of victory holding a 
chaplet over him forms the peculiarity of the device of which there are 
yet but three samples. The monogram which was before so unintelligible 
to us, I now recognise as a combination of two letters of the old Sanskrit 
alphabet y and J_ m and n*. 

Reverse. Whether the figure in a brahmanical costume holding a 
trident in the right hand and a palm branch in the left is Neptune, Siva, 
the river Indus, or the king, 1 am not sufficiently initiated in the art 
to determine. No two reverses seem to be exactly alike though formed 
of the same materials ; the legend on the present in Bactrian is 

MaKarajasa rajarafasa nandatasa jayadharasa (?) Farketasa. 

1 do not pretend to be satisfied with the last epithet, nor with the 
name, which however I collate with M. Court's. I have conceived it 
possible on a former occasion that it referred to Ph a a hates the 
predecessor of Vononbs, or another of the same name : but there are 
too many uncertain letters in it to build theories safely upon. At 
any rate the same name of five letters here seen below the figure of 
Siva, is found on all the rude coins ascribed formerly to Uhad (now 
corrected to) Undo-pherres, with exception of the penultimate letter 
Which is there always formed like mf. *Pf f ^% fara-etisa, (?) to 
which *P*ll£ nandatasa (soteros) is invariably added — on M. Court's 
coin this epithet may be preferably read >11u great ! 

On the area are two Bactrian letters 6 Y> which might be profanely 
taken for ' six shillings' by an uninitiated handler ! 

Fig. 14. A variety of the same group, in General Ventura's recent 
collection. In this the horseman looks in the opposite direction, and 
the beginning of the name tnaO*w>« U visible. The monogram is 
composed of y and J,, — y mya. 

On the reverse, a well clad female holding still the trident (though 
it looks more like the cross) walks to the left — a Greek and a Bac- 
trian monogram on either side, of complex form : legend as before, the 
name below, *P1irj v f. 

• I may here note that fig. 14, PI. XLVI. of vol. V. is also t ooin of "ftf W 
Fcrke&e, with the letters ^ mi central symbol. 

654 Additions to Baetriau [July, 

Fig. 15. Another novelty from General Ventura's store, of which 
a duplicate has been sent to France by M. Court* 

In all respects but the name the obverse corresponds with the fore- 
going. The name in the two coins yet brought to light of this species is 
quite distinctly ixnac+apct, which is either another member of the 
family or a corruption of the last. 

The erect front-faced figure on the reverse is dressed in the Hindu 
dhoti— and extends his hands over a new symbol of gridiron fashion- 
in his left hand is the trident. This figure has been conventionally styl- 
ed ' Siva when he appears with his bull on the Indo-Scythic coins. The 
native name is as before *P*\%S *P Farahetasa with the addition of ^^li' 
netadharasa * the bearer' of something not very intelligible unless we 
taake the first syllable AiJL ja$a, victory. 

Referring to the observations in a preceding page about the brothers 
of Vic rama ditta, I cannot forbear mentioning that in Gondophares 
we might almost recognize the father of Vikbamaditta himself ; for in 
the word Gondo-phares we have a signification not very remote from 
Gandha-rnpa ; +*p°* being pallium, vestis exterior, — the compound may 
mean ' having a cloak made of the skin of the gandha, gonda, gor> or 
wild ass/ Whence may have originated the fable of the Parthian king 
doomed to assume the guise of an ass during the day. 

These are speculations certainly much in the Wilford strain, but the 
curious coincidence in so many names is enough to lead even a matter 
of fact man aside from the justifiable deductions, of sober reason. 

Fig. 16, like the last adds a new name to the Bactrian list. The 
Coin, a thick copper piece in tolerable preservation was sent down to me 
by General AllarD a short time ago : it is as yet I believe unique. 

Obverse, (faurtXw fariKwv fuyaKov) ABArASO V — * of the great king 
of kings Abagases :' there may perhaps be another letter before the A. 
The king, known by the flowing fillets of his diadem, seems dressed in a 
petticoat, raja fashion — and he sits sideways on a richly caparisoned 
horse, looking to the right. Monogram y as before, but with the 
Bactrian letter 9 beneath it. "*" 

Reverse. The same royal personage (by the fillets) as if performing 
the functions of high priest. The dress is so precisely Indian that I 
feel disappointed in not finding a regular Sanskrit name below ; nor 
can I produce much of accordance between the Bactrian and Greek 
names— the letters are •piTfSTl or VrWSOiO abakhafoMo. On the 
field are various insulated alphabetic symbols,-— Bactrian and Greek, 
and under the latter, one which looks like a modern Nagari *h *f, but 
is more probably the Bactrian 3. 

1838.] Bates Medal-ruUng Machine. 655 

The last figure in the plate (from General Vintora's store) is a 
duplicate of the Azas coin published as fig. 22 of PI. XXIII. vol. IV. 
(1835). Between the two one important fact is established, namely 
that at this period of the Azas dynasty the use of the Greek was entirely 
lost, while the native character was written with greater correctness in 
the same or rather the inverse ratio. The Greek legend is a mere jumble 
of letters, but the Bactrian reads continuously 

*A9 'MLVkStt YMJ T>*nu T>SMu 

Maharaja* a mahattua dhamikasa rdjatirajasa Ayasa. 

' Of the great king, the mighty, the just, the king of kings, Azas. 9 

The figure of Abundance with her cornucopia has a compound symbol 
on the left which might be read Sri 9 her Indian name ; and on the 
right the two letters * S kha and dha, used numerically ? 

The perfect Greek medals of Bactria proper, however beautiful as 
works of art, ought not to turn away our attention from these corrupted 
and ' barbarous* specimens which mark the decadence of Greek dominion 
and Greek skill. These are the most precious to the student of Indian 
history: — through their native legend he may yet hope to throw light 
on the obscure age of Vikramaditta,— and the Scythian successors of 
the Greeks on the north of India. Hitherto these classes of rude 
coins, though very numerous, have been much disregarded, and on that 
account I now invite attention to them, and promise to return to the task 
myself when I have fresh materials collected and arranged ; my text 
being ' {hose coins on which the native and Greek legends differ, or 
record different names.' 

P. S. My readers will perceive that two coins in the foregoing 
plates are engraved with a ruling machine, and will judge therefrom 
that my long cherished expectation of having such an instrument from 
England has at length been realized. 

Such is indeed the case — the medal ruler promised by Bate and 
Co. to be even superior to their own is come after two years' delay :— 
but instead of being their patent instrument, warranted to correct a 1 ! 
distortion in the engraving of the object ruled, it is precisely the origi- 
nal defective instrument which has long been discarded as unfit for use. 

It is hardly possible to believe that a respectable optician so high in 
his profession as Mr. Bate would wish to impose on the credulity of 
an Indian customer, albeit we « Nabobs' are frequently looked upon as 
lair game for inferior articles and extravagant charges* : — yet there 

• Of this I have myself had several examples. Some Wollaston's Baro- 
metric Thermometers were sent oat by a first-rate house to a Civilian, war- 
4 N 

656 Bate's Medal-ruling Machine. |" JtJLT, 

are many strong points of internal evidence which would bear me out 
in asserting that the instrument now before me has been made a long 
time — has been patched up for experimental trials by its maker — has 
been thrown aside in favor of his new invention, and has been now 
been finally brushed up for exportation to India! 

After bringing so serious a charge forward, it becomes my duty to 
support it with proof: — and this I can do from Mr. Bate's own written 
instructions, which bid me " where the coin is in high relief, to lessen 
the angle of axis B. to diminish the effects of distortion" whereas in 
the following description of his patent, he prides himself on his son's 
having obviated all distortion*. He begins with a description of the 
original or American instrument illustrated by a diagram, which I have 

introduced as fig. 1 . into the accompanying Plate XXIX. 

" a, being the medal-, b, the copper plate covered with an etching-ground; 
c, the tracer; and d, the etching-point at right angles to it. 

41 The arm e d having a ruling motion horizontally across the surfaces of a and 
b, and likewise moving freely in the direction c d. Also vertical motion being 
given to a and horizontal to b by the same screw : a series of lines traced over 
the medal were described upon the plate in the following manner : so long ai 
the tracer moved over the plane surface or ground of the medal, the point d de- 
scribed equidistant straight lines upon the plate ; but so soon as the tracer 
touched a part of the raised surface or relief of the medal, it was raised above 
its plane a quantity equal .to the height of such relief, and the line described 
by the etching-point was no longer equidistant, but deviated an equal quantity 
upon the horizontal plate: in the succeeding line, the tracer being raised off 
still further by the increased height of the relief, the etching-point deviated still 
further from the former line described upon the plate: the continuation of this 
process produced a succession of deviating lines upon the plate, which openiog 
as the tracer rose above the plane of the medal, and closing again as it approach- 
ed that plane gave the effect of light and shade in the printed impression of the 
plate. But however pleasing the effect of these impressions, they were all 
distorted representations of the original, just so much as the lines producing the 
representation deviated from the straight line upon the medal— and I found that 
this distortion had suspended the use of the process which had been described 
14 years before in the Manuel de Tourneitr. The most valuable subjects, those 
having the highest relief, being most distorted.' 1 

Here let me pause — the defects above condemned, are possessed in 

the fullest degree by the ruler sent to me : — the tracer describes 

straight lines only across -the medal, while the diamond engraving point 

traces curves deviating in proportion to the relief of each part : — so 

that if the relief of the central point of the medal be one-tenth of an 

inch raised, and the angle of axis b be fixed at 45°f , the same point will be 

ranted not to break ! — the bulbs were so thick that when heated even to 300* 
Farh., there was no chance of the mercury making its appearance in the tube ! 
It was doubtless calculated by the makers that they would never even be tried, 
much less used I 

* See Philosophical Magazine 1833, vol. 2, page 288. 

t Without a drawing of the instrument it is almost impossible to explain 
what is meant by axis A and B. The first is the axis upon which the rod 
holding the tracing point turns in rising over the raised parts of the medal, ssd 


Ba/es MM- Rider 
Fig. I 


1838.3 Bates Medal-ruling Machine. 657 

misplaced one-tenth of an inch out of the centre of the picture. As an 
example I have engraved two ruled images of a medal of Homer, be- 
longing to Mr. La no, C. S. with the deviation or distortion thrown in 
opposite directions. Few will believe that they represent the same 
object I In running down the relief (as in the cavity of the ear, and 
the front qf the forehead,) it will be seen that the engraved lines return 
aod cover a part of the plate already engraved ! There is to be sure 
an attempt to diminish the fault by lessening the deviation of the en- 
graved lines : — thus, the one-tenth altitude may be made to give a devia- 
tion of only one-twentieth or one-thirtieth in the engraving (by lessening 
the angle of axis B — but the light and shade will be thus equally dimi- 
nished, and the whole effect destroyed. 

The mode in which Mr. Bate junior got rid of this difficulty in his 
patent instrument is then described — and it was its ingenuity which 
alone led me to send for one of the instruments to rule my Bactrian 
coins, rather than attempt to make one for myself, which I shall now 
be compelled to do. 

'* My son, observing, that the thing to be desired was, a means of bringing 
the tracer down upon the medal, a quantity equal to the deviation of the etching- 
point from the straight line upon the plate; observing also that the process he 
was employing, transferred vertical sections of the medal to the plate, — pro- 
posed talcing inclined sections of the medal. A little consideration determined 
the selection of 45°, as being equidistant from the vertical and horisontal posi- 
tions employed and this inclination completely fulfilled the purpotet required, 
removing the distortion altogether, and so far from impoverishing the effect of 
light and shade, improving that effect, inasmuch as without diminishing its 
quantity it threw the light upon the representation of the medal at an angle of 
4fto to its plane, instead of as before in the direction of the plane of the medal*. 
The arrangement finally adopted is represented in fig. 2. 

" The tracer c being now attached to the right-angled triangle efg and a 
friction roller substituted for it at A, the triangle (the motion of which was strictly 
confined to the plane of the diagonal e g,) moved d a quantity always equal to the 
distance of the tracer c from the perpendicular p, so that the etching-point 
described precisely the same line upon the plate b as the tracer described upon 
the surface of the medal a." 

Nothing could be more simple, efficient and correct than this im-- 
prerement, and though the merit of it has been contested by the French 
and by the Americans, I thought Mr. Bate justly entitled to his patent 
(of which by the way I have seen no specification yet in the Repertory) 
and willingly acceded to the terms he enjoined to my friends in Eng- 
land on consenting to make me one, — namely, that I should not make 

B is a second axis fixed on A at any convenient angle, carrying the arm which 
holds the diamond point or graver. 

• This is not so comprehensible— the effect of light and shade depends 
merely upon the amount and direction of the deviation : and the smaller the 
relief of a medal, the more horix on tally the light is required to fall on it in order 
to exhibit parallel effects to those of more angular light on a high relief. 

658 On traces of a fossil Giraffe [Jolt, 

use of it in England. It is so far fortunate that I am now dri?en to 
my own resources, and compelled to invent and to make an instru- 
ment which, though quite on a different plan from that depicted in 
Bate's diagram, will I hope produce the same correct effects, with the 
additional advantage of being adjustable as to angle of the guiding 
plane eg, so as to regulate the force of light and shade ad libitum; 
while I shall moreover be at liberty to use it wherever I please. 

I find that impressions in hard sealing wax answer perfectly fa- 
ruling, in cases where parties are afraid of trusting original gems 
or coins under the tracing point. But it should be remembered that 
the casts must be in relief like the coins, or their image will be revers- 
ed in the engraved representation. 

VII.— »Note on a fossil Ruminant genus, allied to Giraffidue in the Si- 

walik hills. By Captain P. T. Cautlet. 

When we look at the number of species of Proboscidan Pachyder- 
mata which swarmed in the primeval forests ; when we see that in the 
present day nature appears to have left but solitary species to attest the 
gigantic form of primitive existence, the imagination naturally places 
before our eyes forms of corresponding magnitude in other genera ; we 
picture to ourselves gigantic ruminants and gigantic carnivora only to 
be revealed by the remains which nature has placed in its own keeping 
to exhibit to inquiring man the wisdom of design and the systematic 
chain of organization established throughout the whole of the animal 

Amongst the Ruminants the discovery of the Sivatherium gigan- 
teum has most amply tended to prove the truth of this induction, exhi- 
biting a ruminating animal bearing the same proportion to the rest of 
its genua, as the Mastodon and Elephant do to that of the Pachydermata. 
Amongst the Carnivora we have the Ursus Sivalensis, an animal far ex- 
ceeding in dimensions its congener of the present period, or the Ursus 
Spelseus and bears of the German caves ; with a species of hyaena at 
least one-third larger than that now existing. The reptiles also have 
their gigantic representative in an entirely new genus of the tortoise, 
for which we propose the generic name of Megalochelys, from the 
enormous proportions of its remains as yet discovered, and the size of 
its femoral and humeral extremities equalling those of the largest 
rhinoceros. The question however does not appear to be whether 
the animals of former periods were larger than those now existing, but 

1838.] in the Siwalik hill*. 659 

whether the genera of larger animals were not more numerous ? We 
appear to be gradually losing all the larger forms of the creation. The 
Elephant and Giraffe of the present period will in all probability share 
the same fate as tbe Mastodon and Sivatherium of former eras, and be 
only recognised in the proofs exhibited by the researches of the geolo- 
gists. . 

Having discovered the type of a gigantic Ruminant amongst tke fos- 
sils of the Siwaliks in company with the remains of the larger Pachy- 
dermata, and having at the same time proved the existence of the 
Camel, with other numerous species of the Cervine and Caprine families 
of Ruminants, it was not by any means improbable that the present 
tribe of Giraffids should have its representative, so that the connection 
of the chain of existing and fossil ruminants might be still more per- 
fect. The discovery of the Sivatherium and Camel in conjunction led 
to the probability of the existence of the Giraffe, giving this genus the 
first position amongst the family of Cervid®. The fossil now to be 
described appears to throw some light on the subject, and should further 
research tend to corroborate the contents of this paper, it will be inter- 
esting to remark on the co-existence of. the Sivatherium, Camel and 
Giraffe, with Quadrumana, Anoplotheria, Mastodons, and reptiles so 
closely resembling those of the present rivers, that it is not possible to 
discover in their osteological pictures at least, any remarkable deviation 
from the type which has been left to us. 

The remain which I wish to describe is the third cervical vertebra : 
it was cleared out of a block of sandstone, and as is usual in similar 
cases, is very perfect in all its parts and proportions, and sufficiently 
armed with processes for the purpose of recognition and comparison. 
The dimensions are as follows. 

Length in the barrel, Inch. 7.8 

Breadth in centre ditto, 1.7 

Depth ditto ditto, 2.2 

There are marked differences between this fossil and the correspond- 
ing vertebra of the existing camel, and in comparing them together the 
following appear to be the most worthy of notice. 

In the fossil tKe oblique processes are much shorter, and stouter 
than those of the camel, with articulating surfaces at a greater angle : 
the barrel of the vertebra is much longer : the hollows or depressions 
which appear directly under the anterior oblique processes, and the 
ridges radiating from the extremity of the spinous process towards the 
expanded surface of the posterior oblique processes so well marked 
in the camel, are altogether wanting in the fossil : the upper surface 

660 Kittoes illustrations ofCuttack sculpture, [Jdly, 

with the exception of the spinous process being altogether flat and 

On the inferior or lower side of the vertebra, there is also a consi- 
derable difference, that of the camel being much curved and hollow, unin- 
terrupted by ridge excepting in the vicinity of the posterior extremity, 
where there is a knob or round process : in the fossiLthis knob is want- 
ing, but in its place there exists a well defined sharp ridge from one 
extremity to the other. The transverse processes of the fossil are im- 
perfect, but the form and angle of departure from the barrel of the 
vertebra differs from those of the camel. 

The foramina for the transmission of the vertebral artery are well 
defined in the fossil, the space between the entrance and exit occupy- 
ing the central third portion of the whole length ; a prominent well 
defined ridge runs obliquely across the plane of the side connecting 
the upper anterior oblique process, with the lower and posterior extre- 
mity of the transverse process, a very marked peculiarity, which with 
the position of the foramina, separates the fossil from the camel. 

It would be a great assistance to us were the Curator of the museum 
to draw up a monagraph on the Giraffe, including measurements in de- 
tail of the skeleton, a specimen of which exists in the room of the Asia* 
tic Society. The dimensions given in English and French measure 
would enable us, under the impossibility of obtaining the skeleton itself 
of forming accurate conclusions as to the existence or not in the fossil 
state of the true Giraffe*. 

Northern Doab> July 15M, 1838. 

VIII. — Sketch of the sculptured images, on the temple of Grdmeswara, 
near Rdtrapur : extracted from Lieut. Kittob's Journal. 

Thursday the 8th December we marched at \ past 4 a, m. and reach- 
ed our ground a little before eight o'clock, having travelled over 9 miles 
of road, though the actual distance from camp to camp at Rdtrapur 
must be but 6 miles ; the distance measured in tolerably direct lines (as 
in yesterday's march) was 8m. Of. 183y. The road winds a great deal, 
partly to avoid nullahs and uneven ground, and most of all, cultivated 
lands and villages ; we passed under mango topes for nearly the whole 
way, some entire plantations, others the remnants of what had formerly 
been such : most of them are choked with underwood and rank vegeta- 

* The Society's museum does not possets the skeleton of a Giraffe, or we should 
have readily complied with oar correspondent' i request. The remains of ths 
animal which died some years since at Calcutta came, we believe, into Dr. Pear- 
son's possession, but were not included among the collection presented to our 
museum by Haji Kxbbalai Muhammad. — £o. 

1638.] EUtoes illustrations o/Cuttack sculptor*. 601 

tion ; the " bent" or ratan plant is the most conspicuous ; the country in 
this respect resembles the terai of the Himalayas. It would appear from 
the numerous topes and mounds of earth strewed with pottery, hewn 
stones and bricks, which mounds rise above the surrounding low lands, 
that the country had been thickly inhabited in former years, as was 
likewise the terai in Upper India. When and why, all these valleys have 
been forsaken, is a matter which it would be difficult to attribute a cause 
to ; there are however less bricks and stones on the mounds or " Tan- 
ghees" (as they are here called) than on those of the Upper Provinces ; 
from this I should infer that the huts of former times were just the same 
as those now constructed ; namely, of a timber framework to support 
what is known in Europe by the name of " wattle and dab," which, from 
the swarms of white ants that (I may say) infest these regions, cannot 
be very durable : some however are more substantial, being built with 
mud and unhewn stones. 

But to return to our route : for near a mile at the commencement of 
the march, the road winds through the narrow lanes of the villages men- 
tioned yesterday, beyond the furthermost of which and on the banks of 
the river running 100 yards from the road, stand the ruins of a small 
and once highly elegant temple dedicated to Maha'deo by name Grdm- 
eswar ; it is of white sandstone of a very fine grain ; what remains of the 
sculpture is truly elegant, the figures and idols are very graceful ; they 
are in the style of the temple of Anrung Vdsudeba and others of the same 
era at the famous Bhuvaneswar*. It is said to have been built by raja 
Pabsutts-m Dbo who reigned from A. D. 1478 to 1503 A. D., and that 
it was destroyed by the apostate and spoiler, Kala Pahar, who invaded 
Orissa from Gaur in A. D. 1609. This person waged a war of de- 
struction against all the temples that came in his way; the natives believe 
him to have been a " rakshas" or demon, that he possessed a magic 
kettle drum at the sound of which the noses and arms of all the idols 
dropped off, as well as the tops of the temples ; it was in vain I attempt- 
ed to persuade the ignorant brahmans of the different temples I visited, 
that Kala Pahar was but a man like themselves. 

The superstition and timidity of the people of these provinces exceeds 
any thing I have ever witnessed in any part of our presidency from 
Ludiana downwards* 

A quarter of a mile above the villagef , is an island separated from the 
rocks on the main land by a broad and exceedingly deep channel of the 
river flowing between. On this island (which is well wooded) are the 
remains of a very ancient temple dedicated to Mahadbo by the name of 
" Pachameswar" also " Mdnji thdkur", or the Steersman Lord. 
The style of the temple is that of those in the Carnatic (if I mistake not), 
and like a few of the more ancient temples of Bhuvaneswar ; it has 
evidently never been completed, the stones are laid without mortar and 
are fixed with iron clamps, which have aided in no small degree to destroy 
the edifice. It is much to be regretted that the Indian architects of olden 

• Vide PI. XXXII. f The Village of Khandhurp&r. 

662 Kittoe$ illustrations of Cuttack sculpture. [Jolt, 

times bad recourse to such an indurable method of fastening their 
tonry, many of the most elegant buildings at Agra, DehU and elsewhere 
have been destroyed by this ill judged practice ; the iron after the lapse 
of a few years expands from corrosion and splits off large masses of the 

The Tdj has suffered greatly from this cause, which was discovered 
even before the work was half finished; copper and brass fastenings were 
then substituted, these have saved the dome from injury : brass clamps 
bare however been used in other public works of antiquity in India, for 
several have been found in the masonry of the fort of Outtack during its 
demolition for the use of the False Point lighthouse. 

It appears that it was formerly the practice to build the temples with 
the material rough wrought, and to sculpture them afterwards : this tem- 
ple is one of the many instances of such a custom. 

Towards the top of the conical tower are several words cut on the 
unfinished surfaces of two of the compartments ; the character is Guur 
Sanskrit : the letters are clearly cut, and very large*. 

The temple has evidently been consecrated in former years to 
DeVi' or Durga, Fig. 1, p. 2, xxxvii. There, is a legend connected with 
this curious place which was told me by the attendant priest or Sevaka. 

The story is as follows. Many years ago when the Hindu deities 
performed their miracles and deigned to appear unto a favored few, a 
rich merchant was coming from the western provinces in a large 
vessel (for in those days the Mahanadi flowed narrow and deep) laden 
with goods of great value. The vessel on approaching the rock was about 
to be dashed against it, but being drawn into a whirlpool was being 
equally threatened with destruction : the merchant who had an only 
offspring with him, invoked the goddess Devi^ that if she would save 
their lives and property he would offer up his child as a sacrifice to her 
bounty. The boat remained fixed and unhurt, when the merchant 
lamenting, fulfilled his vow by throwing the child into the river ; it sunk* 
but instantly Devi > in the form of a mermaid rose from the water with 
the child unhurt (standing on the palms of her hands) which she restored 
to its father, demanding as an acknowledgment that he should build and 
endow a temple to Siva and present it with a golden bell. This he ac- 
cordingly did ; however many years after a thief was tempted to swim 
to the sacred island and to steal the golden bell, which he was deprived 
of by the deity, who, as he was descending the rock, annihilated the 
sacrilegious mortal, and converted the bell into stone. I proceeded in a 
boat to see this spot where the credulous Ooriyas fancy they can dis- 
cern the bell and clapper ; it is a hollow place in the rock, just above the 
watermark of the dry season, with a nodule of quartz (of which there 
is a great quantity imbedded in the coarse sandstone) projecting down- 
wards from the upper surface of the cavity ; this they call the clapper ; 
the whole surface is besmeared with red lead and oil, and offerings are 
constantly made there, for which purpose it is necessary to go in a boat. 

• The reading in Nagree is thus, ^ fafa* ^TT^:, *l f*P*« ^fVf : vide 
Journal As. Soc. No. 60 of December 1826. "The divine Lord of beauteous 
variety." " The variegated ornament.'* 


1888.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 663 

IX. — Proceedings of the Asiatic Society* 

Wednesday Evening, the 1st August, 1838. 

The Honorable Sir Edward Ryan, President, in the chair. 

Mr. William Edwards, C. S. and Major William Grbgory, Bengal 
Army, proposed at the last meeting were elected members of the Society. 

Sir Grates Hauohton wrote to thank the Society for the Sanskrit 
works presented to him. 

" It was my good fortune, he writes, to be in London at the time the council ap- 
pealed to the home authorities against the sweeping and extraordinary decision of 
the Bengal Government regarding the publication of native works by the Committee 
of Education ; 1 made a point of collecting all the document* I could, and of laying 
them before our President. I hare reason to think that my efforts were of some use 
in preparing the way for the success of the deputation which afterwards waited on 
the President of the Board of Control." 

Bead the following report of the special Committee appointed for con- 
sidering the expediency of printing the Sarira Vidya. 

Report. * 

The Committee appointed in your letter of the 90th instant, beg leave to state 
that they have duly investigated the several questions you have proposed and that 
they consider, 

1st. That the translation of Hoopbr's Anatomist's Vade Mecum having been aU 
ready made and paid for, that work should be adopted as the basis of the proposed 
volume for the use of the native medical pandits of India. 

Sad. That several additions, alterations and explanations are indispensable to 
reader the volume accurate or instructive. 

3rd. That a few lithographic drawings on the scale of the wood cuts in Paxtom's 
work would materially add to the value of the publication. 

4th. The Committee have had the advantage of the advise and opinion of Dr. 
Goodktb on the subject, and Dr. Goodkvb has kindly offered to examine the cor. 
rections proposed by Modhusoddn Goopta and to give his general superintend- 
ence in the progress of the work. This liberal offer the committee consider should 
be at once thankfully accepted. 

For the labor of correction and supervision the Committee think Modhusodun 
Goopta should receive a moderate remuneration, the amount of which the Commit- 
tee scarcely think it their province to suggest. 

Medical College, Calcutta, 1 W. B. O'SHAUGHNESSY, 

31*/ July, 1838. J Secretary to Committee. 

The President thought that the report omitted to touch upon one point of con*i- 
derable importance, viz. the estimated expense of the publication. The Committee 
seemed to concur in recommending the Sarira Vidya, because the translation had been 
paid for, and because Mr. Muir's bonus of 1000 rupees would cover the printing : — 
but he perceived from the Secretary's notice at the last meeting, that 3000 rupees 
more might still be required to complete it, including the plates and additious it was 
proposed to supply. Under these circumstances the aspect of the question was ma- 
terially ehanged ; and he would put it to the meeting whether it would be justifiable 
for the Society to expend so much upon a Sanskrit translation which but a very 
limited class could reads* when the money might be so much better employed in im- 
parting; the same or other knowledge to the great body of the people in their own 
vernacular tongue. He therefore moved, seconded by Mr. Hark, 

That a fresh reference be made to the special Committee begging their 
opinion, whether it be expedient for the Society to expend any portion 
of its funds on publishing a Sanskrit translation of the Fade Mecum, rather 
than to devote the amount to the imparting of instruction to the mass of 
the people in the Hindustani language, even though in so doing it forfeit the 
advantage of Mr. Muir's bonus, and of the trnnslation already made. 

The Secretary explained that the Sarira Vidya had become the Society's pro- 
perty by transfer from the Committee, on condition of its being printed. He had 
merely reserved it until the more important Sanskrit works should be completed. 
Be could not have anticipated any objection on the score of inutility. It was in- 
tended to convey to the medical pandits throughout India, who are an exclusive 
caste of hereditary monopolists in their profession, and all study their art in San- 
skrit, a more correct notion of human Anatomy. Originally the Sarira Vidya had 
been also destined to become a class-book in the medical branch of the Sanskrit 
College, but that class had since been abolished, and the teaching of the medical 
art limited exclusively to English. 

4 o 

664 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. [July, 

What stronger argument of the utility of the hook could be adduced than the ten- 
der of a bonus of 1000 rupees to effect its publication by a gentleman who had for 
two years in vain held out the same premium for an essay in English and the ver- 
nacular, on the advantages of science ! Once placed in a Sanskrit dress, the Euro- 
pean system of anatomy would be accessible all over India for subsequent transfer 
into the Hindi dialects of every province if requisite, anil it was no trivial argument 
that the same work had been already printed in Arabic, and thus made available for 
the Musalman practitioners and for translation into Urdu when called for. If doubt 
existed as to the propriety of publishing in the learned languages, he submitted that 
the special Committee of medical men consulted on a purely professional point, were 
hardly competent judges, and he moved, as nn amendment, 

That the question of the propriety of publication, be referred to the 
Committee of Papers in the ordinary courae. 

The President objected to the Committee of Papers because he thought they were 
more likely to have a leaning in favor of Sanskrit*. 

On taking the votes on the question by shew of hands the amendment 
was lost and the original motion carried by a majority, the name of B6bn 
Rah Comul Sena bejng added to the committee on the motion of Mr. 

Read, the following reply from Government to the reference made ia 
virtue of the resolution of last meeting on the subject of the Oriental 
publication grant. 

No. 844, General Department. 
To James Prinsep, Esq. 
Sir, Seaetary to the Asiatic Society. 

1 am directed by the Honorable the Deputy Governor of Bengal to ac- 
knowledge the receipt of your letter dated the 19th instant with its enclo- 
sure, and in reply to state that under the circumstances represented his 
honor the Deputy Governor is led to believe that he shall only conform to 
the wishes of the honorable the Court of Directors by giving to their or- 
ders on the subject of Oriental Publications so much retrospective effect 
as shall relieve the Society from the debt it has incurred in completing the 
publication of the works made over to it by Government. A Treasury 
order will accordingly be issued in favor of the Sub-Treasurer to enablo 
him to pay to your receipt, on a bill to be drawn in the name of the Asiatic 
Society,the sum of 2,500 Company's rupees, which appears to be the amount 
advanced by the Society as stated in Para. 3 of your letter under reply. 

2. The completion of the remaining volume of the M:ih£bharata "will 
fall within the natural appropriation of the mouth Iy allowance prospective- 
ly assigned. 

I remain. &c. 

H. T. Prinsep, 
Secretary to the Government of Bengal. 
Fort William, the With July, 1838. 

The Secretary to Government in reply to the Alif Leila reference, wished 
to learn the cost of the translation, and the number of volumes, previous 
to determining on the amount of patronage to be bestowed. 

The following books were presented : 

The Bulletin de la Soci^te de Geographic, 2nd series, vol. 8— oy the Geograpk. 
Society of Paris. 

Result of astronomical observations made at the H. E. I. C. observatory at Ma* 
dras, by Thomas Gi.anville Taylor, Esq. H. C. Astronomer, vol. IV, 1836, 
1837 — by the Government. 

Defence of Colebrookr's exposition of the Vedanta philosophy— by Sir Graves 
C- Hauohton. 
Recollections of the Deccan— by the Author. 

• We must apologize for the imperfection of this report as we kept no note. Mr. G. Stirliv* 
and others spoke on their experience of the Hindi Vaidyas up the country receiving their instmc* 
ton in Sanskrit, whatever it might be in Bengal,— (where every one knows Sanskrit is more real 
and better understood than elsewhere, because it is more closely dependent on the Sanskrit ft* 
all abstract term*.)— Ed. 

1838.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 665 

The Quarterly Journal of the Calcutta Medical and Physical Society, No. VI.— 
by the Editors, Prof. Goodkvb and O'Shaughnbssy. 

Rapport annuel sur les travnux de la Soci^te d* Hiitorie naturelle de 1' Ue Maurice, 
1837 — by M. Julibn Dbsjabdins. 

Meteorological observations for Dec. 1837 and 3 months of 1838, at Maurice— 6y 
the same. 

Ditto at Calcutta, for June — by the Surveyor General. 

Observations meteorologiques faites a Mattepolliam, et a Kotigherry auz Neilgher- 
wet, en Mars, Avril, May et Juin 1838,— by M. Adolphb Dblbssbrt. 

The following purchased at the suggestion of the Museum Committee. 

Jardinb and G. Vblby's Illustrations of Ornithology, 1st fasc. N. S. 

Lardner's Cyclopedia — Russia vol. I. from W. Allbn and Co. 

A letter from Government forwarded for deposit in the Society's library, 
an account book and map belonging to the late travellers Moorcroft and 
Trkbrck, which were lately recovered with 50 other volumes from the 
chief of Kunduz, Mbbr Moorad Beg by Dr. Lord. 

The following information respecting the fate of these unfortunate tra- 
vellers is extracted from Captain Burnes' report on the subject to the 
Governor General, dated 1st May, 1838. 

Memorandum regarding book* and papers of the late Mr. Moorcroft, 

by Mr. Lord. 

1. I have the honor to present you a list of books and papers belonging to the 
late Mr. Mooacmorr which 1 have been so fortunate as to recover during my recent 
journey to Toorkistan. 

2. For the greater part of them I am indebted to Meer Mahomed Moorad Bbo 
who, immediately on my arrival at Koandooz, wrote to the khan of Moonar desir- 
ing that all *uch relics of the European traveller should forthwith be sent. In re- 
ply to this, 50 volumes all of printed works were immediately forwarded, the re- 
mainder including the maps, Mr. MooaCRorr's passports in English and Persian 
from the Marquis of Hastings, and a MS. volume with several loose MS. sheets, 
chiefly of accounts, I was enabled to recover when by the Meer's permission, 1 my- 
self, made a visit to Khooioom and Moozar. 

3. I think the evidence I have received proves, as stronglv as the nature of ne- 
gative evidence will admit, that no MS. papers of any value belonging to that ill- 
fated expedition remain to be recovered. I paid every person who brought books, 
and always explained that 1 would give double reward for any thing that was writ- 
ten, and though in consequence of this, several sheets of MS. were brought me, they 
never appeared on examination to contain any thing beyond accounts and • suck 
routine matters. Now as the natives must be unable to make the distinction, the 
chances evidently are that if any papers of importance existed, one or two of them at 
least would have found their way to me amongst the numbers presented. 

4. I append a letter from Mirza Humke ood dbbn, the principal Secretary to 
the Khan of Muzar and a man who attended Mr. Trbbeck in his last moments, 
saying that two printed and one MS. volume are in existence at Shuhr Subz, and 
that be had sent a man to recover them for me. As 1 have since been obliged to 
leave the country, and all communication is by the present state of affairs at Cabool 
rendered impossible, 1 mention this faet as oue worthy the attention of some future 

5. The map is in itself a document of much interest as containing Mr. Moor- 
croft's route traced, evidently with his own hand, aud continued as far as Akcha 
within one stage of Audkkoee, where he is known to have fallen a victim, not more, 
I believe, to the baneful effects of the climate than to the web of treachery and in- 
trigue by which he found himself surrounded and his return cut off. On the back 
of the map is a MS. sketch of the route through Adkhoee to Meinumo and back 
through Sireepoor to Bulkh, as though he had planned a tour through these little 
independent states, partly perhaps to see the horses for which they are famed, and 
partly to wile away the weariness of expectation till a safe conduct should be grant* 
ed him through the territories of the ruler of Koondooz.. We can thus almost trace 
the last object that engaged his mind and in the prosecution of which he laid down 
his life. 

6. Connected with this I beg to subjoin a slip of paper which I found amongst 
a pile of loose accounts and which bears in Mr. Trbbbck's writing, the following 

" Date September 6th 1825. Arrived at Bulkh August 25th, Mr. M. died August 
S7th," placing the date of Mr. Moorcroft'* death beyond a doubt, and also I think 
affording negative evidence against the supposition of its having been caused by 
aay unfair means. 

4 O 2 

666 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. [July, 

6. But the same paper Is farther interesting from an accidental coincidence. 
The Mibrxa 1 have before mentioned accompanied me from Task Koorgkm to 
Muter, and in the course of conversation, which naturally turned in a great mea- 
sure on the melancholy fate of Moorcroft's party, he said that about a month be- 
fore the death of Trbbbck he had one day gone to him, by desire of the Khan, to 
purchase some pearls which he heard he had. Trkbbck produced the pearls bat 
when questioned about the price said in a desponding tone, Take them for what 
you please, my heart is broken, what care I for price now 1 The entry is this : •• Total 
on the strings, 280 grs. Oct. 15th. Taken by Miieza, 131 grs. or 4 miskals. 16th. 
Taken by Dbwan Bbgheb 33 grs. or 1 miskal." It will be observed no price is 
affixed ; — probably none was received. A stranger in a foreign land far from the sooth- 
ing voice of countrymen or kinsfolk, surrounded by rude hordes who looked on him 
as the only obstacle to possessing themselves of the countless treasures which they 
'believed to be in his charge, his youthful spirit pined and sunk. The bright visions 
with which he had commenced his career had long since vanished : — where be had 
looked for pleasures he had found toils, where for rest, he had to guard against 
dangers : sickness had carried off many of the companions with whom he had set out 
and when at last it struck his guide, his own familiar friend to whom he had looked 
for support under every adversity, and for rescue from every difficulty, and whea 
in addition he found that all hopes of return to his native land seemed if not cut off 
at least indefinitely deferred, his heart as he too truly said was broken, and in a few 
short weeks he sunk into an untimely grave. I should apologize for a digressioa 
unauited I confess to the character of an official paper, but it is impossible to hear 
the warm terms in which poor Trebbck is still mentioned by the rude natives 
amongst whom he died without feeling the deepest sympathy in the fate of one who 
fell ** so young and yet so full of promise." 

7. It is only necessary I should add one or two more observations. The account 
book, which 1 now forward, is a valuable document in more respects than one. It 
contains an accurate list of the stock originally purchased by Mr. Moorcroft when 
starting for his journey, and will serve to modify considerably the extravagant ideas 
that have been entertained of the quantities of goods which he carried. Taken ia 
connexion with the loose MS. accounts it will serve also to evince that the greater 
part of this stock was sold off previous to his leaving Bokhara, »nd as far aa my in- 
formation goes I am inclined to believe the proceeds were chiefly expended in the 
purchase of horses, of which I understand he had when he died somewhat under a 
hundred, including specimens of all the best Uzbek and Turkooman breeds. 

8. The account book is further interesting as containing in Mr. Moorcroft's 
own handwriting a list of the articles which he offered on his presentation to the 
king of Bokhara, and a note at the end to the effect that the king had, in return 
ordered him a remission of the duties of his merchandize rather more than equalling 
the estimated value of the goods. It is further satisfactory to be able to add, oa 
the authority of several Bokhara merchants who were on terms of intimacy with 
him during his stay in that city, that his character was highly appreciated by the 
king, who frequently sent for him to enjoy the pleasure of his conversation, and 
conferred on him the high privilege, never before granted to a Christian, of riding 
through the city and even to the gate of the king's palace on horseback. 

9. In addition to the list of his meichandize this account book contains also a 
list of his private property, which it appears Mr. Moorcroft was obliged by order 
of the Koath Beget to make out on entering Bokhara: from this list we leara 
that be possessed 90 volumes of books. The number I have recovered and which 
I have now the honor to place at your disposal is 57 ; amongst them are several odd 
volumes of which the sets if complete, would give an addition of about So- 
total 87 1 so that there are probably not more than two or three volumes of which 
we may not consider ourselves to have ascertained the fate. As to MSS. I have 
already shewn the high improbability that any of consequence have eluded my re* 

10. Scattered through the printed volumes numerous notes and corrections in 
Mr. Moorcroft's own handwriting will be found. Of these some referring inci- 
dentally to the dangers of his journey, or laying down plans as to the route by which 
be meant to return, cannot be read without emotion. 

11. In conclusion it is but justice to add that the impression every where left by 
this enterprizing but ill-fated party has been in a high degree favorable to our 
national character. 

Peskawur, 26 th May 1838. (Signed) P. B. Lord. 

Translation of a letter from Mirza Humke ood Dken to P. B. Lord, Esq. 

" A. C. Two books and one manuscript are in the city of Shuhr Subm. 1 have 
sent a person to bring them and when they reach me I shall send them to you. Ia 
all things I will never forget your good offices. Let me always hear of your wel- 
fare. Believe what the man says and that I am your well- wisher. Dated Mohurrtun 
1254 A. H." 

1838.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 667 

[The list of books, principally medical, it 1b unnecessary to insert.— Ed.] 

Literary and Antiquities* 
The reviled copy of the Oirnar inscription made with the utmost care 
by hand, was received from Lieut. Postans, who had since been deputed 
to Baroda on duty. 

This copy satisfactorily clears up almost all the passages at all dubious la 
Captain Lang's original, — it will be necessary to publish a revised translation in 

Captain Burnbs forwarded copy of, 1st a short Buddhist iM/i inscription, 
from the country of Shah Kuttore, or Chitral south of Badakhshan, on the 
river Kooner (the Kaure of Etphinstone, a principal feeder of the Indus) ; 
8, facsimiles and ectypes of a Bactrian inscription from Kapurdigheri, the 
same of which a sketch was formerly taken by M. Court ; and 3, a small 
inscription, in a modification of the Fame character, under the other. 
[We shall publish these immediately, but we fear without interpretation.] 
Mr. H. T. Prinsep, Secretary to Government, forwarded copy of a voca- 
bulary of the language of the Moghel Aimeks, by Lieut. Leech, for such 
notice as the Society might deem it to merit. 

This is the eighth language or dialect of which Lieut. Lxbcb has made himself 
master in the course of his present journey. 

Captain Burnbs also forwarded for inspection 5 gold coins dug out of 
the tope of Khaiber. 

They were found a few feet below the surface by a party of Afghans who were dig- 
ging a trench on the mound to protect themselves from the attack of another party. 
One coin was of Mokadphiset ; the others were varieties of the Kantrke* group. 

With reference to the legend of the MohadphUn coin, the Secretary announced 
that he had been fortunate enough to discover a schema of the Bactrian alphabet, 
which enabled him to read the whole of the Bactrian legends with mnch greater 
facility, and semblance of truth than he had before been able to obtain. The lan- 
guage he now perceived to be Pdli f although somewhat disguised by being written 
in an alphabetical system as foreign to its structure as the Persian would be to the 
modern Bengali. 

[The paper is published in the present number.] 
Mr. Maddock proposed that the Society should take steps to procure 
some fragments of the richly carved sculpture of the Kan&rah temple, now 
thrown on the ground and in danger of destruction. 

It seems that permission having been given by Mr. Wilkinson to the Kurda 
raja to supply himself with stones (meaning probably the loose detached stones) 
from the black pagoda, the raja had commenced deliberately dismantling the temple 
and carrying off all the images to ornament his own house ! — in moving one large 
figure he had been obliged to take down the beautifully carved door depicted by 
Stirling, and unless stopped there would soon cease to exist this venerable monu- 
ment so long the principal landmark on the coast. 

Resolved, to address Government to suspend if possible the further 
demolition of the Kan draft temple, or otherwise at least to secure some of 
its sculpture for preservation in the museum. 

Mr. J. P. Grant, presented for the museum in the name of Mr. Church 
of Penang, two bows and a bundle of arrows from that island. 

Col. Stacy presented on the part of Major Yulb an ornamental Litho- 
graph of a gold medal of Shah Jbhan, weighing 70 oz, dated 1064 Hej. 

Dr. Spry laid on the table various tabular statements which had been 

Kepared under his predecessor and himself, — but, at the request of the 
-esident, he withdrew them in order to embody them in a formal report 
by next Meeting. 

Physical Department. 
The following extract of a letter from Lieutenant Hutton, on his return 
from deputation to the Spiti valley, was read. 

Saongnum, 6th July, 1838. 

I am now again at Soongnum in Kunavwr, having recrotsed the Hungrung Pats 

yesterday, on my return from Spettee, and bid adieu to the Tartars. The Passes 

to Ludak from Spectee were quite impassable from the great depth of snow which 

had fallen full two months later this year than usual, throughout the hills. Every 

. I 

668 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. [Jclt, 

tiling is very backward in consequence,— and in the higher parts of the Sptetet 
valley, there is great distress from the loss of last year's crops, which were beaten 
down and buried beneath an early fall of snow. I experienced the greatest difficulty 
in reaching the fostil ground owing to the want of supplies and the unwillingness 
of the Kiladar at Dunkur to allow me to proceed. On my arrival beneath the fort, 
he sent me orders to return, as he had received instructions from Ludak to oppose 
my advance. In this emergency, finding myself within a few miles of the desired 
object, and unwilling that the wishes of the Society should be frustrated, particularly 
after the fatigues and dUcom forts 1 had experienced on my way ; I bethought me 
that it is sometimes expedient when "at Rome, to do as the Romans do ;" conse- 
quently finding that I had about as many men, and better arms than my opponent, 
1 sent him back threat for threat, and told him that it was my intention to proc ee d 
by force if necessary, and that if lie offered to oppose me, I would burn hia castle 
about bis ears. The threat had the desired effect, and 1 received answer that his 
highness would pay me a visit, which he did, and having thus dismounted him from 
his high horse, I made him furnish me with six days' provisions for my people, by 
which means alone I have been able to visit the fossil ground and determine the 
geological formation of those dreary and melancholy looking regions. The fossils 
themselves as specimens are certainly not worth one quarter of the trouble they have 
occasioned me, and partake of the same decomposing nature as the shales in which 
they occur. Such as they are, however, I have collected them, and they will be 
interesting when taken in connection with the geological specimens of the whole 
country travelled over. In natural History this is the most barren country I have 
ever seen; of birds there are scarcely any, and of beasts none but the wild sheep. 
If the season be not against me, however, I may yet procure good specimens in the 
lower hills. Here there is no covert for living creatures, but lower down in JTiom- 
%cur where the forests are thick, I shall be able to make up a collection. The geolo- 
gy is however, I think very interesting and may perhaps cover the imperfections of 
other branches of my work. I have the " Bhair or gigantic partridge ;" the com- 
mon chough, and another of the genus, which I am inclined to think is new; 
Sigeons and college pheasants also. The tragopan and monal are not found up 
ere, but occur from Wangtoo downwards. Of the wild sheep I have been able to 
procure only one specimen, which the heat has spoiled in spite of lbs. of arsenical 
soap ; the thermometer at 1 lOo was almost enough to have spoiled me too. At Nako 
in Hungrung at sunrise on the 3rd July 37o, — at Ltto at noon, 110° in sun, 100* ia 
my tent; and sunset 70<>.— I am worn to the bones with fatigue, and anxiety lest the 
Society should feel disappointed with the results of my journe) but 1 feel conseioui 
of having done my utmost and must therefore wait patiently the decision of my 
judges. I shall halt here for a day or two to rest, as there are some things worth 
seeing in the neighbourhood, such as copper miues. etc. Poor Gbra&d's ac- 
count of " excellent limestone in this neighbourhood," was premature ; he railed 
in his attempts to burn it, so say the people, and so says the stone, for it is a 
secondary limestone containing clay and sand and burns to a $lag in consequence. 

Three more specimens of Indus jet coal were received, through Govern, 
merit, from Captain Surnes. 

Mr. H. B. Hodoson, addressed to the Society's care through the Honor. 
able Col. Mormon, a further roll of drawings illustrative of the zoology 
of Nipal. 

The Secretary noticed as an omission on his part in the steps taken to pro. 
mote the success of Mr. Hodgson's undertaking by the Society, that it had not 
yet solicited the usual patronage of the Government to his elaborate and costly 
publication. Having recommended the Royal Asiatic Society to solicit the patronage 
of the Court at home, he had deemed it superfluous to do so here, but as nothing 
had apparently been done there he thought it was now incumbent on the Society 
to do it at once. 

Resolved, that the present roll of zoological drawings be submitted to 
the Hon. the President in Council with a solicitation for such degree of 
public patronage, ns the national character of the publication may seem 
to entitle it from the Government of British India. 

Lieutenant £. Conolly, 6th Cavalry, communicated the following parti, 
culars of the recent fall of an aerolite in Central India. 

Three aerolites fell during a heavy storm and after a vivid flash of lightning, on the 
same day, i. e. about the 23rd June. — One at Bumuggur (also called NoUri) the other 
two near Oujein. The three are said to weigh two maunds (together) and to be 
of three colors, green, yellowish red, and French grey, but on such points native 
authority is questionable. There seems no cause to doubt their having really 

1828.J Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 669 

fallen, the fact having been officially reported to the Resident of Indore by the Ovjei* 
akhbir navis. I also heard of it from private letters. 

Mr. Bax has ordered them to be sent to him, and has promised to forward the as 
en to me when he shall have satisfied his curiosity by the sight of them. 

Should they not be required by superstition for gods, which is more than pro- 
bable, specimens shall he sent to the Asiatic Society and to yourself. 

A note on the geology of the desert and the navigability of the Loni 
river was communicated by Captain Burns*, in cons quence of a remark 
in the Report of the Coal Committee, on the want of such information. 

Natural History, 

The following presentations to the museum, were noticed by the Cu- 

Skeleton of the Bengal Bustard, Otis Bengafensts. 

Skeleton of the Negro Money, Semnopithecus Maurus. 

This monkey preserved in spirits, was on a former occasion presented by Dr. 
Pearson, but falling into a state of decay, it was thought advisable to prepare and 
articulate the bones for a skeleton rather than allow the specimen to be lost to 
the Society's museum. 

Crania of the Red, or Asiatic Orang Otang. (Pithecus Satyrus, Geoff.) 
one from Borneo, the other from Sumatra*. 

These valuable relics of what appear to have been most extraordinary gigantic 
monkeys were presented by Major Grroory. They are those of adult males each 
exceeding in size even that or the targe one killed on the N. W. coast of Sumatra, 
figured and so admirably described by Dr. Abbl in the Society's Transactions and 
which is stated to have measured 8 feet when suspended for the purpose of being 
skinned, parts of the spoils of which are now deposited in the museum. As no very 
marked differences are perceptible in the general conformation of the skulls of these 
two animals, and they exactly correspond with each other in their dental systems, it 
is evident that the individuals to which they belonged mutt have been of the same 
species. The one from Sumatra is the larger of the two and must have been a most 
formidable and stupendous animal in the living state. The skulls may be considered 
a valuable enrichment to the Society's collection, for they probably surpass any 
thing of the kiud yet seen. 

Inflated and dried stomach and coecum of the Semnopithecus Enteltus, or 
Hanuman monkey. 

This is intended to show the sacculated and complex form of the first named viscus, 
in this group of monkeys, which in this particular respect differs most essentially 
from the Orangs and most of the other Simise where the organ is of the usual 
simple construction, as may be seen by comparing it with the stomach of the Piths- 
cut Satyrut placed with it in the museum. 

Distended and dried stomach of a wild cat, Felts Catus. 

Exemplifying the simple form of the organ in this genus of Carnlvora. 

Specimens of the head, wings and legs of the Flamingo ( Phanicopterus 
ruber J, Cranium and imperfect skin of the Crested Porcupine (Histriw 
eristatusj, and a dried skin of a large Armadillo, Dasypus f pre- 
sented by Mr. Kiitob on behalf of Mr. Colquhoun. 

A Centipede, (Scolopendra morsitans), of large size, captured at the 
mint and presented by the Secretary. 

Skull and skin of a Civet Cat, Fiverra Zibet a, or Indian variety of that 
animal, presented by Colonel Stacy. 

A fine and perfect specimen of the Silhet mole (a variety of the Talpa 
Europcsa), preserved in spirit^ presented by Mr. J. Taylor. 

Ibe existence in India of this little obscure animal having been doubted by some 
and denied by others, it affords plensure in being able to set the matter beyond the 
power of contradiction by the exhibit of a fine specimen, and the mutilated skin of 
one of former receipt, one from Silhtt, the other from Assam nud which may lead 
to the belief of their habitat in our more immediate possessions. 

From the circumstance of its so completely resembling the European mole in 
almost every particular it may reasonably be considered a variety of that animal. 

G. E. 

* The latter is reserved by Majoi G&kgory, as the Society possesses one jaw 
of the same species. 

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No. 80.— August, 1838. 

I. — A short account of the Moa Morah sect, and of the country at 
present occupied by the Bor Senaputtee. By S. O. Hannat, CapU 
40fA RegU N. I. Asst. to the Commissioner in Assam. 

Origin and Religious tenets.— Moa Mureeah or Morah, is the design 
nation of a particular sect of the Assamese population, who are noted 
in the latter days of Assam history. They are scattered over the whole 
valley, being found as far west as Goalparah, but the greatest numbers 
seem to be located in that tract of country, known in the present day, 
as the Muttuck territory. 

About the period that the numerous tribes in the valley of A nam 
were converted to Hinduism, a division took place amongst them, num- 
bers of the population following the religious tenets of a certain " Goo- 
roo," or spiritual adviser, who did not admit the supremacy of the Brah- 
mins, and professing to worship only the incarnation of the deity, known 
to heathens, as " Vishnu." 

The residence of the first priest of this sect, is said to have been on 
the Majoittee*, on the banks of a small lake, which is now carried away 
by the Burhumpooter. The name of this lake, from the circumstance 
of its abounding in a description of small fish, called M6a 9 was named 
in the usual style of Assamese phraseology "M6a Morah ,*" from whence 
arose the name of the sect, but which has been turned, by those of the 
Brahminical faith through a spirit of contempt, to Moa Mireeah. 

After the rise of the sect of Moa Mureeah the seat of the head 
priest, called the Moa Mureeah Oossain, was removed to a place called 
Kuteeah Putha, a short distance to the west of Jorehdt, and the spot on 
which he resided was elevated from the plain, several hundred feet, by 

* Largo island of the Burhumpooter, 

A P 

672 Account of the Moa Morah sect. [Aug. 

artificial means. The name of the first gossain was On be Rood, and 
disciples seem to have flocked in to him from all the different tribes, 
such as, Cassarees, Ahoms, Dhooms, Kuleetas, Kaysts, Harees, and 
others of the lowest classes. And from the upper part of the valley, 
may be added Sooteahs, Morans, &c. &c. &c. 

Nothing particular is recorded of this sect, until the reign of raja 
Lucjcmee Sing, when having joined in the rebellion of this raja's bro- 
ther, a general massacre was ordered, which was carried into effect, and 
the gossain, with all his family killed. It is related of Lockmbr Sing 
that his feelings were so vindictive against the gossain, that although 
he was positively informed not only of his death but that his body had 
been cut in pieces, still he had the river dragged, for the remains of his 
enemy, in order to satisfy himself that he had really been killed. 

This general massacre fell very severely on the Morans, and other in* 
habitants of the Upper Booree Diking, who formed a large portion of 
the army, which for a time overthrew the rule of Luckmbb Sing ; and 
to this indiscriminate massacre may be attributed the subsequent civil 
wars of Assam, which in the end have brought it to its present degene- 
rate and comparatively impoverished state. 

Luckmbb Si no seems however to have relented shortly after the 
massacre above mentioned, and, on a representation being made to him, 
by the priests of the opposite sect, he appointed another Gooroo, or 
spiritual head, over the Moa Mureeahs, in the person of a man, named 
Pitcmber, who was said to have been a nephew of the former gossain. 
As might have been expected this priest and his party retained all the 
vindictive feeling of their relatives towards the sovereigns of Assam, and 
a second rebellion broke out, in the following weak reign of Goure snath 
Si no, who fled from his seat of Government for seven years, during 
which time the Moa Mureeahs set up several rajas of their own. 
Their names were as follows, Dopfla Bohotbba*, Boora Phokan, his 
son Uonee Komwar, and lastly Barotbba, who got rid of his prede- 
cessor by a trick of rather a ludicrous nature. Having had much influ- 
ence over Uonbb, he persuaded him that the north bank of iheBurhum* 
pooler was the proper place for his r&j, and when be had seen him and 
his party safely off, he returned, and quietly set himself up in his stead 
at Rungpore. During this confusion the setting up of rajas seems to 
have been quite common in Upper Assam, as even the Dhooms of the 
Moa Mureeah sect set up a raja for themselves, first at Sudiya, and 
afterwards at Douka khana, on the north bank of the Burhumpooter. 
This raj was overthrown by the Khamtis. 

* A Duffla stare. 

1638.] Account of the Moa Morah sect. 073 

The Moran portion of the Moa Mureeahs set up for themselves, on the 
Debroo, the father of the present Senaputtee, who took possession of 
the present Bengmorak, the former name of which was Sungmae 

During the time that Barotrba had established himself at Rungpore, 
Gourrbnath Sino, received the assistance of the British Governmenti 
and the Moa Mureeahs were dispersed* The chief of Bengmorah was 
overthrown by the inhabitants of 8udiya> assisted by the Khamtis, and 
the six Singpho Gams, residing on the east bank of the Noa Diking, 
and a persecution seems to have been kept up against the sect, who were 
driven to seek -shelter amongst the Singphos, and a great number of the 
Moran portion of the sect were cut off by these people at a spot near 
the confluence of the Noa and Booree Diking. 

Under the firm government of Poor-na-nvno, Bor Gohain, or chief 
minister of the raja, the Moa Mureeahs received severe chastisement, 
and those who escaped towards the Upper Diking, do not seem to have 
been able to establish themselves again, as independent of their rightful 
sovereign; either during the remainder of raja Go u hi snath's reign 
or in that of his still weaker successors Comalbswur, and Chundbr- 
canth, but'they made several efforts to do so, and Ba rote e a, (who was 
formerly mentioned,) whilst living for shelter in the Beesa Gam's village, 
(the grandfather of the present Beesa,) sdht a person called Ramnath 
Bob Boorooah to treat with the Burman monarch for assistance ; though, 
at that time, without effect. Messages were however repeatedly sent 
to Burmahf and parties of Burmese were twice brought into Assam ; 
once by the Beesa Gam, and once by a Khamti chief called Hocass 
Gobain, and it was with him, that the father of the person known as 
the Kaminee Fhokan, first came from Burmah. These Burman s how- 
ever, were always bribed, or bought over, through the influence and 
wealth of the prime minister, who in the end relaxed his severity to* 
wards the Moa Mureeahs, and subsequently gave the present chief of 
Muttucky his title of Bor Senaputtee ; who appears to have remained 
obedient to his lawful sovereign, paying the revenue required from the 
portion of the sect, over whom he was supposed to have authority. 

Poor-na-nund Gohain may be said to have been the protector, and 
regenerator of his country for a period of twenty years, before which 
time it had been a scene of anarchy and bloodshed. He was not 
destined however to remain longer in his prominent situation, for his 
sovereign the weak Chundbrcanth, and a few of his nobles, jealous of 
the Bor Gohain*s power and influence, but unable to displace him them- 
selves, secretly entered into a league with the Burmans. for that purpose, 
4 p 2 

$74 Account of the Moa Morah soot. [Ave. 

and the Bor Phokan, who went to Burmah, via Calcutta, on the part 
ef Chuudbrcanth returned to Assam with the Khyee Woongyo, and 
8 or 10 thousand Burmans, and the latter being always ready for eon- 
quest, were by no means looth to make their way into a country, which 
had been represented to them, as overflowing with riches ; but the 
Bor Gohain only lived to hear of their arrival acrosa the frontier. 

What followed in this country is already well known, and there an 
few, who are not aware, that the oppressive role of the Burmans brought 
Assam into a more degraded state than it had ever been. 

The Senaputtee taking advantage of the confusion of those times, 
established himself, in his father's position at BongmoraK and secured 
himself from the immediate control of the Burman government by 
keeping at his residence, and in his pay, a vakeel, who was a natire 
Burman* and remained with the Senaputtee, on the part of the- 

The Bor Senaputtee having established himself as the head of the 
Moa Mureeahs on the line of the Debroo, he soon set himself up, on a 
firmer footing, than any of the former chiefs of the sect, and as he 
pleaded poverty, besides, the outskirts of his country, being so jungly as 
to present a forbidding aspect to the Burmans, they allowed him to 
remain comparatively unmolested. 

At the time of the arrival of the first Burmese army in Assam, the 
Morans occupied, as they now do, their proper localities on the upper 
portion of the Debroo ; and lower down that river, and scattered over 
different parts of the surrounding country, there was a tolerable popu- 
lation of Moa Mureeah's and other Assamese, but not near so extensive, 
as was found, on tbe British taking possession of this country. 

Upper Assam had been long subject to the inroads of the Singphos; 
and their slave-taking excursions were carried on with renewed success, 
during the Burman rule in Assam. The Bor Senaputtee seems how- 
ever, to have prevented any successful attack on his portion of the coun- 
try. And it is reported that the present Beesa Gam, made, at one time, 
an attempt on a large scale, to carry off some of the people, but was 
driven back with great loss. The inhabitants of the surrounding conn* 
try therefore, feeling that they would be more secure from Singphos, 
and Burman oppression, naturally chose to put themselves under the 
protection of a man like the Senaputtee. And thus on the arrival of 
the British in Assam, he was found with all the semblance of an inde- 
pendent prince, and the head of a country containing upwards of 50,000 

* The Kaminee Phokan before mentioned. 

1838.] Account of the Moa Morah sect. 676 

It doe* not appear that any particular boundary was laid down for* 
jnerly to the Senaputtee, or that any particular parts of the province 
were considered as his hereditary lands. But subsequent arrangements 
with British authorities in Assam, have given to him a territory, having 
the Burhumpooter as its western and northern boundary, the Boor** Du 
king as its southern, and a line drawn south from Sudiya to the Booree 
Diking is the eastern boundary. And the Bor Senaputtee is the ac- 
knowledged chief of a tract of country, bearing a fair proportion in ex- 
tent, to that which has been made over to Posondeb Sing. 

The Morans are quite a distinct class of the Moa Mureeah sect, and 
occupy the same section of the country, as they did in former days. This 
tract is situated between the Dangooree, and Debroo rivers ; they also 
inhabit a portion of the south bank of the Debroo, but they do not ap- 
pear to have extended to the westward of the junction of the Dangoree 
and Debroo, at which place a chokey was situated, called panes cho- 
key. The following are the names of some of their localities : Bor 
Ckookree, Hunt Ckookree, Casso-Jan, Hoolungargooree, Goee-Jhdn, 
Dkea-muli, Bk6tk6-Jk4n, Jigoomiguyd, Majoilee goyak, Beesa Kh6pa y 
and others. In the days of the Assam rajas, the Morans paid no re* 
venue, but as people living in a jungle, (which it would seem their 
name denotes,) they were called upon to supply the raja's household 
with different articles in accordance to the designation of their tribes ; 
for instance, the Hathi Soongis supplied him with elephants, the Rom 
Jogooyahs, with the coloring vegetable matter known in Assam, as 
rom 9 Dharee booahs, with mats, and the Mo-Jogoosahs with honey, 
and so forth. 

Further down the Debroo, there are many villages inhabitated by 
the Moa Mureeah sect, but they are generally found with a greater pro- 
portion of those who profess the Brahminical faith ; but in the wes- 
tern portion of the country, many of the first classes of the Ahom po- 
pulation reside, who are followers of the Moa Mureeah gohains. 

The jungles on the north bank of the Booree Diking have been, for 
several years, considered as a place of refuge for the disaffected, and 
such has been the emigration (from well known causes), to the coun- 
try between the Burhumpooter and the Booree Diking, that it is said, 
there cannot be less than a hundred and twenty thousand inhabitants 
there. This statement will be more readily credited, when it is known 
that the whole of the extensive khats, or farms, containing the finest 
grain pathars in Upper Assam, and situated between the Debroo, and 
the Booree Diking, are occupied within these few years by the runaway 
ryots of Pobukdbb Sing. The whole of the Beheeah population of the 

Q76 Account of the Moa Morah sect. [ Aoe. 

districts of Seesee, and Dumajee, three fourths of the Cassaree popula- 
tion, originally belonging to Sudiya, and three fourths of the Dho- 
ania population released from Singpho slavery, amounting to 8/ or 
9000, are all located within the boundary lately assigned to the Sena- 

The Bor Senaputtee pays to the British Government an annual sum. 
of 1800 rupees, and the surplus of the revenue of this country remains 
in his own hands* What the amount of that revenue ' may be, is, I 
presume, not known. My information, which I have obtained from vari- 
ous sources is as follows. All new comers into the Muttuck country, 
are taxed after one and a half years' residence there. A poll tax is 
acknowledged to be in force, and the different classes pay according to 
the following scale. 

Morans, 3 rupees per head. 

Cassarees, (Sonewahls,) 3 rupees ditto. 

Behees, (Sonewahls,) 2£ rupees ditto. 

Assamese, (of all classes,) 2 to 1 rupee ditto. 

But with such a mixed population, a portion of which are no doubt, 
people of idle and dissolute habits, the probability is that many of the 
inhabitants escape taxation. And besides it can hardly be expected* 
that any regular system of administration could be carried on, when 
the head of the country, and his whole family, are so illiterate and ig- 
norant. The Senaputtee has seven sons, and he, himself, is the only one 
of the family, who knows any thing even of the common Assamese cha- 
racter. Increasing prosperity however, has rendered it necessary for 
them to employ native writers, who are placed in the different districts 
over which different members of the Senaputtee's family have control. 
He, and his sons, have also taken large farms into their own hands i 
which are worked by the Assamese, who have last gone into Muttuck, 
so that although they escape taxation, they are thus made a source 
of immediate profit to the chief, and his sons. 

In a letter, published in the Government Gazette, dated June, 1825, 
the Bor Senaputtee is said to be the head of the Moa Mureeah tribe. 
I however wish to explain, that the Moa Mureeahs are not a distinct 
tribe, but a religious sect of the Assamese population, composed of in- 
dividuals, from most of the known tribes of Assam, and who have risen 
into notice within the memory of men now living. The Bor Senaputtee 
has been generally considered as the head of a distinct tribe, tributary 
to the Assam rajas ; but this is not the case. He is neither the chief of 
the Moa Mureeah sect, nor of the Moran tribe, as these classes are by 
no means confined to his territory. 

1838.] Account of the Mo* Morah seel. 677 

The head priest of the Moa Mureeahs, is a son of the man formerly 
mentioned, called " Pitumbkr ;" until lately he resided at Kooteah 
Pottah, bnt he is now living in the Senaputtee's country : his name is 
Bocktanund. His antipathy to those who profess the Brahminical 
faith is well known, and the strong suspicions that exist, regarding his 
late conduct at Jorehdt, haying been a cloak for mischievous purposes, 
has forced him to leave that part of the country. 

The Moa Mureeahs seem to have a good deal of republican feeling, 
with regard to equality, and free will ; and it is said that there are 
great diasentions amongst those in the Senaputtee's country. 

Bucktanund dislikes the chief, because he will not enter into his 
bigoted views, on secular, as well as religous matters. The Morans 
also, on the Upper Debroo, have set up for themselves a separate Goo* 
roo, or spiritual head, and as they considered themselves on an equality 
with the Senaputtee, they are not at all satisfied with the high station he 
has lately assumed, and particularly with their having been money tax* 
ed, and also with regard to other unusual exactions made on them by 
him* I have understood that these disaffections have been carried so 
far, as to be made the subject of a formal complaint to the British 
authorities in the beginning of 1837. 

The Bor Senaputtee is a " Boorook Sooteah ;" his ancestors* were 
natives of the district of &*<%a, but he was born on the Upper Debroo. 
He must have been a man of some energy of character, and is spoken 
of as having been much liked in his younger days ; but love of money, 
and of power, have lately assumed such an influence over him, as to be 
seen in all his actions. He is also said to be completely ruled by his 
wife in these matters, against whom the Morans entertain very bitter 

The Senaputtee is now an old man, and having had one severe pa- 
ralytic stroke, he may not live long ; none of his sons are equal to him 
in intellect, but the second son, called the " Madjo Gob a in," is said 
to be the most intelligent, and he is strongly in the interests of Buck* 
tandnd the priest. Taking into consideration therefore the character 
of this priest, it is to be feared, that, when released from the control of 
the Senaputtee, some disturbances may arise, and urged by bigotry, 
some acts of violence may take place, unless prevented by timely in- 
terference on the part of the British Government. 

Although the Senaputtee's country is interspersed with jungle, it 

. abounds in extensive grain pathers, and is a rich depdt of grain. A 

great portion of the inhabitants being of those classes who are consider- 

• Father and grandfather. 

678 Account of the Moa Merak sect. [Aw. 

ed the best farmers in Assam, tbe cultivation is good, and crops of the 
same description are raised as in the other parts of Assam ; with ex- 
ception of the mustard plant, which is scarce. Sugar-cane, of a supe- 
rior quality is cultivated to some extent, and inanufactured into goor. 
And in the upper section of the country, inhabited by Morans, cot- 
ton of an excellent quality is produced, and forms a considerable export 
to lower Assam. 

Rice and cotton are the staple commodities, and with goor, and ele- 
phants' teeth, form the only exports* 

The country, however, like the other sections of Upper Assam fur- 
nishes mooga; and the southeast portion is the locality of numer- 
ous tea tracts, many of which are in an advanced state, and produce 
tea of an excellent quality. 

The universal resources of the Senaputtee's country must be supposed 
to be of the same nature as those which are known to exist in that por- 
tion of Upper Assam, with which it is connected. It may however be 
observed, that on the eastern side of the country towards the Naga 
hills, there are iron, salt, and coal found, within the limits of the boun- 
dary lately alloted to the Muttuck chief ; neither of these minerals are 

The imports into the Senaputtee's country, which find a ready sale 
are salt, tobacco, betel-nut, cossyah mattocks, flints and steel, knives of 
Assamese manufacture, brass pots, copper pots, earthen pots. 

High ridges of ground run across the country from southwest, to 
northeast, particularly towards the eastern boundary. But the gene* 
ral level of the country is low, and the lower portion of the Debroo, 
and the whole line of the Boors* Diking, with a few exceptions*, is 
flooded, during the height of 'the rains. It is intersected by numer- 
ous streams, and water-courses, and those on the north bank of the 
Debroo, which fall into that river, coming from the Burhumpooter ; a 
portion of the country therefore, from Sudiya to the mouth of the 
Debroo, may be considered only as a succession of islands, belonging 
to the large river. 

The principal streams on the northern side, are the Sasa and TVngri, 
both of which fall into the Booree Diking. They are navigable for the 
common canoes of the country throughout the greatest part of the 
year, and are consequently extremely useful to the inhabitants, as oat- 
lets for the produce of the country. 

The Muttuckf country is not considered unhealthy by the natives, 

* In many places the remains of a water band are visible on the Diking* 
t A name given to the Moras! by the Khamtii. 

133$.] Journal of a Tour in Orissa. 679 

tat there seemi to be a want of good water, and this may be attributed 
to the circumstance of moat of the running streams having their source 
in jbeels, passing over low alhtvial soil* and through thick jungle. The 
inhabitants, however* who live at a distance from the main streams, 
use the water from wells, which is considered good. 

I know little else worthy of remark regarding the country of Mut* 
fuck or its inhabitants, and the latter no doubt resemble those of the 
same classes in other parts of Assam. The Morans, however, have some 
peculiarities which are not met with in other Assamese. They are rude 
and rough in their manners, and much more robust in their persons 
than most Assamese,' and they are not as yet, addicted to the use of 
sprain. Their only peculiarities in dress are thai they wear black 
turbans, and very long amber ear-rings* 

In these people, we might perhaps trace a remnant of what the in- 
habitants of Upper Assam were a century ago* 

II.— Afr. Kittos's Journal of his Tour in the Province of Orissa. 

Having been deputed by the Coal and Mineral Committee to explore 
the supposed coal fields of Orissa, reported by me in 1837, I left 
Calcutta by dawk on the 23rd of February 1838, with a determination 
to make the most of my time and journey, also of the small pecuniary 
allowance made for the purpose, in antiquarian and other research 
beyond the mere exploring of the coal localities. 

I reached Mednipur on the morning of the 24th ; left again at 9 
r. m. and arrived at JaUswara ( AngKce Jetlasors J, the following 
morning, the 25th ; I carefully examined the bed of the Subanrikd, 
but could not discover any trace of coal. 

I was shewn an old musjid on the bank of the river close to the 
village ; over its centre arch is an Arabic inscription in the Toghra 
character of which I took a facsimile ; it is a quotation from the Koran 
and apparently the name of one of the Pathdn emperors of Gaur i 
the musjid is very small and built in the rudest style with blocks of 
laterite taken from some demolished temple ; there has been a small 
oblong area to it enclosed by a stone wall, having four small flanking 
towers at the corners and a gateway in the centre of the eastern face, 
the whole is now nearly demolished. 

About four miles hence to the northward on the right (or south) 
bank of the river, are the remains of a very extensive fortification the 
history of which is buried in oblivion ; I had intended to have visited 
this place on my return, but was prevented by sickness* - 
4 Q 

680 Journal of a Tour m Orina. [Ace. 

I left JaUswar at 10 p. v. and reached Bateswar (Anglicc 
Bckuorejy the next morning (the 26th) at sunrise, having stopped 
for half an hour at the Burabalang river to search for fragments of 
coal. I was unsuccessful. In the night I left again on a trip to the 
Neilgiri hills at Neilgarh, distant about 12 miles, which place I 
reached at daybreak. Neilgarh is the capital of the petty state of that 
name and is the residence of the rajas ; it is an insignificant place with 
a few pukka buildings belonging to the raja, also some small temples. 

I had been told that there were caves in this hill, bat upon inquiry 
on my arrival I was assured that I had been misinformed, and that the 
only curiosities were two huge blocks of stone frds of the way up the 
hill which are venerated and known by the names of Domurra and 
Domurrani. I accordingly climbed up the hill, and being much fatigued 
rested on the rock : I had a noble view of the sea and the surrounding 
country which in some measure repaid me for my trouble. My guide' 
assured me with the gravest face possible that these* two shapeless, 
stones were deities in that disguise awaiting the time when the sea 
will rise above the low lands and wash the foot of the hills, when they 
(the Thakurs) will sit and enjoy themselves, fishing with a rod and 
line ; there is no accounting for such an absurd tradition. 

The rock of this lofty hill is a fine close-grained grey granite with 
large veins of quarts. 

Having taken a cup of tea I retraced my steps to Baliswar where I 
arrived at 3 p.m. I left the following evening for Jajipur, which place 
I reached at noon on the 1st. I had expected to meet a native friend of 
mine, Moonsif Abdulahed, with whom I intended to pass a couple 
of days exploring the antiquities of Jdjipur, but to my regret he had 
left two days' previous for a place twenty miles off. I made every 
possible inquiry, but was assured that there were no inscriptions or other 
objects worthy of notice beyond what I had seen in November 1836\ 
already described in my journal, vide page 58 Journal As. Soc. 
No. 78 for January 1888 ; I examined the huge idols near the shrine : 
it would upon more mature consideration be an useless expense remov- 
ing them, as they are much mutilated. 

1 went to the temple where the eight idols are placed, which are said 
to have been dug out of the bed of the river and drew five of them. 
There are very faithful representations of the whole (nine idols) in the 
Mackenzie collection of plates ; also of the three colossal figures above 
mentioned. Towards the evening I was informed that there was a stone 
with writing and sculpture upon it situated in the centre of an extensive 
plain about six miles to the south-westward . I procured bearers and 

rat.v//w/- AIX\ 


1838.] - Journal of a Tour in Orissa. 881 

ttarted at sunset, having made prey ions arrangements for proceeding on 
to CuUaek after examining the stone ; I reached the spot after an in- 
finite deal of trouble and annoyance, for I conld not get a single villager 
to tell me where it was ; all denied there being any at all, such is the 
provoking insolence and knavery of most Ooreyabs. At 8 P. m. my 
bearers having got hold (by good luck) of the head-man of the village, 
he led me to the spot which was such as described ; the stone is about 
three feet above the ground and of semicircular shape, having one face 
flat about one foot wide on which are the remains of a short inscription 
and a piece of rude sculpture (vide plate XXXVIII. fig. 1). I was 
assured that tBe stone was sunk very deep in the ground, in (act that 
it reached " patal" (the regions below). Having sketched the stone I 
proceeded on my journey to Cuttack, where I arrived at noon the 
following day. 

I remained two days at Cuttack and then proceeded to Kan&rak to 
see the famous temple known by the name of "the black pagoda." 
Owing to the bad bearers I had had for the two last stages, I did not 
reach Kandrak till one o'clock the following day, instead of at sunrise 
as I had expected, added to which I had such a bad headache when I 
arrived, from exposure to the sun and want of food, that I was quite 
unable to do any thing further than examine the noble ruin. 

The temple has been originally very similar in general design to 
that of Jagann&th at Pooree ; the great tower fell to the ground many 
centuries ago ; but one corner is still standing to the height of 80 
or 100 feet and has (at a distance) the appearance of a crooked 
column. Such is the extent and minuteness of the sculpture on the 
pyramidal building (the anti-chamber ) now remaining, that it would 
Tequire a sheet of paper almost of the size of the original to give all 
the minutiae of sculpture. The largest figures (which are mostly 
highly obscene) are about four feet high : there is one row of them 
however round the dome (if it may be so termed) which are neatly 
executed and well worth removing to the museum : they represent 
musicians in dancing attitudes, playing on drums, trumpets, &c. &c. &c. 
The whole edifice is of a reddish stone found in the neighbourhood, 
which appears to be a kind of mottled breccia with a great proportion 
of quartz and lithomarge. ' The only black stones in! the building, are 
those with which the three doorways to the north, east and ~ south 
are lined : they are huge slabs of chlorite richly carved. 

The Kurda raja has demolished all three entrances and is removing 
the stones to Pooree ; the masons pick out the figures and throw them 
down to take their chance of being broken to pieces, (which most of 
4 Q 2 

68S Journal of a Tour w Orissa. [Aug. 

them are ;) such they leave on the spot, those that escape uninjured are 
taken away. 

The elegant doorway called the Nawagrihfi, a drawing of which is 
to be found in the 15th Vol. of the Asiatic Researches, has been 
completely destroyed* 

I remarked three or four niches in the different' doorways in which 
slabs of chlorite with inscriptions had existed ; they were removed about 
1615 or later by some European officer, but what has become of them 
I cannot ascertain : it is probable they were sent to Europe. It would 
be worth while to institute some inquiry after these valuable records 
of antiquity which might throw some light on the origin bf this wonder- 
ful specimen of human ingenuity and labor, and would also add to the 
knowledge already obtained from such records* regarding the early his* 
tory of Kalinga. 

Before the northern doorway, are two colossal elephants nearly 
buried in the sand and ruins, with drivers seated on them and foot 
soldiers beside them ; the elephants are supposed to be covered with 
jewels and armour ; before the southern entrance are two horses and 
attendants to each, equally elegantly caparisoned ; before the eastern 
doorway, are two huge lions rampant with an elephant crouching 
beneath each ; one of these is still erect, of which I took a drawing; 
see fig. 2, PI. XXXVIII. The doorways are severally called after the 
animals which guard them ; via. the Sinha, Aswa, and Hasti darw&ata. 

Having procured sixteen bearers I proceeded on to Pooree after dark 
and reached the bungalows on the beach at 3 a. m. I had my palkee 
placed by the sea side and enjoyed the breeze and the roaring of the 

I remained during the day (the 6th March), and walked for a mile 
or more on the beach at low water, picked up many shells but very 
few perfect I could only obtain two coins at the shroffs, although I 
had anticipated better success, having been promised many. 

I made every possible inquiry about antiquities and inscriptions, but 
could learn of none except those in the great temple of Jagarmdth and 
in the Gondtchagarh .* it would be desirable to get facsimiles of these 
taken by some intelligent Hindu. 

At four p. m. left for Kdrda, at which place I arrived at sunrise : 
there are no ruins of any interest such as might have been expected, 
when it is considered that it was for many years the capital of Ori$sa ; 
the rude walls of the old noor or palace are still standing, also some of 
the city gateways. 

The laterite and breccia are the material* in common use for build* 
ingsof all kinds. 

Tib&n cavi , 


i" t 




1638.] Journal of a Tour in Orissa. 683 

There is a fine spring of water issuing from the northern face 
of the great hill ; near the summit, there is a small temple with an image 
of Siva from the navel of which the water is made to run ; a short way 
beyond this spot, over the top of the hill, and on the southern face, is a 
large cleft in the rock forming a kind of cavern, it is called " Pandeb 
Garha 9 or " Pimcha Pandava" it has for centuries been the abode of 
ascetics who have at different ages scratched their names and short 
sentences on the " sthans" or hewn seats within the cavern. I did not 


deem them worthy of being copied : they were mostly in Kutila charac- 
ter, Telingaua, Canara, &c. &c. 

At two p. m. I proceeded (dawk) to Atteiri, distant eight miles 
to visit the hot spring, the temperature of which was 1 15* only, owing 
to the body of cold water surrounding it being penned in to form 
a tank for the purpose of irrigation ; the spot where the spring rises is 
indicated by a number of small models of royal umbrellas made both 
of black and of white thread wove over twigs, placed there as offerings 
in honor (the white) of Siva and the black of Visbnu. 

Close to the village of Atteiri is a small tank hewn out of the 
laterite rock in which I found a kind of fresh water sponge adhering 
to the stones, it was perfectly white and had a very delicate and 
beautiful appearance. I brought away a piece but in the course of a few 
hours, the insect dying, it became putrid and decomposed, so that I 
was obliged to throw it away. 

I returned immediately to Kurda, (as it was past sunset) and reached 
that place at eight p. m. I left again at five a. m. for Khandgiri and 
owing to the insolence and perverseness of the bearers, who wanted to 
take me in spite of every remonstrance to Bhuvaneswar> I did not get 
there till one p. m. 1 had only ten miles to travel, yet as late as eleven 
a. m. (six hours), they only took me eight miles, when they set me down 
and went away to. cook their meals. I was then obliged to lock up my 
palkee, and taking my drawing materials and pittarahs on coolies, I 
walked the rest of the way in the heat of the sun : the bearers brought 
the palkee up a few hours afterwards. In the meantime having got some 
milk and a few plantains to refresh me, I set to work to draw all that 
was most worthy of notice ; I commenced work at one p. m. and 
continued till long after dark, using a torch : I regret that I lost so much 
time owing to the conduct of the bearers, and that I could not remain 
another day. Plates XXXIX. XL. XLI. and XL II. 

At ten p. v. I started again for Bhuvaneswar 9 and reached that 
place at two a. m. I arose at daybreak and set to work to copy an 
inscription in the temple of Kedareswar and tried to take off impress 

684 Journal of a Tour in Oris*a. £ Aug. 

fckms several times, but not succeeding, I copied it accurately in pencil*. 
1 found that in spite of all my measures and efforts that the brahmans 
would not allow me to enter the great temple to copy the numerous 
inscriptions there ; therefore I set to work to draw the sculpture of some 
of the elegant temples around me, but it coming on to rain hard I was 
obliged to give it up, not however, till, with the shelter of a chatta 
and a sheet, I completed a sketch of Ling Raj temple with the Bindsdr 
gur tank and buildings. 

• The rain still continuing, I left at four p. m. for Cuttaek where I 
arrived at ten a. m. the following morning, after passing a very stormy 
and wet night and being thrown down in ray palkee frequently ; on my 
arrival 1 received a letter from my friend, the Secretary, informing 
me of his discovery of the name of Antiochos in the Gimar and 
Dhauli inscriptions, and requesting me to recompare my transcript 
and correct any errors. I instantly laid my dawk and left at six p. m . 
for Dhauli which curious place I reached before daybreak and had to 
wait till it was light ; for the two bear cubs which escaped me there 
last year, when 1 killed the old bear, were now full grown and 
disputed the ground. At day break 1 climbed to the Astoastuma and 
cutting two large forked boughs of a tree near the spot, placed them 
against the rock : on these I stood to effect my object' I had taken the 
precaution to make a bearer hold the wood steady, but being intent on 
my interesting task I forgot my ticklish footing ; the bearer had also 
fallen asleep and let go his hold, so that having overbalanced myself the 
wood slipped and I was pitched head foremost down the rock, but fortu- 
nately fell on my hands and received no injury beyond a few bruises 
and a severe shock : I took a little rest and completed the work. 
' I then climbed to the cavern and attempted to penetrate it, but the 
stench of the bats and the dung of those animals and cockroaches pre- 
vented my going more than 20 or SO yards. I procured a few specimens 
of the curious kind of bats occurring here, then returned towards Cut' 
tack 9 and arrived at six p. m. much satisfied at having been able to effect 
so desirable an object. 

I took one day's rest and the second day at five p. m. left again on 
my march to Tdlchir in search of coal. I had sent on my tent and 
servants to Kakhar the first march; I passed the night there and 
marched to Govindpur in Dhenkunnal before daybreak the next morn- 

* We have unfortunately mislaid this inscription, or rather have placed it 
carefully by, where we cannot put our hands on it. When found, an account of 
it shall be given in our series of inscriptions, which daily multiplies, and es> 
grosses more and more of our time and attention. — Ed. 

1838.] Journal of a Tour in Orissa, 685 

ing in company with my friend Mr. R. Bbetson of Cut tack : there 
was dense jangal the whole way ; the soil is stiff red marl with much la- 
terite ; there are numerous small hills on either side of the path ; the 
rock is a coarse sandstone, a continuation of that formation alluded to 
in my report on the volcanic rock of Neuraje in No. 74 for February 
1838, of the Asiatic Journal. Shingle occurs occasionally : I am of 
opinion that coal could be found at some depth below the surface. 
There is a great deal of cultivation about Govindpur : there is a nulla 
the water of which is penned in after the rains for the purposes of irri- 
gation. A short distance north of the village are the remains of a dam 
of masonry close to the extensive ruins of some former city called Ton- 

The natives have a tradition that this is one of the forts of a race 
of people called Dehalli&y who formerly had possession of these hill 

On the 15th I marched to Deogaon, a large village with several tem- 
ples, tanks, and wells at the foot of the famous hill of KapUdss ; in 
the evening we climbed this lofty hill by a narrow but even path wind- 
ing round the southern face : the ascent is very steep and in many pla- 
ces steps are hewn out of the rock. I should think it must be about one 
and half miles to the glen near the summit where there is a beautiful 
spring of fresh water issuing from a part of the rock which, different 
from the other parts of the hill, is stratified. There are Beveral small but 
ancient temples dedicated to Mahadeva under the name of KapUdss 
Mahadeo ; they were built by the Gajapati raja Pra tap Rudra Dbva. 
The brahmans relate that the raja having incurred the guilt of killing 
a bull, had a curse pronounced on him ; he went to Pooree and asked 
of Jaganndth what he should do to obtain forgiveness ; the deity replied 
" Go to Mount Kapildss and there remain doing penance until your 
black raiments turn white." Having after a time obtained the favor of 
Siva he built the temples and endowed them out of gratitude for his 
absolution, since which time the spot has become a place of constant 
worship, a large fair is held annually when pilgrims flock to it from all 
parts of Orissa. 

It was quite dark before we reached the foot of the hill, we were met 
by several paiks who had been sent to light us home to our tent, they 
had torches made of slips of Sissoo wood, tied into long narrow bun- 
dles which once lighted burn to the last morsel, emitting a very 
strong light with a powerful and delicious aromatic smell, they are in 
common use throughout the Girijdt (hill states). 

686 PdK Buddhistical Annals. [Aire. 

111.— An examination of the Pdli Buddhistical Annals, No. 3. By 
the Hon hie Gkorgk Tubnoub, JEsq. Ceylon Civil Service. 

(Continued from Vol. VI. p. 737.] 

In the two preceding articles, an attempt has been made to give at 
connected account of three great Buddhistical convocations held in 
India ; as well as to establish the authenticity, and to define the age 
in which those Pali Annals were compiled from which that account 
was taken. In due course, in an inquiry chiefly entered into for the 
illustration of the historical data contained in these records, the next 
subject for examination would have been the genealogy of the kings 
of India, had the chronology of the Buddhists anterior to the age of 
Sa'kya, exhibited the same degree of authenticity, that the portion 
subsequent to that era has been found to possess.- 

In this respect, however, the Buddhistical writings are unfortunately 
as defective as the Brihminical. Both the chronology and the 
historical narrative prior to the advent of Go to mo' Buddho, are 
involved in intentional perversion and mystification ; a perversion 
evidently bad recourse to for the purpose of working out the scheme 
on which he based that wonderful dispensation, which was promulgated 
over Central India, during his pretended divine mission on earth of 
forty-five years, between 588 and 543 before the birth of Christ ; and 
was subsequently recognized, almost throughout the whole of Asia*, 
within two and half centuries from that period. 

Your invaluable discovery of the alphabet in which the inscriptions* 
undeciphered for ages, which are scattered over India, are written, 
having proved that those inscriptions are, for the most part, Buddhis- 
tical, and composed in the Pali language, will in themselves have 
afforded a powerful incentive to the oriental scholar to devote his best 
attention to the examination of the ancient annals of that creed 
still extant in that language. And when, on the one hand, by an 
extraordinary and fortunate coincidence, the events recorded in those 
inscriptions are found to be commemorative, chiefly, of the edicts of 
the identical ruler of India, of whom the most detailed information is 
given in the only P£li historical work yet brought to the notice of the 
European literary world ; and on the other, by the preposterous 
pretensions of the Buddhists, their mystified legends of antiquity are 
solemnly put forth as an equally authentic and continuous history 
from the commencement of the creation, unless timely precaution be 
taken to avert the delusion, an exaggerated amount of expectation 
may be created, which must unavoidably end in a proportionate measure 

«3&0 P6U Buddhistical Annals. 687 

of ultimate disappointment, involving, perhaps in that reaction the 
authentic portion also of these annals, for a time, under one general 
and sweeping disparagement. 

It is very desirable, therefore, that, if possible, the nature, the 
extent, as well as the motive, for this mystification should be explained, 
before I advert to those portions of the Pali Annals which treat of events 
af greater antiquity than twenty-four centuries. I profess not to be 
able to show, either the age in which the first systematic perversion of 
the Buddhistical records took place, or how often that mystification was 
repeated ; but self-condemnatory evidence more convincing than that 
which the Pitakattaya ' and the Ajthakathd themselves contain, that 
such a mystification was adopted a| the advent of Sakya cannot, I 
conceive, be reasonably expected to exist In those authorities, (both 
which are still held by the Buddhists to be inspired writings,) you are, 
as one of their cardinal points of faith, required to believe, moreover, 
that a revolution of human affairs, in all respects similar to the one 
that took place at the advent of Sakya, occurred at the manifestation 
of every preceding Buddho. The question, therefore, as to whether 
Sakya was or was not the first disturber of Buddhistical chronology, is 
dependent on the establishment of the still more important historical 
fiict of whether the preceding Buddha had any existence but in his 
pretended revelation. For impartial evidence on this interesting 
question, we must not, of course, search Buddhistical writings ; and it 
is not my design to enter into any speculative discussion at present. 

It is, however, not unworthy of general remark that, as far aa 
the surviving records of antiquity will admit of a judgment being 
formed, the learned consider it to be established that the Egyptians 
and the Hindus, the two nations who earliest attained an advanced 
condition of civilization, both preserved their chronology underanged, 
till about the age in which Buddhism acquired its greatest spread over 
the civilized regions of Asia; and that it was only then that the 
propounders of religious mysteries in Egypt and in those regions 
attempted to remodel their historical data, attributing to their respective 
nations a greater antiquity than that previously clsimed by them. 
Hbbodoto8 is considered to have visited Egypt about the middle of 
the fifth century before Christ. A comparison of the information 
collected by that historian, with that obtained by Diodorus four 
hundred years later, shows that the Egyptian priests had in that 
interval altered their traditions considerably, so as to throw the com- 
mencement of their history much further back. It appears to be 
equally proved, by the evidence still extant of the information collected 
4 a 

688 Pali Buddhistic*! Annals. [Av* 

by Mkgasthenes, during bis embassy to India* in the fourth century 
before Christ, that the chronology of the Hindus, had not been 
mystified (to the extent, at least, H is now found to be) up to that 
period; for that Mboastrbnbs is represented to bear testimony that 
the Hindus had not carried back their antiquities much beyond six 
thousand years, and that the Hindus and the Jews were the only 
people who had a true idea of the creation of the world. Although 
S^kta closed his career in B. C. 543, his creed had not spread over 
Asia till after «the conversion of Aso'ko, and the dispersion of the 
missionaries to propagate Buddhism in the year after the third convo- 
cation, which was held in B. C. 309 ; and the general adoption of the 
Buddhistical derangement of historical data beyond Central India, 
could only have gained ground with the extension of the creed by 
which it was promulgated. Thus much then may safely be inferred 
from these authorities, that the chronology of the Egyptians, the Hin- 
dus and the Buddhists (the last two perhaps ought not to be separated 
till after Go'tomo' Buddho's assumption of Buddhohood) remained, 
nnderanged, till about the age of his advent ; and that the alteration 
of the chronology of the Egyptian and Buddhists had been completely 
effected between that epoch, and the date at which Buddhism attained 
its most extended ascendancy. In regard to the Hindu chronology, 
within my limited means of information, I am only able to learn, that 
Mkgasthenes found it of the degree of authenticity already mentioned, 
in the fourth century before Christ, and that, as far as we can gather 
from the JRdfa Taringini, the only continuous Hindu history yet 
discovered, its mystifications extend to so recent a date as the seventh 
century of our era. The absence, however, of more precise evidence 
as to the exact date at which the original derangement of the Hindu 
chronology actually took place, by no means justifies the conclusion 
that it was not Jirat disturbed at the same time as that of the Egyptians 
and Buddhists. 

The temptation to prosecute these analogies further is almost 
irresistible, under the fresh interest given to the inquiry by your 
discovery, in the ancient Buddhistical inscriptions, of the names of 
rulers of Bactriana and of Egypt in the edicts of Aso'ko, the identical 
monarch in India, in whose reign the alteration of the Buddhistical 
chronology must have been generally recognized. The data, however 
connected with this question are not yet fully prepared for examination ; 
and even if they were, I should not presume to use them till the public 
had the benefit of your learned digest of these materials, the fruits of 
your own successful researches. My attempt to give a translation of 

1636.] P4ii Buddhistical Annals. 689 

the L6t inscriptions, before the result of your own labori reached me, 
was made exclusively at your request. 

The task I have assigned for myself on the present occasion is free 
from every embarrassment but the etHbamas d$ riches**, arising out of 
the necessity of selecting from, and condensing, my superabundant 
materials, to adapt them for your Journal. In accordance with the 
plan hitherto pursued by me, I limit myself to furnishing literal 
translations, unaccompanied by any further observations from myself 
than are indispensably necessary for the due comprehension of the 
passages quoted either from the PifakaUaya* or the Affhakothd. 

Buddhists, as I have already stated, maintain that all they possess of 
historical data to the date of the third convocation are either the con- 
temporaneous history of Sakta and his disciples, or the revelations of 
anterior events disclosed by the power of inspiration with which they 
were endowed. My first extracts, therefore, will be explanatory of this 
power, which is designated the PubbMiwdsandnan. 

As it is also a tenet of their faith, not only that the world is destroy- 
ed and reproduced after the lapse of certain, to us, undefinable periods, 
but that even during the existence of each creation, or kappo, the con- 
dition of man undergoes such changes as to reduce the term of human 
life, from the incalculable asankheyyaft to ten years, accompanied like- 
wise by a proportionate deterioration of the mental faculties ; and as 
such a deterioration invariably intervenes between the advents of any 
two Buddha, though manifested in the same kappo, expressly in order 
that revelation, and revelation alone, may connect the histories of the 
preceding with each subsequent Buddho— my second series of ex- 
tracts will consist of those passages of these revelations which are de- 
scriptive of the destruction and reproduction of the universe and of man- 
kind, both generally, and, in somewhat greater detail, as regards the 
last creation ef the world. 

Thirdly and lastly, the extracts will contain an abridged notice of 
the three Boddha of this kappo who preceded Sakta, and a fuller 
account of Sakta himself to the period of his delivering the discourses 
contained in the section called the JBuddhawaruo, the commentary 
on which chiefly furnishes my extracts. 

When these points have been placed before those who take an inter- 
est in this inquiry, in the light in which they are regarded by Buddhists 
themselves, the scope and design of the parties who compiled the annals 
from which all our data are derived, are less likely to be misunderstood. 

Wherever an isolated passage of the Pitakattayah is found to contain 
the information sought in an integral form, the preference has always 
4 a 2 

690 PdU Buddhistical Annals. £ Ac* 

been given to it over the Atthakathd. On subjects necessarily invok- 
ing continuous narrative, the information could in general only have 
been obtained by reference to several parts of the PHakaUaya* (as the 
narrative portion of that compilation consists principally of unconnected 
parables) ; and by forming a connected statement from those references. 
In those cases, I have preferred at once availing myself of the continu- 
ous statement frequently furnished by Buddhaghoso in his AtthakrthA 
or commentaries on the text of the Pifakattayah. My object being to 
select for consideration, in every instance, those points which are con- 
sidered of the greatest importance, not by the European inquirer but 
by the Buddhist commentator ; and to present them also, as far as pos- 
sible, in the language used by Boddho, his disciples, and the last great 
commentator on his doctrines, Buddhaghoso. 

Concerning the Pubbeniwatananan, Extract from the PatUamblidan, the twelfth 

book in the Khudakanik&g6 in the Suttapitako. 

" He (who has attained the arahat, sanctification) is endowed with the power, 
called pMbberdw&McnAnah, of revealing hie various former existences. Thua I am 
acquainted with one existence, two existences, three existences, four existences, 
five existences, ten existences, twenty existences, "thirty existences, forty existences, 
fifty existences, a hundred existences, a thousand existences, and a hundred 
thousand existences; Innumerable Sanwalla-kappe' ; innumerable WnoatU-kappi ; 
innumerable Sanwstptwiwa^^a-kappe. 

" 1 know that 1 was born in such a place, bearing such a name, descended of such 
a race, endowed- with such a complexion : that I subsisted on such an aliment, 
and was subjected to such and such joys and griefs, and was gifted with such a 
term of existence : who after death (in each of those existences) was reproduced 
in such a place, bearing such a name, descended of such a family, endowed with 
such a complexion, nourished by such aliment, subjected to such and such pains 
and pleasures, gifted with such a term of existence : and who, after death in that 
existence, was regenerated here. Thus it is that he who is endowed with the 
Pubb4n4u>6*an4nan is acquainted both with his origin and external appearance 
(in his form existence)." 

The Atthakathd called the Saddhammappakdnm, on the PoftarmoiW- 
dan affords the following explanation of this passage. 

" This power of Pubbenito&eanAtnan six descriptions of beings exerdse ; vis. the 
Tttthiyd (the ministers of other religions), the Pdkaiisatoate (disciples ordinary of 
Buddbo), the AtUimahdsdwakA (his eighty principal disciples), the Dtoc-aggasawakd 
(the two chief disciples), the Pachche'kd Buddha (inferior Buddhos), and the Buddhi 
(supreme Buddhos). 

'• Among these, the Txtthiya have the power of revelation over forty kappi t and 
not beyond, on account of their limited intelligence ; and their intelligence is limit- 
ed as they recognize a limitation to corporeal and individual regeneration. 

" The ordinary disciples (of Buddbo) have the power of revelation over a hun- 
dred and a thousand kappe being endowed with greater intelligence. 

" The eighty principal disciples have the power of revelation over a hundred thou- 
sand kappi. The two chief disciples over one asankkeyyan and a hundred thousand 
kappi. The inferior Buddhd over two atankheyydnt' and a hundred thousand kappi 

1B38.]- Pdli Buddkistical Annals. 691 

Their destiny being fulfilled at tbe termination of these respective periods (being 
the term that has elapsed from the epoch of their respectively forming their vow to 
realize eanctificatlon, to their accomplishment of the same). To the intelligence of 
the supreme Budded alone there is no limitation.' * 

Concerning the creation of the world. Extracts from the tome Atihakathd. 

" * Bhikkhus! there are to each mahd-kappo, four oaankheyytne (the duration of 
which) do not admit of computation. These are those four. In due course of time, 
Bhikkhus the kappo perishes ; but the duration of the term (during which it is in pro- 
cess of destruction) does not admit of computation. There is also, Bhikkhus ! a term 
during which the kappo remains perished, which likewise does not admit of compu- 
tation. In due course, again, Bhikkhus ! the kappo is regenerated ; and for a certain 
period the kappo maintains its regenerated state. The duration of each of which, 
terms is, in like manner, incalculable.' 

" The four asankheyydni thus explained by Buddho in the Chatussankhakappasut- 
tan (in the fourth chapter of Anguttoranikoyo), bave been made the subject of this 

••There are three modes of destruction; destruction by fire ; destruction by water ; 
destruction by the wind ; and there are these limitations to the spread of those de- 
structions, prescribed by the position of either the Abhassaro t the Subhakinno, or the 
Wchapphalo Brahmoloka worlds. 

" Whenever the kappo is destroyed by fire,itls only consumed from Abhassaro down- 
ward. "Whenever the kappo is destroyed by water, it perishes by tbe water below 
the Subhakinno ; and whenever it perishes by the wind, it is destroyed by the wind 
prevalent below tbe Wehapphalo. 

" On each occasion on which a kappo is destroyed one Buddhakkheitan always pe- 
rishes: of which there are three descriptions, via. the Jdtikkhettan, Anakkhcttan &nd 
Wisayyakkhettan. The ten thousand Chakkawaloni (or the regions to which birth- 
right extends), which are bounded by the Jdtikkhettan belong to the Jdtikkhettan ; 
whieh is subject to do homage ia this world to Tathaoato (Buddho), on all oc- 
casions from the day of his being conceived in the womb of his mother. The hun- 
dred thousand koiiyo of Chakkawaldni bounded by the A&akkhettan (or regions to 
which his authority extends) appertain to the Anakkhettan. The aanctificatioas or 
influences of the Ratanapariitan t the Dhajaggaparittan, the Ai&ndtaparittan and 
the jtoraparittdn extend thereto. All the other endless and innumerable Chakka- 
waldni compose the Wisayyakkhetta*. In regard to it also, whatever Tathaoato 
may vouchsafe, that he can accomplish. From amongst these three Bnddkakkhet- 
t4ni f whenever the Andkkhettdn is destroyed, in that identical destruction, the 
destruction of the Jatikkhettin is also comprehended ; in as much as ia that 
destruction they are simultaneously involved; and at their reproduction they are 
simultaneously reproduced. Be it understood, that such is tbe progression of its 
(the kappo' s) destruction and reproduction. 

" At any time when a kappo is to be destroyed by lire, in the first place, the mighty 
cloud, the precursor of the destruction of the kappo, rising aloft, discharges 
itself simultaneously over the hundred thousand kdtiyo of Chakkawaldni. Their 
inhabitants, rejoicing thereat, and providing themselves with every description of 
seed, sow them. When the crops attain an age at which cattle delight to feed 
thereon, although thunders growl like the braying of an ass, not a drop of rain falls. 
The rain lost on that occasion is lost (to that world) for ever. All living creatures 
dependent on rain for their existence (perishing) are reproduced in the Brah$mal6ko 
world. 80 do also the creatures which subsist on flowers and fruits, as well aa 
tho Devoid. 

" When such a visitation has endured a certain period, water in every part of the 
world is dried up. Thereafter, in due course, fishes and turtles also, perishing, are 

693 Pdli Budihistical Annah. [Ado. 

regenerated In the BrahmaMko. Even creatures expiating their tint (in this world) 
while yet in health, expire, as soon as the seven suns (which ultimately manifest 
themselves) shine on the creation. As they are not endowed with Jhdman they 
are not (at once) reproduced in the BrahmaUSko. How then are these to be 
reproduced (ultimately there) having died of the misery they were enduring, without 
yet being able to attain Jhdnan t By the gift of Jh&na* to be acquired by their 
(intermediate) reproduction in the DhoaUko (which is inferior to the Br*km*Mk*)." 

Here follows a specification of the means by which those, who do 

not possess the jhdnan requisite for immediate regeneration in the 

JBrahmcUdkoy acquire it intermediately in the Diwaldko, to which they 

are admissible without that sanctification. The Atthakatfid proceeds. 

" At a certain period after rain has ceased (to fall) a second sun appears. Alter 
the appearance of the second sun, there is no longer any limitation to, or 
distinction of, night and day. When one sun sets the other sun rises, keeping up a 
constant sun shine. Nor is that sun like the ordinary one, in ordinary times. There 
is neither cloud nor mist, to intercept its rays, but it is as clear as a looking glass. 
The five great rivers (of the world) together with all the small streams are then 
dried up. 

" From the second to the fifth sun, the lakes and inland seas and the great ocean 
dry up progressively. At the appearance of the sixth sun, the whole Chakkmoal^nimn 
involved in one mass of smoke. After the lapse of a considerable period, the 
seventh sun appears. By its manifestation the whole of the ChakkmwaiiMi, 
together with the hundred thousand k6tiyo of worlds, become involved in one 
column of fire." 

Here follows an account of the extension of the flames to the six 
D6wal6kd 9 and from thence to the lower Brahmalokd, till they reach 
the Apassard Brahmaldko. The fire then subsides, without leaving 
even the ashes unconsumed of the worlds that had been destroyed, 
leaving the universe, above and below the consumed regions, involved 

in total darkness. 

" After the lapse of a long period, a mighty cloud rising, sprinkles a slight shower 
in drift, which by degrees increasing to streams of the size of the lotus stalk, a 
beam, the pestle of a rice pounder, and the trunk of a palmira tree, pours down on 
all the Chakkatoaldni, and submerges the whole of them that had been destroyed by 
fire. The power of the wind below and around, prevents the escape of the waters, 
which are concentrated resembling a drop of water on the leaf of a lotus flower. 

44 By what means is it that so great a body of water (ultimately) acquires the 
properties of solidity ? By making apertures in various places, access to that 
body (of water) is afforded (to the wind). Thus by the effect of the wind, it (the 
water) becomes further concentrated, and acquires further consistency. It then 
begins to evaporate, and gradually subsides. 

"When the flood has subsided to the point where BrahmaWko had stood, six 
I>foal6k& are reproduced. On its subsiding to the point where this world bad 
stood, furious storms prevail, and confine it (the subsiding flood) as the water in 
a basin covered with a lid is confined. 

" On this fresh water gradually drying up, on the surface (of the human world) a 
delicious coating of earth is formed, like unto the curds on the surface of rice 
boiled exclusively in milk, without any water, excellent in color, in fragrance and 

1838.] Pali Buddhiitical Annul*. 693 

" At the same tine, the living creatures who were the trst reproduced in the Abha$* 
*aro-lrafoftaZ<f*e, having completed the allotted tern of their existence, and dying there, 
are from thence regenerated here, In the manner described In the Afffan^asuttan." 

For the elucidation of this interesting subject, I shall here introduce 
a translation of the Agganna-suttdn, which is one of the discourses 
in the Pdtiwaggo section of the Dighanikdyo, of the Suttapitako, 
as delivered by Buddho himself ; instead of restricting myself to the 
abridged account of the regeneration of the world, which is given in the 
above A#kakathd. 

This Sutton was addressed* by Sakta, to Wa'sbttho and Bh^bad- 
bwajo, the descendants of an illustrious brahman named Wasettho, 
who had become converts to Buddhism, and entered into the first or 
B6man4ro order of Buddhistical priesthood. It was delivered at the 
city of Sdwatthipura, at the Pubb&r&mo toihdro, in the edifice called 
the Migdrdmdtu pdtddo, which the Atohakathd explains was built by 
a female of that name. 

The discourse opens with Sakya's inquiry from these two converted 
brahmans whether they had incurred the displeasure or reproach of 
the elder and the other influential brahmans by their apostacy ; and 
they explain the nature of the reproach cast on, and of the disgrace 
imputed to, them. The principal degradation alleged to the converts is, 
" That the brahmans are the sons of Brahma sprung from his mouth, 
pure and fair ; while the other castes and sects are sprung from his 
feet, and are black and impure." 

I must however, to save space, confine myself to the passages of 
the Suttdn which describe the regeneration of the world, and of the 
human race. Sakya thus explains himself* : * 

" My friends, descendants of Wa'sbttho 1 the progress of time is thus regulated. 
After the lapse of a long period of time, this world is destroyed. On the 
destruction of this world, living creatures for the most part will be regenerated In 
the Abkdit&rO'brahmaMko. 

" They will appear there by an apparitional birth, subsisting on the aliment of 
felicity, illumined by their own effulgence, moving through the air, delightfully 
located, and will exist there uninterruptedly for ages. 

" My friends, descendants of Wa'sbttho ! in due course, the lapse of time will 
produce this result. At the expiration of a long period of time, this world will be 
reproduced again. On the reproduction of the world, for the most part, those 
living creatures, dying in the Abhassara-brahmaloko, return to this world. They 
appenr here also by an apparitional birth, subsisting on the aliment of felicity, 
illumined by their own effulgence, moving through the air, delightfully located, 
and exist here also uninterruptedly for ages, in unity and concord, similar to (the 
eoheaiveness of) a drop of water. 

" Descendants of Wa'sbttho I at that period there is neither obscurity nor utter 
darkness. The sun and moon are unknown: night and day are undlseernible. 

• In M. Csoua's account of the origin of the Sakya race, vol. II. p. 387, the 
exposition of this history is put into the mouth of Mongalyana, a favourite disci- 
ple. — Ed, 

S94 Pali BuddhUtical AnnaU. f Ao* 

Neither month nor the moiety of the month it computed : neither Masons nor the 
year is perceptible ; nor female and male distinguishable, all creatures being classed 
under one head (without distinction of lex). 

" Descendants of Wa'sbttho t thereafter, ultimately, at the termination of a losg 
period of time, a savory substance is developed for living creatures, on land and 
in water. In the same manner that a curd is formed on the surface of boiled milk, 
in that manner is it developed. It (that savory substance) is fully endowed with 
the properties of color, fragrance and flavor, in the way in which batter colon 
cream, such is its coloring property, in the manner in which the honeyemns 
formed by the small bee is free from impurity, such is its purity of flavor. 

" Thereafter, descendants of Wa'sbttho, a certain greedy mnn, making this 
observation, * My friends I What is this that has been brought about,' licks 
this savory substance from the surface of the earth, scraping it up with his finger. 
By his having licked the earth, using his finger, the flavor with which it was imbu- 
ed, takes entire possession of him ; and the influence of the passions alight on him. 

" O descendants of Wa'sbttho 1 the rest of mankind, also each adopting the same 
proceeding from his example, lick from his finger the flavor of the earth, and the 
influence of the said flavor, from having been imbibed by licking the finger, takes 
possession of them likewise ; and the passions alight on them also. 

••Thereafter, descendants of Wa'sbttho! these men gathering up the savory 
substance on the earth with their hands, begin to devour it by the handful ; and 
in consequence, descendants of Wa'sbttho 1 of these men devouring this flavour of 
the earth, taking it up by the handful, the aforesaid effulgence of these men 

"On the extinction of that personal halo, the sun and the moon, the planetary 
system, and night and day become distinguishable. On night and day being 
distinguished, the half month and the month are deseernible. On the half montk 
and the month becoming deseernible, the seasons and the year become regulated. 

" Descendants of Wa'sbttho t thus much only was this world (then) degenerated. 
Thereafter, descendants of Wa'sbttho ! these men having tasted of the flavor of 
the earth, subsisting thereon, and having no other aliment, lived for ages, to aa 
advanced period of life. According as these men, who had tasted the flavor of the 
earth, feasting and subsisting thereon, survived for ages, to an advanced stage of 
life, in that exact proportion, a coarse skin developed itself on their body ; and the 
possession of a good and bad complexion began to be distinguished. Some of these 
beings had a good, and other a bad one. In consequence thereof, those gifted with 
a fine complexion, reproached those who had a bad one ; saying, ' We have a better 
color than they have.' 'They have a worse complexion than we have.' Oa 
account of this pride of complexion, to those in whom the pride of color had been 
engendered, (the gift of tasting) the flavor of the earth vanished. 

" On the extinction of (the gift of tasting) the flavor of the earth, they 
assembled ; and having assembled, they cried one to another, * Ah 1 taste. Ah ! 
taste, (it is lost' ). That (ejaculation) even the people of the present day are ia 
the habit of using, on finding any thing of a delicious flavor, • Ah 1 taste. Ah I 
taste.' This expression used by the first tribe of mankind they continue to repeat; 
but of the origin of this expression tbey are entirely ignorant. 

"Descendants of Wa'sbttho 1 on (the gift of tasting) the navorVjf the earth 
being lost to mankind, a substance manifested itself on the surface of the earth, 
like unto mushroom. It thus came to pass. It was endowed with color, fragrance 
and flavor. Its color was like that of cream rich with butter. Its purity was like 
that of the honey deposited by the small bee. 

11 Thereafter, descendants of Wa'sbttho ! these persons commenced to devour 
this excrescence on the earth. They who had partaken thereof, feasting and 

163&] Frf/i Buddkistical AnnaU. 695 

subsisting thereon, lived for ages, to an advanced period of life. Descendants of 
Wa'ssttkoI, in the proportion in whieh they partook of this excrescence, feasting 
and subsisting thereon, in that proportion unto those persona did a coarse skin 
appear on their body ; and beauty and unsightliness of complexion became 
discernible. Some people were of a good complexion, and some were of a bad 

Then followed the same reproaches as in the former case ; and this 
substance also on the surface of the earth, vanished. 

On the disappearance of this crust, the creeper (bearing a delicious 

fruit) called the Baddalatd appears « like unto the stock of the lotus ;" 

which also is lost under similar circumstances, and leads to similar 

lamentations. The Suttan proceeds : 

" On the disappearance of the Baddalatd, the tili (hill rice) manifested itself on 
a loose soil. It was free from pellicle and husk, of great fragrance, and possessing 
the properties of rice ; which rice they were in the habit of bringing away every 
evening, for their evening meal : and in the morning, being again renewed in fott 
hearing, they brought it away for their early meal ; bat by the evening it was 
again renewed, in fall bearing indicating no diminution." 

Then follow the same excesses, the same reproaches and the same 
consequences, as iu the three preceding instances. After noticing that 
they again became sensible of the difference of complexion, Buddho 
proceeds in his revelation as follows : 

" To the portion of mankind who had been females (before the destruction of the 
world) the attribute of the female sex was manifested, and to the male the 
male attribute. For a while the female gaxed longingly at the male, and the male 
at the female. Unto them, from thus gazing at each other, for a while, sexual 
desire waa produced ; and in their body the flame of passion arose. Under the 
Impulse of that burning passion, they indulged in sexual intercourse. 

" Descendants of Wa'sbttho ! these persons, certain individuals (still free 
from vice) noticed ; and calling out ' Oh the impurity of Impure persons 1* • What 
is this ?' ' Can one person act so towards another ?' some of them pelted them 
with earth, and others with ashes and cattle dung. 

" Descendants of Wa'bettho ! that which was considered an improper proceeding 
(pdhammMammata*) is now reognized to be n proper proceeding (dhammasammaian). 
At that period persons who indulged in sexual intercourse were not permitted for 
one or two months thereafter, to intermix in a small or great community, 

" Descendants of Wa'settho ! when those who had been addicted to that 
Improper proceeding, had indulged for a while thereon ; thereafter they began to 
build houses, in order that they might conceal that improper proceeding. 

** Thereafter, descendants of Wa'sbtthoI unto a certain indolent person this 
thought occurred. * Why should I give myself the pains of bringing the tdli rice, 
In the evening for the evening meal, and in the morning for the morning meal : 
snost assuredly when I bring it once it would do for the morning also.' Thereupon, 
descendants of Wa'settho ! this individual brought away the tdli at once, for 
both the morning and the evening. 

"Another Individual then going to him said, * My good fellow, come, let us 
fetch our i&H,' ' Begone (said the other) , I have brought tdli enough for both the 
Snoraing and the evening.' From his having seen the proceeding of this individual, 
bringing his tdli at once for the morning and the evening, relinquishing the 
practice of bringing each meal, he said, * Friend 1 that la most excellent/ " 
4 s 

696 Pdli Buddhistical Annals. [Aw. 

In nearly the same words, other individuals « influenced by each 
preceding example, proceeded to collect sdli for four days and eight 

" In this manlier, descendants of Wa'settho t men laying up stores of sa#, 
began to meet together, for the purpose of feasting thereon. Thereupon the Inner 
pellicle formed on the grain of rice, and the outer husk also formed on the grain of 
rice : and it (the rice stalk) no longer grew at the point at which it was cut down. 
The loss sustained became obvious ; and the $&U were only found in clamps (at the 
places where they had not been cut down yet). 

" Descendants of Wa'settho ! these individuals then assembled, and said one t» 
another, ' Friend ) wickedness has descended among men : we were originally pro- 
duced by an act of our own volition (man6nay4 t an apparitional birth) and lived for 
a long time, feeding on the aliment of felicity, illumined by the light of our 
effulgence, and moving through the air, Sec.' " 

The lamentation then proceeds to specify how these blessings were 
lest ; at the termination of which, the revelation 13 thus continued. 

•< • Should we now divide off these t&ti clumps, and set boundaries, it will be most 
proper: 1 and thereupon, descendants of Wa'settho ! these individuals divided 
off, and set boundaries to the sdli accordingly. 

" Then, O descendants of Wa'settho ! a certain individual, impelled by covetous* 
ness, reserving his own share, fed on a share not assigned to him, robbing the 
same. They seized that person, and having seized him, thus admonished him. 
* Friend ! most assuredly thou hast been guilty of a crime : doth any one, any 
where, hoarding up his own share, appropriate, unbestowed, the portion of another 
person ? Friend ! man, commit not again such an act .' Descendants of 
Wa'smtho! this individual answered those persons saying ; « so be it, friends!' " 

In precisely the same terms, Buddho * proceeds to narrate that 
the same individual committed the same offence again, and was 
admonished in the same manner. After the third offence, the revelation 
proceeds : 

" Descendants of Wa'settho !, some beat Mm with their hands, some pelted 
him with (hard) substances, others struck him with dabs. From thnt period, 
descendants of Wa'settho! the appropriation of things unbestowed (thefts), 
degradation, fraud and the (consequent) punishments ensued. 

"Thereupon, descendants of Wa'settho! these men assembled, and having 
assembled thus deliberated. ' Friends ! most assuredly wicked actions have become 
prevalent among mankind : every where, theft, degradation, fraud and puniahmeat 
will prevail. It will be most proper that we should elect some one individual, who 
would be able to eradicate most fully that which should be eradicated, to degrade 
that whichs hould be degraded, to expel those who should be expelled ; and we will 
assign to him (the person elected) a share of our sdli+S 

" Thereupon, descendants of Wa'settho! these persons having selected an indivi- 
dual, in person- more beautiful, in personal appearance more pleasing, and (in afl 
respects) more calculated to conciliate than any one of . themselves was; ap- 
proaching that individual, they thus invoked him. • Man ! come hither : that 
which should be destroyed, annihilate most fully ; that which should be degraded, 
degrade most fully ; that which should be rejected, reject : we will assign to thee 
a portion of our $6li.' 

• The Afthakathd explains that each individual was to pay one *tnmmm. ' 

1*38.] Pdli Buddhistical Jtmal* 697 

" Descendants of Wa'sbttho ! the said individual having replied to those persons, 
4 Friends ! be it so !' be most folly annihilated that which should be annihilated ; 
degraded most folly that which should be degraded ; and rejected that which should* 
be expelled ; and they conferred on him a portion of their $dU. 

" Thus the great body of mankind haying (sammata) resolved or elected ; and 
the party elected being thence called ' AfaAd-sanuna/o,' the first name conferred was 
'JfcAd-sostjnafoV (the great elect;) and being also the lord of (' Khett&tU* ) 
* cultivated lands ;' he secondly acquired the appellation of ' Khattiyo'f and as by 
mis righteous administration it is considered that be (' ranyilV) ' rendered (mankind) 
nappy,' thence, descendants of Wa'sbttho 1 the appellation of ' raja* was thirdly 

" Thus it was, descendants of Wa'sbttho! that on this race of ' Kh*ttiyt>,' that 
illustrious appellation was bestowed, as its ancient original designation. They art 
descendants of the same, not of a different (stock) of mankind ; and of a perfect 
(original) equality, not of inequality ; (exalted) by a righteous, not an unrighteous, 
net. Descendants of Wa'sbttho, whether among people in this world, or the other 
world, righteousness {dhanmoj is supreme. 

" Descendants of Wa'sbttho ! to a portion of the same people, this thought 
occurred. ' Friends 1 among mankind wickedness has descended ; theft, degrada- 
tion, fraud, punishment and expulsion have appeared. It will be most proper that 
we should (* bh&kfybna') ' suppress' wicked and impious acts ; and they accordingly 
did (' bh&hentV) • suppress' wicked and impious acts. 

14 Descendants of Wa'sbttho ! those ' brjhmani' (* suppressors or eradicators') 
hence derived their first name ' brthmanAS " 

The revelation proceeds to explain how the brdhmand acquired 

secondly the appellation ' Jhayaktf from their (' Jh&yenti) ' exulting' 

in the wild life they were leading, in leaf huts built in the wilderness ; 

and thirdly, the appellation * Ajjh&yaka from their 'ceasing to exult' 

in that life ; and to explain also that, as in the Khdttiyo caste they are 

no other than a division of the same tribe, who were in all respects on 

« footing of original equality. 

" Descendants of Wa'sbttho ! the portion of mankind who had formed domestic 
connections, (and built houses for themselves) became WitstUakammentf) ' distin- 
guished as skilful workmen or artificers,' and in consequence of their becoming 
distinguished from their domestic ties and skilfulness, the appellation of * ffiraai' 
was obtained." 

Boddho then, in the same manner, explains that the W&sd also 
are a portion of the original stock, and repeats the circumstances 
under which they successively lost the advantages originally enjoyed 
by mankind. 

** Descendants of Wa'sbttho ! among those very individuals there were some 
persons who were addicted to hunting (fatfd). Descendants of Wa'sbttho ! from 
being called * luddd' * hiddd 9 the appellation * suddb' was formed. It was thus that 
to this class or caste of tuddd that name was originally given.'' 

* This individual was Sa'kya in one of his former incarnations, 
f " Kaettriya" according to the Hindus is the military, or warrior caste which 
with them is the second class, the * Brahman* being the first. 
4 a 2 

698 Pali Buddhittical Annali. [Atr* 

The revelation again repeats that the tudda caste also was originally 
no inferior class, but a part of the original stock, and proceeds to 
explain that from each of these castes certain individuals, despising 
and reviling their own castes respectively, each abandoned him habita- 
tion, and led an habitationless life (agariyan pubbajiid) saying, * I will 
become (sumano) an ascetic or priest/ Hence Buddho exemplifies 
that the ascetic or sacerdotal order was formed, from each of the four 
castes, and does not appertain to any particular caste; and 
reference to the persecution tbat the converted brlhmans, whom he 
addressing, were undergoing from those, from whose faith they were 
apostates, he says to them : 

" Descendants of Wa'ssttho I even a Khattiyo, who has sinned, In deed, word 
or thought, and become a heretic ; on account of that heresy, on the dismember- 
ment of his frame after his death, he is born in the tormenting everlasting and 
unindnrable hell. Such is also the fnte of the Brdhmo, the Wctso and the Sudds, 
as well as of the Sumano or ascetic. Bat if a Khattiyo lead a righteous life, in deed, 
word and thought ; and be of Che true or supreme faith, by the merit of that faith, 
on the dismemberment of his body after death, he fs reproduced in the felicitous 
suggaUka heavens. 

41 Again, descendants of Wa'settho ! a Khattiyo, who indeed, word and thought, 
has lived a life, partaking of both characters, and professed a mixed faith of both 
creeds, on account of the profession of the mixed faith, on the dismemberment of 
bis body after death, he partakes both of happiness and misery. Such is also the 
case in respect of the Brdhmo, Wesso, Suddo and Sumano enstes. 

"Again, descendants of Wa'Sbttho 1 if the Khattiyo, subduing- the influence 
of the sinful passions, in deed, word and thought, acquire the seven B6dMpakkhi- 
faddhamma, he attains the parinibbdnan which is the result of the acquisition of the 
arahat sanctification. Such is also the case with the Brdhmo, Wesso, Suddo and 
Sumano classes. 

" Descendants of Wa'settho 1 if there be any Bhikkhu among (any one of) these 
four castes, vho has subdued the dominion of sin, performed that which ought to 
have been performed, laid aside (the load of sin), fulfilled bis destiny, overcome 
the desire of regeneration (by transmigration), and extinguished covetous desires, 
be will become an arahat, and will be esteemed the most worthy among then, by 
righteousness, not by unrighteousness. 

" Descendants of Wa'settho ! among mankind, whether in this world or in the 
next world (dhammo) righteousness is supreme. 

" Descendants of Wa'settho ! the following has been sung even by the brihman 

Khattiyo seitho janS tasmin y6 gottapatisdrino. 
*Wijjacharana-sampanno, so tetiho dMoamdnusif, 


• I am not satisfied that I have caught the meaning of this quotation correctly. 
The Wijjacharana are only attainable by a supreme Buddho. They consist of 
fifteen attributes, all appertaining to pilgrimage; and as pilgrimage is performed on 
foot, hence the " being sprung from the foot of Brahma" is considered to be no 

f There if some ambiguity in the above extract, the nominatives singular having 
no apparent connection with patisdrino a genitive : — in Sanskrit this may be re- 
medied by putting the whole first line in the plural, according to my pandit :— 

16M.] Pdtt Buddhistical AnnaU. 699 

" Among mankind, whoever would be an Illustrious KhaiHyo he mutt tie 
scrupulous in regard to the purity of his lineage ; and he who is endowed with 
the attributes requisite for the pilgrimage of holiness, is supreme among d*W 
and men." 

" Descendants of Wa'sittbo ! by the brahman Saw AifKtm a 'no, this very 
gdthd has been most unquestionably sang, it has been advisedly rehearsed, fully 
intending what it expressed, not undesignedly. This is known to myself. 

" Descendants of Wa'sxttho ! I also assert the same thing. 

" Thus spoke Bbagawa'. The delighted Wa'bbttho and Bharaddwa'Jo were 
exceedingly gratified at the discourse of Bhaoawa'. 

" The conclusion of the Aggar^atuitan being the fourth (of the Pd^ikawaggo.) 99 

I now revert to the Dhammappakdtani Atihakathd, on the 

Pa tisambhidan . 

" From the gathering of the mighty cloud whieh precedes the destruction of the 
kappa to the extinction of the flame, forma one A$ankh4yyan t called the Sanvoafto 

" From the extinction of the Are that destroyed the kappo to the deluge that 
submerged the hundred thousand kdHyo of Chakkatcaldni, is the second Asankhdyyan, 
called the Sanwatfatthdhi (continuance of destruction). 

" From the great deluge to the appearance of the sun and moon is the third 
Atankheyyan, called the Wfaatio (creation). 

*' From the appearance of the sun and moon until the gathering of the mighty 
cloud that is to destroy the kappo again is the fourth Aiankheyyan, called the 
Wimat afikdhi, (the continuance of the creation.) 

" These Asankhtyyani constitute one mahd- kappo, and be it understood that such 
la the destruction by fire, and reproduction. 

" At any period when the kappo perishes by water, it is said, as explained in the 
former instance in detail, ' that a mighty destroying cloud ha Ting gathered, &c. v 
this much however is different. 

"In lieu of the two suns (that appear) in that (destruction) a mighty torrent 
descends, producing a merciless deluge, destructive of the kappo. Commencing 
with a slight drift, by degrees the deluge descends in large streams, submerging a 
hundred thousand k6tiyo of Chakkawaldni. The earth, together with its mountains 
&c. melt away, wherever it is rained upon by this fierce deluge. 

" That body of water is pent up on all sides, by the power of the wind (and 
prevented spreading to the other Chakkawaldni) . From the earth to the regions of 
the second jhAnan the flood extends. Thereby three Brahmaldkd being destroyed, 
it ceases to rise, on reaching the 8ubhakinno-brahmal6ko. As long as the most tri- 
lling perishable thing is left, so long is there no intermission to the rise of the flood. 
But when every perishable thing destined to be overwhelmed in water has been 
destroyed, instantly (the flood) subsides, and is entirely dissipated. The vacuum 
below meeting the vacuum above (by the intermediate Chakkawaldni, having been 
dissipated by the flood) one universal darkness is produced . All the rest has been 
described (in the destruction by fire). In this place, therefore, it need only be, in 
general terms, mentioned, that the world is recreated, commencing with the 
AbkassarO'brahmaUko ; and that after death in the Subhakinno-brahmaldko, living 
creatures are born again in the Abhassaro-bi-ahmaldko, and other regions. 



u Among such people, those are superior kshatris, who follow (the conduct of) 
their ancestry : but he, who Is perfected in wisdom's path, is most excellent among 
gods gad men.— Ed. 

700 Pdli Buddhktical Annak. [Aro, 

" From the gathering of the destroying cloud to tha termination of the fierce 
delnge that destroyed the kappo constitutes one Atamkheyyau. 

11 From the termination of the deluge to the rains that reproduced the world, is 
the second Asankheyyan. 

" From the great rains that reproduced the earth to the appearance of the 
sun and moon is the third Atenkheyyan. 

" From the reappearance of the sun and moon to the gathering again of the cloud 
of destruction is the fourth Atsukkeyyan. 

" These four Atankheyyani constitute a wuthA-keppo, and be it understood, such 
It the destruction by water, and the reproduction. 

" Whenever the kupp* is destroyed by the wind, be it known, that, as already 
explained in the other cases in detail, the mighty destroying cloud gathers. The 
difference in this Instance also occurs at the stage in which the two suns appear, as 
in those instances, thus here the, storm destined to destroy the kappo then rises. 

"In the first place, it raises a dust; then it drives before it by degrees a still 
heavier dust ; then light sand, heavy sand, pebbles, and so on, till it hurls on racks 
as large as houses. In the same manner it tears up great trees. All these ones 
raised from the earth never descend again, being converted into impalpable atoms, 
they are completely absorbed. 

'* Then, in due' course, the wind under the earth rising and spinning the world 
topsy tarry, hurls it into the air. Portions of the world being one hundred e/ejmid, 
two, three, four and five hundred ySjand in extent, are rent asunder, and tossed 
about by the power of the wind, till reduced to the minutest particles, they also 
become absorbed. The tempest then raising also aloft the Chakkawalan and 
Mahdmdru mountain, tosses them likewise into the air. They, hurled against each 
other, and battered to minute atoms, also vanish. By this means destroying, as 
well the habitations of the earth and the habitations (of the d&wos) of the skies, as 
the six KantunD&chara-d4wal6k& ; the tempest annihilates the hundred thousand 
kdtiyo of Chakkawaldni also. One Chakkawdlam being dashed against another 
Chakkawttan, one Himawanto (snowy region) against another, and one JtfeVn 
mountain against another j and being involved in a general chaos, and reduced to 
minute atoms, all perish. , 

" The storm extends from the earth to the regions of the third jh&nan and three 
Br&hmalSko having been Involved in that destruction, the tempest is arrested on 
reaching the Wthapphalo-br4hmaUk6. 

" Thus every perishable thing; having perished (the tempest) itself perishes also. 
As described (in the other accounts of the destructions of the world) every circum- 
stance takes place in this also, commencing with, by the vacuum below (the world 
being destroyed) meeting the vacuum above ; and one universal darkness prevails. 

" Subsequently the world is reproduced, commencing with the Subhakimme- 
brdhmaWIco, and living creatures dying (in due course) in Wchapphmlo-br^hmaUk; 
are reproduced in the Subhakinno and other regions. 

" In this instance, the period from the gathering of the cloud of destruction, 
to the rising of the tempest that destroys the kappo t is one A$enkheyy*n. 

" From the period of the tempest, to the mighty deluge of reproduction, is the 
second Atankheyy&n, and so forth, in the same subdivisions, the other two Am%- 
kheyy&ni. These four Asankheyy&ni constitute a mahd-kappo. Be it understood, that 
sufth is the nature of the destruction by storm. 

" Why is it that the world is destroyed 1 On account of the original impiety 
committed. The world is destroyed on account of the commission of the following 
sins, viz : on the ascendancy of the passions, it (the world) is destroyed by water: 
some authorities, however, declare that on the prevalence of crimes, the destruction 
is by fire, and on the ascendancy of the passions by water. And when ignorance 
prevails, it perishes by the wind. 

1838.] Report on As Tenasserim Coal. 701 

" It it elsewhere explained thai after the world bet been destroyed by ire seven 
times, it is once destroyed by water, and after eight destructions by water (seven 
conflagrations having intervened between each of the deluges making sixty- four 
destructions) it is once destroyed by wind. From this explanation, when sixty- 
three kappd have been destroyed, the rotation should arrive for one destruction 
by water, but the storm- destruction superceding it (the water-destruction), in 
the age of the sixty- fourth kappo, destroys the worlds including the Subhajcitwo- 
brakauddko. ' ' [To be continued .] 

IV. — Report on the Coal discovered in the Tenasserim province*, by 
Dr. Helfer, dated Mergui, 23rd May, 1838. 

1. Five localities of coal have hitherto been discovered in the 
Tenasserim provinces all situated in the province of Mergui. 

A. On the large Tenasserim river, nine days up from the village 
of Tenasserim near the creek Nun-their~Khiavng, one and a quarter 
mile inland ; species friable, brown coal intermixed with iron pyrites. 
Three veins in different localities, tertiary sandstone below, compact 
sandstone conglomerate interpersed with large silicious fragments 
above.. — Discovered \7th March, 1838. 

B. On the large Tenasserim eight days distant from the village 
of Tenasserim along the banks of the river. Species lignite* light slaty 
brown coal in veins 3 to 4 inches thick in general, sometimes not more 
than 2 or 3 lines ; formation tertiary sandstone above and below ; belong- 
ing to the same system as No. 1. — Discovered 19 th March, 1838. 

C. On the Tenasserim above the Tarouk Khiaung, on the right 
or eastern side of the river five days distant from the village of 
Tenasserim. Species bituminous shale in large masses protruding 
above the surface, apparently a distinct system from A or B. — Disco* 
vered 24th March, 1838. 

D. On the coal river a branch of the little Tenasserim, five days 
above the village of Tenasserim in a south-east direction ; slaty coal sp. 
gr. 1.26. A vein 6 feet thick, 240 long with an angle of 20 degrees 
upwards. A section on the banks of the river. Formation above 
grey, below black clay slate ; the lowest stratum to judge from the 
geological features of the country, apparently resting upon blue limestone. 

E. One hour distant from No. 4 or (D) and a continuation of 
it ; an immense coal field of either slaty or conchoidal pitch coal, 
highly bituminous without a concomitant of iron pyrites. A succession 
of fourteen localities where the coal lies bare on clay on both sides of 
the river, which has evidently forced its way through it ; running at an 
angle of 25 degrees upwards ; in all places 6 feet or more thick, resting 
upon a stratum of slate. — D and B discovered 24th April, 1838. 

2. This last locality being by far the most preferable respecting 

702 Report on the discovery [Aw*. 

quantity, quality and locality, I refrain from entering into details of 
A, B and C, which probably will never he worked, and are onlj 
interesting in a scientific point of view. 

3. This extensive coal field distant from A, B, C more than 300 
miles helongs to quite a different system. It is situated on a high level 
table-land, only diversified by an isolated range of mountains, from which 
the river issues which passes through the coal fields, and which ridge 
may he considered as the eastern boundary of the British possessions 
towards Siam. The gulf of Siam in a direct line seems only to bw 
45 miles distant. The Lazchin islands lie almost opposite. 

4. The river originating in the neighbouring mountains is at the 
coal field only 15-25 yards broad, part of the year nearly dry, hot 
during five months from June to November (both inclusive) according 
to native reports it is uninterruptedly navigable for rafts. I ascended 
it in the month of April on rafts, before the commencement of the 
monsoon, as far as within three hours distance from the coal fields. 

5. The river after having passed through the last table-land enters 
a hilly country, winding through the mountains chiefly in a northwest 
direction until it reaches another river coming from the south. Here 
the influence of the tides begins to be perceptible ; it runs in the same 
direction about 40 miles having attained a breadth of from 50 to 80 
yards at low water and enters at the village of Tenasserim. The large 
Tenasserim river is accessible there to vessels of 100 tons burthen, from 
whence the final distance to Mergui is about 50 miles*. 

6. The coal itself is of superior quality being that species known in 
England under the name of pitch coal, much higher in price than 
common coal, and, on account of the greater quantity of bitumen which 
it contains, used for the generation of gas. 

7. The quantity seems to be unlimited, taking into consideration 
only the upper stratum of six feet thickness as far as I was able to 
trace it on the surface. Allowing annually to be required 30,000 tons, 
this upper stratum alone would supply that large quantity for the 
period of 120 years with good coal. 

8. But it is certain that other strata lie below, and that probably 
the quantity still improves in the ratio as the depth increases, according 
to analogy f . 

• N. B. The natives from Mergui and different parti of Stem, go annually into 
the mountains above the coal fields to .cut an aromatic wood called "• 1 ?i*»f which 
la an article of commerce for the markets of Rangoon and Bankok. 

t N, B. The specimens which accompany this memorandum must, though very 
good coal, not be considered the best In quality ; they are taken from the surface aid 
had been exposed for a lapse of ages to the constant action of water and iaccaatnt 
influence of the atmosphere. 

183&] of Coal in the Tenasserim Province. 703 

9. The discovery of tins coal field seems to be very important at 
the present moment when steam communication begins to spread over 
the whole of the eastern seas, and when the demand for coal annually 

9. It is not certain if the locality can compete with the coal market hi 
Calcutta, but Mergui seems to be destined in ftiture to supply this 
coast, the Straits, the Chinese seas, Madras, Ceylon, and perhaps Bom* 
bay and the Red Sea 9 with coal. 

10. If Ceylon become the central point in the compre h ensive sys- 
tem of steam communication, the locality of Mergui seems particularly 
adapted to supply the depdte at Point de Galle, the distance being 
in the favorable season only eight or ten days' sail. 

11. A great advantage in the locality is the total absence of land 
transport. The coal fields are divided quasi on purpose by nature by 
the river, and the pits can be opened twenty yards from the banks of 
the river. 

12. The distance by the river is about 120 miles from Mergui; 
sixty miles of this are accessible to vessel* of 10O tons burtheli 
throughout the year, and 40 miles more are under the influence of the 
tides. The difficulty of the navigation concentrates in the last 20 
miles. The passage is obstructed by hundreds of uprooted trees lying 
across, impeding the navigation and giving constant occasion to the 
formation of sand banks. 

The clearing of this part of the river from these impediments will be 
expensive, but a great deal can be done without any particular expense, 
if Government convicts are employed. 

13. The last thirty miles are navigable only during five months of 
the year : it is therefore necessary to have a depdt of coal near the river 
banks, ready to be shipped, when the water begins to rise. 

14. Bamboo rafts, each' holding one ton of coal, are the best means 
of transport in the first instance ; tall bamboos fit for the purpose are onr 
the spot in the greatest abundance. > 

15«- Bamboos fetcfe always the price of one rupee eight annas, to 
two rupees per hundred at Mergui. The rafts can therefore be sold 
with advantage. Should vessels arrive from distant parts, then the 
bamboos wtntfd rise in price, the superior quality of those growing 
m the** provinces being appreciated on the other side of India, the 
veaaete will be glad to find another article to take along with the 

16. If however annually, a very large quantity say, 10 to 20,000 
tone are required,4>amboos will net be sufficient, and it will be necessary 

4 T 

704 Report on the discovery [Ado. 

to establish saw-mills in the place, to construct wooden boxes of planks, 
to float the fuel down in them. 

1 7. If wood of a superior quality is selected (and there is no want 
of excellent timber throughout the province), the expense of the saw- 
mills driven by water will be covered by selling the planks at a 
inoderate price in Mergui, even with profit, 

18 A depdt should be established at Mergui, in a commodious 
place ; so that vessels can easily approach the shore. 

1 9. If large quantities of coal are exported from Mergui / particular 
coal transports ought to be constructed, able to contain 5 to 800 
tons each, 

20. The stratum above the coal is no where more than 25 feet thick, 
and consists of a, bad slaty coal, 6 inches ; o, grey slate, 8 inches ; c, debris 
of slate with coarse gravel, 2 feet ; d, gravel, and the rest alluvium. 

21* Consequently no complicated mining operation is required. 
The upper strata being removed, the coal may be extracted without any 
farther difficulty. 

•22. Being an open day work no casualties are to be feared from 
the generation of the fatal bihydroguret of carbon (firedamp). 

23. The great expenses accompanying the removal of the accuuuu* 
lated waters in deep coal mines are avoided. 

24. Nothing is required but a shed above and a rampart round 
the coal pits to prevent the intrusion of the rain during the monsoon. 

25. In the subsequent calculation it will be seen, that the greatest 
expense is incurred by the floating down of the rafts; being of the 
opinion that only Burmese are able to manage the rafts upon the river, 
the convicts being incumbered with irons and inexperienced on the water. 
It is the enormous price of labour, ten rupees at least per month, which 
renders the transport so expensive ; suppose the price of labour to be 
five rupees instead often, then according to the calculation which follows 
t— the price would immediately fall from four and a quarter annas per 
maund to two and a half annas per maund. 

26. Labourers from India could be advantageously employed in 
working this coal field. 

27. Being occupied only during the monsoon with the floating 
down of the coal, they could be employed during the rest of the time, 
part of them constructing new rafts for the next season, part of them 
with the cultivation of the paddy, for themselves and for the consump- 
tion of the convicts in the coal. 

29. The benefits in working the coal mines of these provinces are 
too obvious to merit a particular panegyric ; they are in short as follows t 


1338.3 of Coal in the Tenasserim Province. 705 

1. The discovery of a superior quality of coal in an unlimited 
quantity, in an accessible locality will remove every obstacle to steam 
communication along the whole of the eastern coast of Bengal. 

2. It will render the inexhaustible supply of superior iron ore a 
treasure to the provinces, and will lead to the supply of iron fof the' 
whole of India from this coast. 

$. It will be an inducement to work the tin mines. 

4. It will give employment to several hundred convicts in a profita- 
ble way to government. 

5. The circulation of a capital of 60,000 rupees ad minimum per 
annum which remains in the country will render the Inhabitants the 
more rich, the provinces the more prosperous. 

6. In consequence of this, foreign capital will be drawn into the' 
country ; — the increase of capital will increase the population ; — the' 
increase of population will increase the cultivation ; — the increase of 
population and cultivation will augment the public revenue* 

Report on the Mergui Coal. 

The first supply of coal from Dr. Hklfkr, upon which I reported 
unfavorably I now perceive to have consisted merely of A, B, and 
C, of the forgoing report, the precursors only of the Doctor's real 
discovery, and as he himself expresses it, only, valuable in a scientific 
point of view. 

• The four baskets now received are indeed of a far different quality 
and fully justify the enthusiastic anticipations their discovery has raised. 
Not being distinguished by any mark I presume they are all from the 
localities D and £, which may be regarded as connected together, 
though differing somewhat in quality. 

This deposit seems to consist entirely of that species of coal called 
pitch coal, or cannel coal. It resembles in many respects the most 
resinous of the coals of the Atsam field, but the ligneous structure is 
generally less evident, and the fracture more conchoidal. In many 
fragments however the laminary texture is observable, and the usual 
variations in the quality of the layers of carbonized matter mark the 
mode of deposit, Borne layers having more earthy matter, some more 
carbonaceous, and some more bituminous ; and occasionally a thin film 
of ferruginous or earthy matter intervening. 

The Mergui coal is however in general very homogeneous, as the 
annexed analysis of four specimens taken from different bags will 
show. It should be remarked that these specimens are each averages, 
part being taken from the best and part from the worst looking of 
each parcel. 

4 t 2 

706 Report en tie discovery of Coal £ Aup. 

The reiy large proportion of volatile matter, near 50 per cent, shews 
ibis coal to be a superior blazing material, which is the main point in 
getting tip steam, so much so that I understand one of the Company's 
steamers is unable to get up steam with the Burdwan coal without a 
large admixture of English cannel coal. It also makes it an admirable 
coal for generating gas. 

To try this latter experimentally I distilled oyer the gas from IS 
tolas of the Mergui coal, and in a few minutes obtained two gasometers 
full, or by weight nearly three and a quarter tolas of gas, besides 4. 3 
tolas* of thick brown naphtha and water, a third part of which would 
fynre been converted into gas had it passed through a heated tube. 

When used in the ferge the clear copious blase is rather objection- 
able ; it wastes the heat, and more coal is consequently expended ; but 
a very good weld was effected with it in presence of Captain Forbrs. 

In the same manner the great loss of volatile matter makes i* 
unprofitable for coking (yielding only one half instead of three fourths 
its weight), but the coke itself is very close and good, being as free from 
earthy impurity as much of the English coal* 

All other particulars may be learnt by comparing the analysis with 
that of other coals in my printed table ► (see p. 197 of the present vok 

(Signed) J. Pbinsep, 

22nd June, 1838. Assay Matter. 

Analysis of the three first specimens of Lignite sent ty Dr. Hxxfxr, 

from Mergui. 

No. 1 . A. No. 9. B. No. 3. C. 

Burned with small Burned with fever Burned with* few 
Atone and copious •cintUUttonf and adarjBatians ant 
terminations, poor tame. poor flame. 

Specific gravity, 1.256 1.376 1.391 

Water, 10.0 9.3 7.3 

Volatile matter, 66.7 


Ferruginous* It earthy matter, 

. 66.71 o 
. 36.0 } o 
r, 7.3 i 2 










Second despatch D. and E. — Pitch coal from Mergui. 

All four burned with copious rich flame ; coke close-grained and of highly metaHit 


No. 1 . No. 3, No. 3. No. 4. 

Water, 97 8.9 7.4 7-G 

Specific gravity, 1.273 1 .280 1.245 1.931 

■ - ■ ■»•■ mmm^mma^ *—~m^mm 

Volatile matter, 46.* 1 A 48.9 1 A 48.3 1 a 48.2 

Carbon, 60. 

Earthy matter, slightly 

Calcutta, the 22nd June, 1838. 

45.e"| _ 48.91 ~ 483 1 a 4M 1 a 

. 60.3 I § 46.7 13 «.lt3 48.7 I 2 

} 4.7j§ *.4j§ 6.6J2 3.1J3 

J. PaiNSEF. 

* It consisted of one tola of Naphtha 3.3 ef aqueous liquid eentaining sulphate and 
carbonate of ammonia, and pyrolignoui acid. 

1888.] Comparison efAsiatie Lemguagei. 109 

V.-r-Qomparison of Asiatic Languages. 

We are indebted to the Editors of the Calcutta Christian Observer 

for the following columns of Chinese and Japanese words corresponding 

to those contained in the tabular view of the comparison of Eastern 

languages in our No. for December last, and present it with satisfaction 

-to our readers. 

There were two other columns in Mr. W-'s communication, contain- 
ing the sixty words in the several characters ; vis. the Kltakana* and 
HiraUni, which the want of type for their exhibition has obliged us to 
exclude. We are however through Mr. C so ma's kindness enabled to 
insert the column of Tibetan equivalents. 

To the Editors of the Calcutta Christian Observer. 
Dbab Sirs, 

Having been favoured with the perusal of the number of the J. A. 8. for 
December 1837, I have looked over the article on a comparison of various 
Asiatic Languages with much interest. The plan if carried out, will be 
likely to afford data from which important and interesting inferences can 
be legitimately drawn* 

In the column for Japanese, however, I think you will be a little misled 
by your authority not attending very strictly to the rules of pronuncia- 
tion and apelling which you have laid down, and I have ventured to send a 
column of the words, in order that a comparison may be made from the 
true aounda of the Japanese, accompanied by two modes of writing most in 
use. The vowel sounds to the letters of their alphabet are quite uniform ; 
Imt by efyaion for the sake of euphony, the number of vowel sounds if 
greatly increased. I should think that few Asiatic languages could be 
more perfectly reduced to the Romanizing system than the Japanese, and 
that there were few people in Asia who would be less inclined to adopt 
that system than that people. 

When Mr. O. says, " that the Chinese character is universally read 
among the natives with a different sound and accent, more full an<J 
euphonical," he perhaps wishes to express that the Chinese character is 
used among the Japanese to a considerable extent, but that the people do 
so universally there are not sufficient grounds for believing. There are 
in the alphabet, 73 distinct sounds, 95 of which are made by diacritical 
marks upon some of the 48 letters. In the Hirfkan*, there are severa) 
ways of writing the same character or letter, making consequently, their 
number much greater, perhaps above a hundred. In the I'maJtokaJia* (not 
Imatakana) the contractions are carried to a greater extent, making ift 
one of the most difficult writings in existence to read freely. 


^Mflp#Pif#f} Cy 




English. Tibetan. 

Night, m,tshan mo, *f£j|' if' 
Oil, b,bru mar, Q£* *f x 

Plantain, kela, Hind, 
Aiver, g,tsang po, 



Japanese. Chinese ChedvettrL 












namm,khah, *)*r*f|*Q 

tkar ma, 
nyi ma, 
















y<* ft& 

tsiau, y^ 

kWng, ££ 

* it 

she, Jg 

•i»g, J|l 

shen, ;g* 




Ming, £jj| 

tskdneimo, 14 ahd, _JN 


• 5* 

ljon shing, 
Village, ynltaho, 

Water, chbn, 

Yam, dova, 

The sonnd* of the Chinese are written in accordance with the system 
published in the Chinese Repository, for February, 1838, and the Japanese 
after the list of sounds en pages 83, and 101 of the select papers on Ro- 
manizing published at Serampore. The last i is abort in the Japanese 
words, like y in beauty. The difference between the two kinds of writing 
fa shewn by the two columns of Katakana and Hirekand; the tadttofcdnd 
is much like the Hirdkdnd. The Japanese employ Chinese characters to 
express the same ideas as thd Chinese, but often call them by a different 
name. Those marked * were probably derived from a common source, and 
perhaps there are more. The Chinese sound is often known among the 
Japanese, bat does not seem to be the one most commonly used. 

188a] Grammar of the Panj&bi Language. 711 

VI. — Epitome of the Grammars of the Brahuiky 9 the Balochky and the 
Panjdbi languages, with Vocabularies of the Baraky, the Pashi, the 
Laghmani, the Cashgari, the Teerhai, and the Deer Dialects. By 
Lieut. R. Leich, Bombay Engineers, Assistant on a Mission to Kdbul. 

Grammar of the Panjabi Language. 

This language, as spoken in large towns, is a dialect of the Urdu or 
Hindustani, and differs from it chiefly in having those vowels short that 
the latter has long, and in having the Sanskrit (:) visarg in the middle 
of words otherwise Hindustani ; for example the number eighteen they 
call attahran and not athara. In the villages the zemindars (farmers) 
speak a language called Jathky, the original language of the country. 
On the Sikh frontiers Panjabi slightly mixes with the neighbouring 
dialects, in Shawalpoor it partakes of Sindby. There are two charac- 
ters in which the language is written ; Gurmukhi the character of the 
Granth, (gospels of 10 holy men,) and Lande used by the merchants in 
their accounts. The character used in the mountains of Jammu and 
Nadoun differs from the Lande of the capital, and the merchants even 
of different cities and districts, as Sedlkot and Guzerat for instance 
differ slightly in their manner of writing this character. 

The Sikhs under their preceptor Guru Govind Sinoh carried their 
hatred of the Muhammadans to such an extent as to substitute a voca- 
bulary for their native Punjabi, because the latter was spoken by the 
Musalmans. The vocabulary is composed of ridiculous and disrespect- 
ful epithets of every thing relating to Islamism : it is not however used 
by Maharajah Runjbbt Sinoh the ruler of the Sikh nation. 

Declension of a Noun Masculine. 

Singular. Plural. 

Norn. Ghodi a horse Ghode horses 

Gen. Ghodeda of a horse Gho4yand& of horses 

Acc.Sf Dot. Ghodenu a horse Ghodyanu horses . 

Abl. Ghodeton from a horse Gho4yanton from horses 

Declension of a Noun Feminine. 
Singular. Plural. 

Norn. Ghodl a mare Ghodiyan mares 

Gen. Ghodtda of a mare Ghoniyanda of mares 

Ace. Sf Dat. Ghodinu a mare Ghodiyanu to mares 

Abl. Ghoditon from a mare Ghodiyanton from mares 

Declension of a Compound Noun. 

Singular. Plural. 

Norn. Hachaghoda a good horse Hache ghode good horses 
Gen. Hache ghodedit of a good horse Hachya^ of good 


4 u 

712 Grammar of the Panj&bi Language. [Afca 

Ace. % Dat. Hache gho4*nu a good hone Hachyan good hones 

Abl. Haehe ghodetog from a good Hachyan gho- from good 

hone dyaaton horses 

This termination is changed into di to agree with a feminine noun. 

Declension efthe let Personal Pronoun. 

Singular. Plural. 

Norn. Main or mag I Asi we (Jathki.) 

Gen. Medaormenda my Asada sada our 

Ace. Af -Oat- Menu or mainku me Aaanu sanu us 

Abl. Medekulon 1 tfmaithon Asathon ait hon \ - .^ 

Meilethon >or-j maithin from me sathi nasathinj 

Mede pa*on J (mendekulon 

Declension of the 2nd Personal Pronoun. 



Norn. Tun thou 

Tusi ortusan 


Gen. Teda, tend* thy 

Tuhada or * 


or tonda 


Ace. 6$ Dat. Tenu or tunnu thee 

Tuhannu or 


Abl. Tethon or from thee 

Tuhathoa or 

from you 



Declension of the 3rd Personal Pronoun, (proximate.) 

Singular. Plural. 

JVoro. E this £ these 

Gen. Isda of this In hand a of these 

Ace. o) Dat. l»nu this Inhanu these 

Abl. I5kulon,isthog from this Inha kulon \ f rom tDM€ 

Inha pasoii / 

Declension of the 3rd Personal Pronoun, Cremate.) 

]\om* O that O those 

Gen. Usda of that Onhanda of those 

Ace. 3$ Dat. UiDU that Onhanu or those 


Onakulon "I 
Abl. UsthoQ from that Onhathoy >from those 

Onha paeon, ) 

Declension of the Reflective Pronoun. 

Norn. A'pe self 

Gen. A'pnd, of self 

Ace. % Dat. A pnu to self 

Abl. A'pthoa from self 

Declension of the Interrogative Pronoun, (animate.) 

Norn. Kouna who 

Gen. Kigda whose 

Ace. ty Dat* Kisnu or kanu from whom 

Abl. Kiethon 

Declension of Ike Interrogative Pronoun, (inanimate.) 

Norn. Kya or ki . what 

Gen. Kisda or kada of what 


Grammar of the Punjabi Language, 


Ace. % DaL 








J en 

















Twenty .seven 















Forty -two 












Kisnu or kanii what 

Kisthon or kaithoft from what 

Cardinal Numbers. 












bah rig 

ten ran 
















tin or trlh 















paiy tall 





panj ah 




Sixty, five 
Hundred thou- 
















































sou senkda 





Grammar of the Panjdbi Language* 







Main big or ag 
Tun hen or eg 
O hen or eft 

Main haisag or 
Tun haisen or 

Ordinal Numbers. 
pahla Sixth 

dujja, dusra Seventh 

tiara, trija Eighth 

chautha Ninth 

pan j wag Tenth 

Conjugation op tbi Auxiliary Vbrb. 

Indicative Mood. Present Tense. 
I am Aai hag or an 

Thou art Tusi ho or o 

He is O bain or ain 

Perfect Past Tense. 
I was Asi haisan or ahe 






We are 
You are 
They are 

We were 

Thou wert 

O haist el or aha 

Tusi haisao or ahe You were 

They were 

Main hunda sag 
Tun hunda saeg 
O hunda si 

Main hoya sag 
Tun hoya saeg 
O hova si 

Maig howangi 
Tug howeuga 
O hevega 

Tug ho or o 

We were being 
You were being 
They were being 

We had been 
You had beea 
They had been 

We shall be 
You shall be 
They shall be 

Be you 

He was O haisin or sin 

Imperfect Past Tense. 
I was being Asi hunde sag 

Thou wert being Tusi hunde sa,o 
He was being O hunde sin 

Pluperfect Past Tense. 
I had been Asi hoye sag 

Thou hadst been Tusi hoye sa,o 
He had been O hoye sin 

Future Tense. 
I shall be Asi howange 

Thou shalt be Tusi hovoge 
He shall be O bo ange 

Imperative Mood. 
Be thou Tusi bovo or to 

The negative imperative is formed by prefixing na, 

Subjunctive Mood. 
The relative conjunction (harf i shurt of the Arabians) is expressed by 
je (if) and the correlative conjunction (harf i jaza) by tan then. 

Present Tense. 
I may be Asi hoviye 

Thou may at be Tusi hovo 
He may be O howau 

Perfect Past Tense. 
I had been Asi hunde 

Thou hadst been Tusi hunde 
O hunda He had been O hunde 

Putt Participle. (Ism i mahful) hoya 

Verbal Noun. (lem i fail) honewala 

Infinitive Mood. (Masdar) hona 

Main howag 
Tug hoveg 
O hove 

Main hundag 
Tun hundon 

g or 

to be 

We may be 
You may be 
They may be 

We had been 
You had been 

They had been 

Conjugation of the vbrb A'khnd, To speak. 

Main akhna 
Tug akhnaig 
O nMdai 


Present Tense. 
I speak Asi a&Any&g 

Thou speakest Tusa sUrade,o 
He speaks O a&aden 

We speak 
You speak 
They speak 


Grammar of the Panjdbi Language. 


Maiji akhyi 
Tib ikhyai 
Us akhyi 

Maig iAtadi sag 
Tun iftftdi sien 

Main, akhyi si 
Tun akhyi si 

Us ikbyi st 

Mai& ikhangi 
Tug ikhengi 


Tun Vch or akh 

Main akhaij 
Tun akheg 

Main iftAdi or 

Tun, iAAdo 


Ptfr/fec/ Part Tente. 
I spoke Asin^ ikhyi 

Thou spokest Tuaajj ikhyi 

He spoke lni akhyi 

Imperfect Poet Tenee. 
1 was speaking Asi i&Ade sin. 

Thou wast speak. Tusi iftfcde sa,o 

He was speaking O aAAde sin 

Pluperfect Past Tense. 
I had spoken Asan akhyi st 

Thou hadst Tusan ikhyi si 

He had spoken lni akhyi st 

Future Tenee. 
I will speak Asi akhange 

Thou wilt Tusi ikhoge 

He will speak O akhange 

Imperative Mood. 
Speak thou Tusi ikho 

Subjunctive Mood. Present Tense. 
I may speak Asi ikhiye 

Thou mayst speak Tusi akho 
He may speak O akhau 

Perfect Past Tense. 
I might speak Asi iAnde 

Thou mightest Tusi aAAde 

He might speak O i/ride 

We spoke 
You spoke 
They spoke 

We were speak- 

You were speak, 

They were speak, 

We had spoken 
You had spoken 

They had spoken 

We will speak 
You will speak 

They will speak 

Speak you 

We may speak 
You may speak 
They may speak 

We might apeak 

You might speak 
They might 

Main kehnl an 

Tun kehni eg 
O kehndi e 

Main ke,ai 
Tun keni 
Usne keai 

Conjugation of thb verb Kehna, To tell. 


Present Tense. 
I am telling Asi kehnl an or We are telling 


Thou art telling Tusi kehndiyano You are telling 
She is telling O kehndiyi en or They are telling 


Perfect Past Tense. 
I told Asan keai 

Thoutoldst Tusin ke,ai 

She told Una keai 

We told 
You told 
They told 

Imperfect Past Tense. 
Main kehndi sis I was telling Asi kehndiyio sag We were telling 

Tun~kehndl sien. Thouwast telling Tusi kehndiyan You were telling 

O kehndi si She was telling O kehndiyan. sin They were tell- 



Grammar of the Punjabi Language. 


Pluperfect Poet Tense. 

Main keha st 

I liad told 

A san keha «t 

We had told 

Tun" keha si 

Thou hadst told 

Tiisau keha s! 

You had told 

Us keha »t 

She had told 

Una keha el 

They had told 



Maig kahangi 

I will tell 

A si kahang:|iyan We will tell 

Tub kahengi 

Thou wilt tell 

Tusi kahogiyo 

You will tell 

O kahegi 

She will tell 

O kahanginyifi 

They will tell 

.Imperative Mood. 


Tell thou 

Tusi koho 

Tell you 

Subjunctive Mood. Present Tense* 

Main kahan 

I may tell 

A si kahyye 

We may tell 


Thou mayesttell 

Tust kaho 

You may tell 


She may tell 

O kehan 

They may tell 

Perfect Poet Tente. 

Main kehand! 

I might tell 

A si kehndiyan 

We might tell 

Tun kehand! 

Thou Brightest 

Tusi kehndiyo 

You might tell 


6 kehmli 

She might tell 


They might tell 

Vocabulary of A 

a'verbs, Patt and Prepositions, Conjunctions, J$c. <^c, called 

in Sanskrit (Avyoy). 


> above 


3 days hence 

4 days hence 




6 days hence 




above, high 



N in wan 

below, low 




\ * 9m •»! 




Is wai 

on this side 


^-up to, till 

Us passe 

on that side 








Har wele names- always, at all 


to the right 




to the left 






> when 





Halka - 


Dihade dihade 








Agle wele 









instead of 

Mot ha 








on this side 




on the top 




at the bottom 






a little high 
a little below 









in front 











A ho, han 

yes, bhala 


day after to-mor- 







Grammar of the Panjdbi Language. 












Wadhfk, bohun, 

Wadh, boia 
A in wen. 










































| like 

like in size 











E miyag 



Hai, hai 
O, e, o, • 
' Bina 

Vocabulary of Nouns. 

• Haran 






















city, royal sent 


a few huts 
a town [pital 
a large city or ca- 


as large as . 
so large 

the same in re- 
| oh .'for a woman 
j to call 
oh 1 (pain) 

calling for help 

oh for a slight pain 

v in company with 





house or cottage 


a tattoo mare 





a colt 


a barren female 

a fruitful female 

a pony 

a cock 

a hen 

a pigeon 

a ring dove 



a kind of ditto 


a bird 





royal tiger 




Grammmr of the Panjdbi Language. 







an animal that 



opens graves 









Lai sag 

red beet root 




ficus indicus 







A oar 




8anda phal 

a fruit 









a species of ditto 








turtle • 








the water hog 









J camel 


sugar, soft 









La gur 

long-tailed ape 


preparation of 

Bakra. bakri 

\ he-goat and she- 
J goat 


Chhela chhell 



Bheda bhed 

sheep/ ewe 





Ghe,o, ght 

clarified butter 








Bald, dand, dhagi bollock 









| curds 











> buttermilk 









Cabuli chola 

white ditto 


>a cooking pot 






phaaeolus mungo 




phaaeolus maxi- 


wooden spoon 



cooking place 


a particular bean 


iron spoon 


the common grain 


frying pan 

holcus soryum 


do. for bread 


Indian corn 







Ma tar 

a pea 




the common groin 



holcus spicatus 


small cot 




cot of leather 


) . 



> onion 




) t 


tin, (> tinning) 




















silver, pure 


Gr amm ar of the Panjdbi Language. 










Chichi ungul 




















































yellow orpiment 




little toe 

















below the elbow 


arm above elbow 




jaw tooth 

| chin 




| grisel of the nose 






























8a k hat 




































nape of the neck 


soft part of ear 



breeches string 




















locks of hair 



top knot of hair 



cue of hair 
("plaited hair by 
J which virgins 
J are distinguish- 





I white 




Grammar of the Pcmj&U Lamgwtgt. 








Mah parshad 











Han era 

























Le javna 




Bait hoi 


* green 

8 tar 








dust storm 








divided ditto 











having sight 

lame with both 

blind of one eye 

double sighted 

lame of one leg 
























Suaga pat 


















Par nana 





Vocabulary of Verbs. 

to come 

to go 

to bring 

to carry away 

to put 

to raise 

to rise 

to sit 

to eat 



























head stall 



















father's elder 

father's father 
mother's father 
nana's father 
father of latter 
great grandson 

to drink 
to throw 
to give 
to take 
to dance 
to leap 
to laugh 
to weep 
to call 


Grammar oftk* 

Panjdbi Lamgu«g*. t&] 


to beat 
to think 


| to stand op 


to weigh 


to lose 


to measure 


to loosen 


to cook 


to cause to be 


to boil 



to roast 


to dig 


to open 


| to tow 


to hmind 



to bind 


to pluck 


to cut 


to ask 




to break 
J to run 


> to break 
to scratch 


to write 

Chatna ' 

to lick 


to read 


to press 


to stroll 


to pour 
to blow 


j to pull 




to play garnet 


to wipe 


to scrape 


to sneak away 


} to fall 


to descend 



to make stand 


to make fall 


to spend 

Dig pavui 

to fall 


to release 


to bring forth 


to ascend 

Gali kadhnl 

to abuse 


to push 

Kara lena 

to borrow 


to sew 


to remove 


to grow 


to walk 


to slip 


to play on an in- 


to fear 



to retire 


to wrestle 


to fill 


to tremble 


to chop 


to speak 


to care of* to mind 

An wavna 

to make bring 




a Musalman 


to smoke 

Kona singh 



Dost Muhammad 

s.m. disrespect 



to Musahnans 

Pahul le,ona 

to become a eon. 


the intoxicating 


plant bhang 

Kacha singh 


Saner a" 

the vessel in 



which bhang is 


V hair weavers, an 
f epithet of Sikhs 




to eat or drink 

Da tin 

tooth brush 



Granth saheb 

the Sikh scrip- 

Mahan parshad 


ture (Granth) 

Chita bajavna 

to make water 



Kave phirna 

to ease one's self 


to read 

Sucheta karna 

to make ablution 


a matchlock 




a pot 


J- a mosque 


a spoon 



a vessel for cook. 


a hooka 

ing pulse 



Grammar of the Ptmj&bi Language. 







Sultan Muham. 

mad Khkn 
Pir Muhammad 

Warir Fatten 

Timaur Shah 
Penda JTAan 










pieces of flesh 


to cook (not pa. 

to atop one's own 
dinner, i. e. to 
accept an invi- 


Maharij Ranjtt Singh has the following peculiar Vocabulary of 
Bandbast, opening of the bowels, Dart in Persian. 
Thirmili, a check or curtain, cheefea in Panjabt. 

Khismati, a ewer, chilamchi in Persian, because chilams (pipes are not 
lawful in the Granth.) 
Sugda (clever) a stool, instead of Modi because this word means a fooL 
Kanga Sagar, a goglet, Aftaba in Persian. 


War ji (properly Wa Gurujf) ka 

Tuhada nan kl,e 
Tusi klddar jande,o 
Tun kiddar janna en 
Is pindda nan hf,e 
Tuhanu thand lagi,e 
Oh pind kinna dur,e 
Tuhadi umur kitnl e 
Tusi sadde hhir&nu jande o 
lsda mul ki loge 
Tuhadiyan. trimatan kitniya© 
Tusi ghodyanu ki dende,o 
Tuhade ghodyandi kt khurak e 
Tusi kis waste mere utte ghusse o 
Tuhadi peo juvnda a 
Nah tre vara huen jo puri hogaya a 

or (margayft. e) 
Tusi kadin Turkisthannu ga,e,o 
Din vich kitnl vert khande,o 
Ki, kl, khande,o 
Nazar aonda e jo aj min waaega 
KS kar nazar aonde 
A sade kul hek pared! kikmat,e 

Ek man bl wichon kitna basal bun- 
Aj kal thon (nalon) bahut thand,e 

Je tuhanu vel nehiijta apne gumaah- 

tenu ghal den& 
Aj bazar wich hundida kl bha,e 

Hundi mathi 
Hundi chaddi,e 
Koi sathtan nehin lagi 
Tusi odaretin nehin 

The 8ikh salutation. 

What is your name ? 

Where are you going ? 

Ditto, ditto, ditto, to an inferior. 

What is the name of this village? 

You have canght a cold. 

How far is that village ? 

What is your age ? 

Do you know my brother? 

What will you take for this ? 

How many wives have you ? 

What do you feed horses on ? 

What ia your horses' food ? 

Why are you angry with me? 

Is your father alive ? 

No, these three years since he died. 

Have you ever been to Turkistin ? 

How many meals do you make a day? 

What do you eat r* 

It seems as if it would rain to-day. 

How do you know ? 

I have an instrument containing 

What is the produce of a maund of 
seed ? 

To-day is much colder than yester- 

If you have not leisure send your 

What is the exchange of a bill to. 
day in the bazar ? 

The rate has fallen. 

The rate has risen. 

You are not hurt are you ? 

You are not uncomfortable are you? 


Grammar of the Panjabi Language. 


Tnai odarna Benin, jedi gal mango 
soh! haaar,e eh tubida apna ghar,e 
dusra nehin jajina 

apne kam kaj wich rudde renne- 

vin ne tag dam dam wich tuhade 

kuI poncbiye 
la haoste tuhada kt March aya,e 
Haxar ek rupaya laga howega aside 

sabkir nu pakkl fraabe,e uskolon. 

puchke das dewinge je tuhinu 

bahut lod e tan 

Don't make yourself uneasy, what- 
ever you want shall be forthcom- 
ing ; this is your own house and 
not a strange one. 

I am busy about my own affairs or 
I would be with you every mo- 

What have you spent on this cistern ? 

It might have cost me a thousand 
rupees or so, but my steward 
knows the exact Bum and will tell 
you if you particularly require 
and will ask him. 

Illustrative of the private character of the Ruler of Lahore. 

Maharaj ji, Kabul da ikbir ay! e 

Hajar karo 

Maharaj ji hajar e 

Fakir horinu bulao 

Fakir jt hajar bo,o 

8ardar Dost Mamada,e yi kisse hor 

Maharaj ji, Sardar Sihabdi,e 
Hatha pado ki likhyi e k 

A'pdi umur daraz hove vih bhir 

dallde do ghode ek talwar hazur 

mu allade waste ha gar en hazur 

kabul farmaun 

Nikka Mishar hazar hove 

Maharaj ji ershid 

Mishar ji, tusi Beliram horin. kol 
jao ek hathl hauda chand) da ek 
banduk Sindhy, Gujrathi talwar 
das jode dushalyande rang birangi 
hache mahin howan Dost Mamad 
waste bhej do fakir ji tusi bi likho 
tedi sadda rah hek chihi da agge 
isthon hoi bandobaat pakka ban 
jiswich tun saukha rahen, nehig 
tan 8arkar Daeseri karke chadan 
wall, e na kahin. jo mainu frAabr 
nehin kiti ne 

News from Cabul has arrived your 

Bring the man in. 

He is here your highness. 

Call the faqueer. 

Will you please to come in faqueer ? 

is the letter from Sardar Dost Mu- 
hammad, or from any one else ? 

It is from the Sardar your highness. 

Well read what is in it. 

May your age be great : twenty loads 
of fruit, two horses and a sword, 
are here for your supreme high, 
ness ; will your highness deign to 
accept them ? 

Here, Nikka Mishar. 

Your highness, what orders ? 

Mishar, do you go to Beliram and 
send for Dost Muhammad an ele. 
phant with a silver houda, a Sin. 
dhian matchlock, a Guzerati sword, 
ten pairs of shawls ; let them be 
fine and of different colors : and, 
faqueer, do you write and say his 
and my road is one, and that he 
must make some good arrange- 
ment, by which he may live com. 
fortable; or else the Sarkar in. 
tends to march on him after the 

Dusseri ; and tell him not to say 
he was not forewarned. 
Jo Hazurne ershad farmien likhe What your highness ordered, is writ- 

gai en 

Wakil nil tor deo 

Raja ftdheh horinu bulao 

Maharaj ji, hajar an 

R^J a j*> P an J ardali apne bhej deo ate 
ji ba ji likh bhejo jo ek saheb 
At lock wale rahog awnden sau sau 
rupeyi majal ba majal, ata win 

Send it by the Vakil. 
Call the Rajah ? (Dhyan Singh). 
I am here your highness. 
Raja, send live of your own orderlies 

and write to every place that a 

gentleman is coming by the At. 

tock road ; give him one hundred 


Grammar of the 

i Language. 


man, do man chanwl, man gfcto 
panjah kukud, das ghade dudbde 
nor dahtn keaiu pawanii, panj son 
andria manjttn, lakhriyag, bhande 
inittlde hor jo lod howe ne sab 
khatar karni chauki paihra majal 
ba majal da rakhni jimma tuba- 
da e 

Maharaj ji, sat bachan 

Mishar ji, Fattu Bhayyenu ghal de,o 
Jamadar sab horanu bula ly&we 

Jam Hilar jl, jis tarah raje sabnu er- 
shad hoyi,e tusi bl apni muluk 
wich likh bhejo jo aaheb kisl gale 
khafa na how an ; manjil bamanjil 
di rasld s&bandi hajar hove 

Miyan Ilai Baksh Kumldan ta 
Myan Sultin Mahmud, te Mlrja 
Mandar Aly, nyihrag nyahr&n 
kartfi* jinirt tophinde ta ikkl ikkl 
ghodnaJande peher din rende jo 
aiheb da&aal howanje hukm,e 

Mishar, Sukhrajnd hukm de ghalo 
do kampaniyan Jahangtr de mak. 
bare lains rehan ate pa, rikab 
sdbande hajar rehan 

Jed! Sing, anwill Pal tan e tansalt 
de Mr lains rehe jis wele saheb 
dairAal howan addall wich ave 

Mishar jf, Kutbenu hukm deo jo 
bMy&nu bnla leave panjah panjah 
rupeya toshefraane wichon le de,o 
eh hukm de de,o jo ban tan ke 

Mishar ji, JTAair Aly Xten Gubir- 
chynu panch sau rupeyi lekhwa 
deo aten eh hukm deo jo gharl 
ratthon agge agge dip mala saman 
wich hajar hove 

S&t&r BapAwin hajar hove 

Maharaj ji hukm 

Kal Shala high wich pebr diuthon 
*8K e •££© maifal saMg waste 
hazar hove 

Mishar jl, Mishar Beliramnu akho, 
hek kanthtt mot y&nda jodi kady. 
andi hiriyandi jadav d ugh a la bhara 
hek thin kinkhabda panch sau 
rupeyi sabandi, Khismatq&rin 
waste hek hek khes uchd hor jede 
e&bande &dml onha waste wade 
wele kul shala bagh wich haaar 

rupees at every stage, flour twen- 
ty maiinds, two maund* of rioe, a 
maund of ghee, fifty fowls, tea 
pots of milk and curds to wash 
his hair, five hundred eggs, cots* 
firewnod, earthen pots, and what- 
ever he may want ; let him have a 
guard at every stage. This is 
your trust. 

Truly spoken vour highness. 

Mishar, send Fattu Bhayya to call 
Jemadar Kushai Singh. 

Jemadar, do you also as I have or- 
dered the rajah and write to your 
district that the gentleman may 
not be uncomfortable, and get al- 
so his receipts at each stage. 

Tell Miyan Ilai Baksh Kumedan, 
Myan Sultan Mahmud, and Mir- 
za Mandar Aly (to fire) eleven 
rounds from the garrison guns, 
and twenty-one from the field 
pieces a pahar before sunset when, 
the gentleman arrives. 

Mishar, send to SukhraJ and tell him 
\o keep two companies in rendu 
ness at Jehangir's tomb as tbe- 
gentleman's escort. 

Let the Sinfrh regiment be in readi- 
ness outside the Tanksali gate to 
accompany the gentleman as an 

Mishar, tell Kutba to call the ladies 
(dancers), give them fifty rupees 
each out of the treasury, and order 
them to come dressed out. 

Mishar, let Kh&lr Aly Khkn Guhar- 
chy receive five hundred rupees, 
and tell him to have lamps ready 
in the Saman bastion a gharl be- 
fore night. 

Let Satar gardener be called. 

What order your highness ? 

To-morrow before nine o'clock, let 
an entertainment be prepared for 
the gentleman in the Shali gar- 

Mishar, tell Mishar Beliram to have 
to-morrow morning ready at the 
Shala garden, a pearl necklace, a 
pair of gold bracelets set with 
diamonds, an expensive pair of 
shawls, a piece of khinkah, five 
hundred rupees for the gentle- 
man's servants, and a valuable 
khes each for his other men* 

1838.] Grammar qfihePcmj&i Language >£6 

Ntka Diwan ji, Mtmshi Sarabdhyal Nika Diwan, call Manthi Sarab- 

hajar karo dhyal. 

Parwaaa lekho Raje Suohet Singh Write an order to Raja Sachet 

haranu, hazar swar do hazar pya- Singh with one thousand cavalry 

daPeahawaronkneh karkeBannu- and two thousand infantry to 

da. bundbaat karan, hek Paawana march from Peshawar and settle 

Futteh Singh Man horanu lekho Bannu, and writ** an order also to 

Raja Sabdi Raman mannt tasan Futteh Simrh Man to put himself 

hor inhande hukm wichog adul under the Raja's orders and not 

nehin karna to disobey any of bin commands. 

firshacflikho Diwan Dannunu, Gu- Write an order to D»wan Danna 

zerat da muluk Sarkar dendi,e that the Sarkar has given him the 

Kabul kar lai rupeya panj hazar country of Guzerat, order him to 

nazarana aarkarda leave jis wele accept it, and t«» give five thoa- 

lyave us wele khilat pehan, ja,e sand rupees nazarana fur it ; at 

the time of presenting which he 
will receive a khilat. 

Maharaj j|, Diwan hori knbul nehi§ Your highness, the Di win refuses to 

karde accept it. 

Aiweg bhndu^a e nazarana wagte Just like the rascal, he does not 

kabuj nehii) karda do hazar chad accept it on account of the naza- 

deo Ape man lega rana ; take off two thousand and 

he will obey. 

Maharaj ji, Diwan horane man liya e Your highness, the Diwan has agreed. 

Dittha Jamarfar ji, bhadweda tama. Do you see Jamadar, the play of the 

aha do hazar rupeya chadya tan rascal ? two thousand rupees have 

kigkar man liya* been remitted, why has he accept- 
ed it now ? 
The Maharaja ill with a pain in his knee. 

(A Farash). Maharaj ji, hek wada Your highness, there is a great Sayad 

Sayad e medi tang duAadi si hath who cured a bad leg of mine by 

lavnde in. khnxr ho gai,l the touch of his hand. 

(The Maharaj). Mishar ji, oh Say- Mishar, bring that Sayad; ask 

adnu lea. Ruldu Farash tbog jaga Ruldu Farash where he lives, get 

puchh lent hath] kaswa le,o wich ready an elephant and bring him 

chadakar leavna adab nal on it with respect. 

The Sayad arrives. 

(Sayad). Bha,l tend sukh hove Brother, may you be well and carry 

padshal peya kar gajda raho on your government ; may you 

continue to bluster in the world. 

(Maharaja). Mishar ji, panch pot. Mishar, bring five bags of a hundred 

lyag sau sau diyan leao rupees each. 

(To the Sayad J. Maharaj ji, kal bl Your highness will, I hope, give me 

darshan devna a sight of yourself to-morrow. 

(Another Faraih). Maharaj ji, hek Your highness, there is a holv man 

sadh aya Guru Nanak sabdi juthi who has one of Guru Nanak'a 

hai on hakal shoes. 

(The Maharaja), Uswaktdi rakhi What, has he preserved it since that 

huls bajar karo onha Sadhanu time; bring here that Sadh and 

Mishar ji, asada &Aasa be jao udde- take my own fe&asa, Mishar, for 

wich ona sabanu chadakar le ao him to come in. 

The Sadh arrives, unfolds the shoe from a hundred wrappers. The 

Maharaj £ salutes it and applies it to his eyes, head and breast. 

(The Maharaja). Mishar jl, hazar Mishar ji, order a perpetual grant 

rupeyi da pind dharmarth Wazir. to be written of a thousand- rupee 

abad de tafake wichog likhwa de,o village in the province of Wazir. 

7M Grammar of the Panjdbi Language. [Aug. 

ateg juthi sftbann toshafcaine wich abad and pat the reverend shoe 

rakhwi de,o in the treasury. 

(Another Servant J. Maharaj ji, nek Tour highness, thereisa great pandit 

wada pandit Kaahi on aya wadi arrived from Benares deeply read, 

padyi hui ounipas hek ling e and has a lingum of Mahadeo with 

Midewjidi o famnaunden paven him ; he says whatever pain the) 

lehi dukh dard Sarkarnu hove Sarkir may have will be cored by 

livnde nale sukh hojive. Tad applying it. It must therefore 

jano jo ling sacha,e be a real one. 

(The Maharaja J. Miahar ji, hithl Mishar, saddle an elephant with a 

haswa lo chandide haudewali pan- silver houda and bring the pandit 

dit oniru wich bahike sitabe hajar in it quickly, 

(The Servant J. Mahiraj jl, pandit Your highness, the pandit la n man 

horl wadi sa/rAt mizij bain iwau of a queer temper ; he will net 

ki meh in awau thus be brought. 

(The Maharaja.) Jis tara jino Bring him by all means, and take 

unban u leao hek panch sau rupeyi with you five hundred rupees from 

bi le jao tosheAeaine wich on the treasury. 

(Servant), Maharaj jl, sat bichan Very well, your highness. 

The pandit arrives, takes out the stone, the Maharaja rises and rujw it 

over his body. 

(Maharaj). Mishar ji, hek hazar Mishar, bring 1,000 rupees more and 

rupeya hor leakar mathi teko put it at his feet, and give the 

pandit horinu das rupeya roa pandit an allowance of 10 rupees 

lawi deo a day. 

(Pandit). Hamanu kuch nehin I don't want any of it; I have Mahi- 

bakir Mahadevjl ki hukm hai jab dev's orders to return when you 

ek Raja hachhi hovegi to yahan are well, and I have brought thif 

se uthani isse hukm muifik ham order with me from Benares. 
kasM se ture hain, 

Tusi tin char ros darbir maukuf Don't hold your court for two or 

karo three days.' 

After some days, the Maharaj hears that the holy pandit has fallen in 
love with a dancing girl, and is accordingly an impostor ; his only remark is, 

Sidh log en unko eh bit ban ivti e These are holy men, they can do 

these things if they like. 


Specimen of Punjabi verse. 

Simin badan yarafshin chehri lab Silver body, bespangled (freckled) 

surfral misl anare phul hazire je face, red lips like the pomegra. 

un galzire nate, or poppy, or rather like a 

bed of flowers. 

A ten mirg nkhlnti mjrg hairinl And lascivious eyes shaming the 

vekh AAuni main tumhire miran deers; behold those blood-shot orbs, 

hyaiiv sihire murderous stealers of the heart. 

Mar bimar hazir pae teri zulf kun- Thousands have fallen sick and died; 

dul wal mire wal wal side mo,e thy locks are ringlets in which 

wichire you catch and burn us, and we die 


Par bhuj bhuj de,an Kalandar ishik But Kalandar, as he burns with love,.* 

miran mire karan kakire baith sings, sighing, and bewailing In 

kinire retirement. 

Chale nir akhinti behadd jadh yir Tears without measure started from 
vida kar chate mine eyes, when my lover started 

at our separation. 

1688.] Vocabulary of the Bmraky Language. 727 

Jha/e leg- nasfbat dende koun gang .Baartt* people reprehend me, but 

wiebo dedijtafe who can bear the spear of absence ? 

Mmfe ak'l jehe chhad jande jithe Standard wits are lost where love 

ifthk marenda bhale plants hit standard, 

Prntie mkl na rahi Kalandar jag ishk Kalandar possesses no wisdom when 
are ith paile. love possesses him. 

handu&A ten surma ranjak Eye for gun, antimony for priming 
sulf palraa,e and ringlets for a match which is 


Gall Jcftal disse mukh upper jig oh That mole appearing on thy check 
■heat kara,e is a bullet when yon present it to 

the mark. 
Oh mare dilnu mul na kusse jig oh She is aiming at my heart but can. 
kas chalae not strike it though she loads 

and fires. 
Par Kalandar matlab tayyeg pae But know, Kalandar, you will then 
jakan apna ap koha^e gain your ends when you strike 

Dakhandl maig punch! pal mere I have arrived at the summit ef 
pair soghlag nal tarode pain ; my feet have andets of 

Ah!g sal parotyag hanjug vekh By sighs my tears have been forced 

ishkede sore out, behold the fbree of love 1 

Bar singer kita sab oftam da jadh I decked myself in mourning weeds 
maig thog yar wichode kuk Ka- when my love parted from' me ! 
landar rab dadhe agge mat pawan entreat kalandar before all-pow- 
ketana mode erful God that your " hot*" may 

Jhatke gaktn tab ishkda main kahil The fire of love does not kindle, I 

hMjhalke am kindled after long patience. 

Chalks bir hug de rough ai huna I threw myself into the fire, now 

jawag kith wal ehalke how shall I get through. 

Rathe dukhag sulag kuthl sukh gae Thorns and grief have left me pros* 
asathog ralke trate, and pleasure has quite left 

Koike jamme haran majaftftan. pal The child of yesterday is roasting 
jan Kalandar kaike me. The soul of Kalandar is 


A Vocabulary of the Barakt Language. 


The Barakis are included in the general term of Pars! wan, or Tajakf; 
they are original inhabitants of Yemen whence they were brought by 
Sultan Mahmu'd of Ghazni ; they accompanied him in his invasion 
of India, and were pre-eminently instrumental in the abstraction of 
the gates of the temple of Somnath. There are two divisions of the 
tribe* The Barakis of R&jan in the province of Lohoad, who speak 

* Proper mane. 

T The popular derivation of the word Tajak ii that the ancestors of tbat tribe 
were the keepers of the Taj (crown) of the Arabian prophet, Taj betides meaning a 
kiagiy crown is applied to the distinguishing cap of a Muhammadan fakir (hermit;. 
4 T 


Vocabulary ofth* Baraky Language. 


Persian, and the Barakis of Barak, a city near the former, who speak 
the language called Barak! ; Sultan Mahmu'd, pleased with their 
services in India, was determined to recompense them by giving them 
in perpetual grant any part of the country they chose ; they fixed upon 
the district of Karilguratn in the country of the Wazlris where they 
settled. There are 2000 families of the Raj an Barakis under Rasit*l 
Khan who receives 2000 rupees a year from Dost Muhammad 
KhaV. The contingents of both these chiefs, amount to 50 horsemen 
who are enrolled in the Gkuldm Khdna division of the Cabul annv. 
There are also 2000 families of Barakis at Kdtilguram under Shah 
Malak who are independent. The Barakis of this place and of 
Barak alone speak the Baraki language. 

We receive a warning from the study of this Vocabulary, not to be 
hasty in referring the origin of a people merely from the construction 
of their language ; for it is well known that the one now instanced was 
invented by Mir Yu'zu'f who led the first Barakis from Yemen into 
Afghanisthan : his design was to conceal and separate his few follow* 
ers from the mass of Afghans (called by them K&sh) who would no 
doubt at first look upon the Barakis with jealousy as intruders. The 
muleteers of Cabul, being led by their profession to traverse wild 
countries and unsafe roads, have also invented a vocabulary of pass- 


Kaftar, pigeon March, pepper 

Kouk, Greek partridge Run. clarified hotter 

Rosh, day 
Ghn, night 
Kalanak, boy 
Dadai, father 
Zarigag, girl 
Maw, mother 
JTAwar, sister 
Marza, brother 
Wokh, water 
Aron, fire 
Tikhhii, bread 
Ksh&r, city 
Grim, village 
Ner, house 
Dara/rAt, tree 
Buti, shrub 
Yasp, horse 
Gon. wood 
Yasp. mare 
A,u, d f, er 
Khnr, ass 
Khatir, mule 
Kurra, foal 
Kirjl, fowl 

Ottgh, camel 
Khin, bear 
8hadi, monkey 
Bakri, goat 
Nargoi, bull 
Midgut, cow 
Galium, wheat 
Rizsa, rice 
Pyaz, onion 
Tamhaku, tobacco 
Shal^Aam, turnip 
Karam, cabbage 
Turab, radish 
Kajar, carrot 
Anar, pomegranate 
Gulab, rose 
Ninuk, salt 
Tel, oil 
Shakar, sugar 
Khand, refined sugar 
Gu4, molasses 
Nabat, sugar.candy 

Mat«ki, butter 
Wolkh, egg 
Pikakh, milk 
Ghip, curds 
Topi, butter-milk 
Khat, bedstead 
Lyaf, coverlid 
A'hin, iron 
Kalai, tin 
Surb, lead 
Mis, copper 
Brinj, brass 
1 ilia, gold 
Nukhra, silver 
Gap, atone 
Balk, leaf 
Pusht, back 
Sini, breast 
Nas, stomach 
Lab, lip 
Gfchy, tooth 
MaArA, cheek 

• »h represents w, in distinstioa from §k wldoh stands for jr,. 



Vocabulary of the Baraky Languagt. 


Kent, nose 
Tsunl, eye 
Sar, head 
Got, ear 
Partuk, tnwMn 

Tea*, bitter 
Tekha, hot 
Teaka, cold 
Nana, soft 
Kilakha, hard 
Pabega, high 
Kemat, dear 
A rain, cheap 
Dirt, hair 
Wadai, wool 
Pamba, cotton 
WYoaet, bread 
Brut, mustachoes 
Mai!, husband 
Nik, wife 
Daru, gunpowder 
Ghwash, grass 
flpeg , barley 
Ispeuq, white 
Ought, red 
Genres*, black 
Nil, blue 
Zed, yellow 

&Hd, green 
Mini, fiah 













Anwal, first 
Duyam, second 
Seyam, third 
Gharain, fourth 

fiatai, oorae 
Tie, go 

Rawarra, bring 
Aglona, take away 


Gaka, meat 
Toavi, son 
MarwoJea, moon 
Stura, star 
Mashrik, east 
MajArib, west 
Shammai, north 
Junub, south 
Bad, wind 
Parole, light 
TitVth, darkness 
Angur, grapes 
Pukuk, ripe 
Nakpukuk, raw 
8ha*a, horn 
8amb, hoof 
Palla, divided hoof 
Kauah, shoes 
Kor, blind 
Gung, dumb 
Karr, deaf 
Hast, straight 
Kaj, crooked 
Stu4, tired 
Diray, pain 
Kaunas, paper 
Mushw&ni, inkstand 
Kalam, pen 
Chha, well 
Rib, road 
Nam, name 
Zin, saddle 
Girl, mountain 
JTaisht, brick 

Baba, grandfather 
Naw&sai, grandson 
JTaiUhni, sister-in-law 
Pabega, above 
Podzema, below 
Wivera, in 
Paneoet, out 
Inda, here 
Yuwal, there 
Slnkh, before 
Papets, after 
Razai, quick 
I£arar, alow 
8ubuk, light 
Wazmln, heavy 
JTarab, bad 
Shirra, good 
Narrai, thin 
Gftota, fat 
Sturra, large 
Zari, little 
fthon, to-day 
Sir, to-morrow 
Partn, yesterday 
Kan, when 
Perl, now 
Baa, enough 
Sher, yes 
Na, no 
Key, why 
Zut, much 
T>ukh, little 
Tar, and 

Number*, Cardinal and Ordinal. 






















Panjam, fifth 
8hasham, sixth 
Haftam, seventh 
Hashtum, eighth 

Gon, place 
U'rs, take up 
Neh, sit 
Hust, rise 

Nauwam, ninth 
Dasum, tenth 

Kburon, eat 
jSAera, give 
Nassa, take 
Dsana, beat 


Vocabulary of the Baraky Language. 



Az sipal yum 

Tu gudaptso 

Dre&fty oghok 

Tostar vnkkh mini 76 

Azr tu dagad pitsen 

Tar tuna rupe da a 

Tar tu muwajib taCma 

Nimaz digar shuk 

Ta tsun umuron 

Tsun kalan daron 

Baran rasak 

Tar boskshar tsum petaa 

Tsun buma daron 

Yaspakf tsa Mai 

Pa tsuna taai ka 

Tufor dadai guda 

She chan buaak ka mnluk 

Yaspdi to sarrang aroibo fft^nkai 

Pera tsa kun 

Ta shujal Mulkl jnngine tarmakh 

marza zskhmi shuk 
Kurra kariner bhiua tsara na kun 

Rahiner kuman anal luchh da kum 
Ta fea#A Walk zud Arauranakai 
Kurra graminer tsun fcnarwar ga- 

num a ida 
Tar mafcaanas bademi 
Te Herat rahiner baladon 
Mkka amarokh ka Kamran zud za- 

Hm a 
Tsar pens sadaikt she yaspashok 

Kurra hauzjartar toi tsun Anarch 

Indadi batsen sauda aglon 

Tarra than kemat ba tsun sa 
Tarra than kemat tar ma/cfta nazari- 

ner padas tuman 
Kurra mulkaner khimkab kewon 

gran a 
Tar tosi Girlner hinj paida sa • 

Ha shai ba patsa kar raza 

Shou Mulla hera $he jae tol shka 

Zar tos zabinaner badala daha ki 

Nah kok ka ba badala ghok pa Parst 

Ta kdsh i menziner tsen sai Bham. 

shiri a 
1 # Kashiner PopaJsai sher shams. 


I am a soldier. 

Where are 700 going? 

He spoke false. 

Yon are my brother. 

We will go together. 

Have you a rupee with you? 

What is your pay ? 

It is the time of afternoon prayers. 

What is your age ? 

How many children have you? 

The rain has come. 

How far is your town ? 

How much ground have yon ? 

What do you give your horse ? 

What is his price ? 

Where is your father ? 

It is a year since he died. 

How did you fall from the horse? 

What shall I do now. 

My brother was wounded in the 

battle of Shujawal Mulk. 
Why don't you take care (what yon 

do) in this affair ? 
A robber stripped me on the road. 
The Afghan is a starving nation. 
What quantity of wheat is produced 

in that village? 
I have a pain in my stomach. 
Do you know the road to Herat ? 
1 hear that Kamran is a great 

He gave four or five men for a sin- 
gle horse. 
What expense have you incurred on 

that tank ? 
What merchandise do yon take 

from here ? 
What may be the price of this piece? 
The price of this piece in my opi- 
nion is 10 tumans. 
Why ifl khimkab so dear in this 

Is aaafoetida produced in your 

mountains ? 
What is the use of this thing? 
The Mullas have all assembled in 

one place to-day. 
Are verses written in your language 

or not? 
No ; any one who rehearses veraes> 

rehearses them in Persian. 
What tribe of Kdsh (Afghans) are 

the best swordsmen? 
Among these Afchan* the PopaL 

zais are the bert swordsmen. 


Vocabulary of the Pashai Language. 


fiber maltajAa pa tamam Candahir Tbit is a good gun such as is not 

ki sher maltsftaagda procurable in all Candahar. 

Taun roab bad kifila rasa In bow many days will the caravan 

arrive ? 

Tarmakh utarak ta eharsukh kanu I have put up in the caravansera of 

wansarainer sbnk me bayad she the charsukh (four bazars) ; you 

war kamaM tamaner rasai must come and see me some day* 

A Vocabulary of thk Pashm Language. 


The language is spoken by the people called Pasbais who inhabit the 

districts of Manda% Chitela, Parena, Kimd\, Seva and Kulmctn. 


Davis, day Tati, father 

Vyal, night Ai, mother 

A 'si, band Lay a, brother 

Balakul, boy 8aya, sister 

Lavni, girl Wark, water 

Panjai, man Angar, fire 

Zaif, woman Au, bread 

1 V 
3 do 

3 te 

4 char 
6 panj 

Gul, river 
8o,a^£, he-goat 
Baratik, ewe 
Lawga, pain 
Dar, wood 
Daru, powder 
Phajadik, she-goat 
Barati, ram 
Gal, abuse 
Wagan, wind 
Paron^ik, bullet 
Mo, wine 
Chan, vinegar 
Gom, wheat 
Lon, salt 
Ghas, grass 
Panj, husband 
Waya, daughter 
Chummar, iron 
fihlekzarra, silver 
A neb, eye 
JTaad, ear 
Dan, tooth 
Dadi, beard 
Chagam, chin 
Manda, neck 
Maka4ik, monkey 

6 she 
1 sat 

8 A8h\ 

9 no 
10 de 

11 jae 
IS duae 

13 tloe 

14 chadde 

15 panjo 

Pa, foot 
Nawad, back 
Kueh, belly 
Gorecha, embrace 
Sir, head 
JTAwagam, near 
Shltk, white 
Sunek, red 
Kacha, blue 
JTAat, bedstead 
NudI, butter 
Ave, flour 

Golang, drove of bul- 
Ada, bull 
Zaib, wife 
Puljem, son 
8el{, knife 
8onezarra, gold 
W&4, stone 
Nast, nose 
Dur, lip 
Jib, tongue ' 
Brut, mustachoes 
Kalavi, cheek, 
Ling, leg 
JetAta, ruler 
Aug! ana 

Lam, fort 
Goshin, house 
Kadi, tree 
Ghoda, horse 
Ghodi, mare 
Bai,i, good 
Batar, bad 

16 Mod 

17 sattu 

18 a*Atu 

19 nau 

20 vist 

Sina, breast 
Chucha4ik, paps 
Kachi, armpit 
Dur, face 
Duda, far 
8amek, black 
Pela, yellow 
Alina, green 
ChaJ, hair 
Chonta, small 
Bakuta, fat 
Chlla, cloth 
Sutan, trousers 
Munim, dog 
U'ndarik, cat 
Pe, flesh 
Kbartl, female 
Dashn&, right 
8uraldash, sunrise 
Taj, star 
Sang, earth 
Waffh, rain 
Sidal, ice 
Rest, true 
Bo, much 
Sila, mud 
A ball, cloud 
K aurra, hoof 


Note on a species ofArctonisfirom Arracan. [Auo. 

Lent*, bow 
Pachh, cotton 
Yul, wool 
8ai, thing 
Tish, bitter 
fiadal, cold 
Garni, large 
Lagar, thin 
Parana, coat 
Kimanik, cloak 
Shuwatik, bitch 
If achh, fish 
JTAarta, ass 
Lawich, jackal 
Chappa, left 
Nirgirch, sunset 
Mae, moon 
Tal, heavena 
I'm, anow 
Aaal, hail 
Lad, false 
Ram, little 

Lau Ian jhala 
Tena nami kuss! 
Tu chude ai 
8abak mare 
A'u pachale 
Wary achi 
LMraan kega 


Bhojil, earthquake 
Kan, arrow 
Kkkb, scabbard 
8uehak, needle 
Kumar, deep 
Lasarra sweet 
Garm, hot 
Pinja, flower 
Dashik, grapes 
Aatadi, apricot 
Manai, apple 
Obi, upon 
Ebat, now 
Pachaleva, cooked 

A'yi, eat 
Amlaja, run 
Virambu, walnut 
Baho, quince 
Amirik, pomegr a nate 
Akhud, below 
Pachada, after 
Kkkm, raw 
Tada, deer 
8aro, mule 
ArtiL, hunger 
Kotaada, shoes 
Bolla, deaf 
JThota, lame 

Shing, horn 

Ledhi, female deer (roe) Chaya,' well 

Kadaga, language Witai, go 

Tena, thirst Ura, stand 

Anda, blind Pe, drink 
Gonga, dumb 
Beda, mad 

Go slowly. 

What is your name ? 

Where are you going ? 

Where is your residence ? 

Learn your lesson ? 

Cook bread. 

Bring water. 


Ema saxdar kyaa 

Who is your ruler? 

Note. The abore Tocsbulariet seem to haye been all throws oat of arraage- 
meat ia the copying, but we hare not time to attempt their rearrangement.-— Eb* 

VII. — Note on a species of Arctonix from Arraca*. By Dr. G. 

Evans, Curator As. Soc. Museum. 

The singular and rare little animal presented this evening by Captain 
Paterson of H. C. brig Krishna, I have reason to believe is the 
Bali Souar or sand hog of the Hindus, the type of a new genus of 
Mammalia to which M. F. Cuvier has assigned the name of Arctonix. 
The description given of A. Collaris by M. M. Geoff roy, Saixt 
Hilaire and F. Cuvier, Lwraison 5leme Histoire NatureUe des 
Afammi feres will most probably apply to this our living specimen. It 
is as follows. " In habit this animal may be compared to a beat 
furnished with the snout, eyes and tail of a hog. Of its dentary system 
nothing is known, except that it possesses six small incisors of equal 
length, and its canine teeth are long, and that these are immediately 
succeeded by fiat molar teeth which appear to be larger as they are 
more advanced in the mouth. Its movement is plantigrade, and its 

163&] Note on a species of Arctonix from Arracan. 733 

five toes, united by a narrow membrane throughout their whole extent, 
are armed with powerful claws an inch in length. 

" The hairs are rough, thickly set, and long upon the body, while 
those of the head are short and depressed. The snout which is flesh* 
colored, has only a few bristles on its sides ; and the belly is almost 
naked. The ears are short, covered with short hairs, and bordered 
with white. The hair, which is yellowish white with its apex black, 
gives to the fur a slightly blackish cast, which varies in an undulated 
manner when the animal moves. The throat is yellow and the sides of 
the head are marked with two black bands, which unite towards the 
snout. The lower band which is very narrow, borders the upper lip ; 
the other which is much broader covers the eye, embraces the ear, 
descends on the sides of the neck, and unites itself at the bottom 
of the shoulder with the black that covers entirely the anterior 
members : hence the part in front bounded by these black bands al- 
though nearly resembling in color the remainder of the body, seems to 
form a distinct portion of the fur. The hinder members are black Hke 
the anterior ones, and the hair which covers them is very rough. The 
yellowish white predominates towards the posterior part of the back, 
and the tail is furnished with large rough scattered bristles/' 

This description was founded entirely on the notes of the late M. 
Duvaucel, who sent from India the drawing employed by M. F. 
Cuvikr. Mention is made that no specimen had then reached France, 
but that there was one in the museum of the East India Company, and 
that another, apparently a distinct species, is in the collection of the 
Linnean Society : — it continues : 

* From the number and form of the toes and the disposition of the 
teeth the genus Arctonix evidently belongs to the carnivora, to the 
extreme of which and in close connection with the bears, it is referred 
by its plantigrade motion, its strong and curved claws, and its little 
inclination for flesh* Like the bears moreover, when much irritated it 
supports itself on its hind feet, and exhibits in its arms and claws 
weapons equally to be dreaded with its teeth ; in its flat and tubercular 
molar tooth, its preference for vegetables and fruits, and its snout 
apparently destined for digging, it deviates considerably from the bears, 
and may therefore be perhaps regarded as the extreme of the carnivora, 
forming the connecting link in the series of affinities between these and 
the omnivorous pachydermata ; which M. F. Cuvibr remarks are 
separated from the elephants and horses, by such numerous and im- 
portant characters as almost to tempt us to consider them as forming a 
dfrHf»*4 order, more closely allied to the carnivora than they are gene- 
rally assumed to be by systematic writers. 

734 Note on a species of Aretonix Jrom Arraean. £ Aoc 

Should the above detail of specific characters not exactly accord 
with those of the specimen now exhibited, it may be owing to its being 
a young animal in which the adult characters have not yet become 
sufficiently developed. 

On looking over a file of unpublished papers transferred to the Phy- 
sical Committee on its first formation I have found a manuscript 
description dated February 1821, of two animals in the menagerie 
at Barrackpoor, by the late M. Duvaucbl, the first of which is 
evidently the animal above described by Dr. Evans* Mr. Kittox 
has also discovered a drawing of the same animal in one of our port- 
folios, whence I have had the accompanying lithograph executed. It is 
called Ursus by Duvaucxl. — J. P. 

Notice, sur deux animaux du genre Ursus (Lin.) means d I* 

menagerie de Barrackpoor f 1821. 

La menagerie de Barrackpoor s'est enrichie nouvellement de deux 
mammiferes qui me paraissent n*avoir par encore ete decrits, et qui sont 
d'autant plus interessans que Tun prlsente dans la disposition de ses 
dents une anomalie caractenstique, et l'autre, un caractere impor- 
tant qu'on n'a reconnue jusqu'ici que dans des animaux originaires 

Le plus grand des deux porte a chaque machoire deux tongues 
canines et six incisives. Les incisives superieures sont une fois aussi 
tongues que les infgrieures et, parmi celles-ci, les deux moyennes 
se trouvent notablement plus avancees que les autres. 

Les m61aires, au nombre de cinq en haut et six en bas, paraissent 
avoir une forme et une disposition semblables a celles de V Ursus gulo, 

Sa hauteur est d'environ 19 pouces : il a le port des ours, avec le 
museau, les yeux, et la queue, des cochons. Ses oreilles sont courtes 
et toutes velues ; ses pieds indiquent une marcbe plantigrade et ses cinq 
doigts, unis dams toute leur longueur, sont armes d'ongles vigoureuz, 
surtout aux pieds de devant ou ils ont plus d'un pouce de longueur. 
' Le poil du corps, rude, long et trls fourri augmente considerablement 
von volume. Celui de la tete est court et serrl. Le museau, couleur 
de chair, est seulement garni de quelques soies sur les cotes, et le 
ventre est presque nu. 

Ce poil, d'un blanc jaunatre, avec le bout noir, donne au pelage entier 
un reflet noiratre qui varie quand l'animal se meut La gorge est 
jaune; et, sur les cot& de la tdte, sont deux bandes noires qui 

\ V 

1888.] Note on a species of Arctonix from Arracan. 735 

s*unissent vera le musean. L'infeVieure tres Itroite borde la levre 
superieure ; I'autre beaucoup plus large couvre Fowl et va se perdre 
derriere Foreille largement bordee de blanc. 

Le poil qui couvre les membres est d'un noir pur et d'une nature 
plus rude que celui des autres parties ; le blanc domine vers la partie 
postlrieure du dos ; et la queue, longue d'envivon 9 pouces, est garnie 
de tongues soies blanches semblables a celles des cochons ordinaires. 

La conformation extlrieure de cet animal ne laisse aucun doute sur 
le genre auquel il appartient ; mais ses dents auraient besoin d'etre 
sonmises a un examen plus severe que le mien pour fixer sa veritable 
place dans les subdivisions rigoureuses Itablies par l'anatomie. 
(Storr. Prodromus methodi Mammalium, 1780). 

L'espece avec la quelle il a le plus de ressemblance exterieure est le 
glouton du nord, Roesomak des Russes ou ursus gulo de Linnjeus ; ef, 
si je ne me suis point trompe dans l'inspection de ses machoires, on doit 
d'autant mieux rSunir ces deux animaux, que celui de Barrackpoor 
porte anssi sous la queue, comme V ursus gulo, une sorte de poche 
formee par un large pli de la peau interfemorale. 

Les moeurs de cet ursus paraissent ne differer en rien de celles dela 
plupart des autres du meme genre : il passe une partie du jour dans 
une somnolence profonde et prefcre I'obscurite a la lumiere. Sa d-- 
marche est lourde, lente et penible ; mais il se dresse avec facilite 
sur ses pieds de derriere, se sert avec adresse de ceux de devant, et 
trouve dans ses T>ras et ses ongles des armes non moius dangeureuses 
que ses dents. 

Ses dents peu tranchantes neVsessitent un regime frugivore, et en 
efiet il pr&ere les veg&aux a la chair. 

Qnoique farouche et meehant, l'individu femelle vivant a Barrack- 
poor fait croire, par son analogic avec Tours ordinaire, que son espfece 
est susceptible d'education et peut-etre serait-elle depuis longtems au 
nombre des animaux domestiques, si sa grande ressemblance avec le 
cochon, ne la faisait considerer ici comme une espfece immonde ? 

I* longueur et la mobitite de son museau indiquent l'habitude 
de fouir et ses ongles vigoureux lui servent sans doute i, creuser la 
terre. Cette hypothfese est d'autant mieux fondle que l'animal, dans les 
contrees on il vit, est connu des natifs sous le nom de cochon de table 

4 s 

736 Translation of a Copper Plate grant [Aug. 

VIII. — Translation of an Inscription on a Tdmba Patra found in the 
Village of Piplidnagar, in the Shujalpur P erg ana, and presented 
to the Political Agent, Bhopal 9 by the Jagirddr. By L. Wil- 
kinson, Esq. Pol. Agent. 

[In a letter to the Editor.] 

I owe you many apologies for the delay which has transpired in for- 
warding to you copies and translations of the three remaining Tamba 
patras found at Piplidnagar in 1 836. I have now the pleasure to 
forward a copy and translation of the oldest dated in Samvat 1235. 

It seems to throw some doubt on the course of succession that 
appeared to you to have been rendered plain and clear, for eight gene- 
rations, by the inscription dated Samvat 1267 before submitted to you. 
- That inscription states that Jatavarma was succeeded on the gaddi 
of Mandap (or Mandu) by his son Vindhyavarma, and he by 
his son Amdshya'yana and he again by Subhasavarma, and this 
last raja by his son Arjuna; whilst this states that Harischandra 
succeeded raja Jatavarma, and adds moreover in the last Terse that 
he was the son of Lacshmivarma. 

This discrepancy may be reconciled by supposing that raja Haris- 
chandra was only a prince of the royal family and as such became 
possessed of an appanage and not of the whole kingdom : and the fact 
that NUagiri and not Mandap was his capital seems to confirm this 
supposition, supported as it also is by the title of Mahd Kumdra or 
prince given to him. 

I was about to add translations also of the other two inscriptions : 
but finding that they both correspond word for word with that formerly 
sent to you in all respects but the dates— (which are later — the one 
only by three and the other only by five years — than that of the former 
inscription) — and that they both record grants by the same raja Ab- 
juna, translations of them would be but an idle repetition. I enclose 
however copies of both, which you may place on record, if you can afford 
to spare a space for them in your journal. 

Sehore, 27th August, 1838. 


found at Piplidnagar in 1836. 


v ^fftt^i tot **nfr * «nn«4i<ii*ii4tff \ w. mNmtvw 

m QmmmS l Mftnn ?«f»f*M mPi<M wqdi % <m*it *nr 

urn \\\i iffrrcft 

4 z 2 

era <9*romr<i$»ins«Tt> 

738 Translation &f m Copper Plate grant [Aug. 

w^ iro^rt *r ir to ***p:t i ^f^Nnwr^t fro 

vt WT** Wfa* 111 

srrfti^nPr ^«j«iv*Ki«Hff vSnfararePcrfar i fMre* 

1886.] Jbund at Pipiidnagar m 1 88& 739 

*raif*c i v i 

[Glory be unto Sai Ganbia.] 

1. Happiness, victory and prosperity. Glory be to Siva, who 
wean on Ins head the crescent moon as the seed whence this world 
has sprouted forth. 

2. May the tresses of Ka'madeva's enemy (Siva) ever afford to 
us happiness and salvation; as they shine forth in splendour like the 
lightning at the grand deluge. 

3. The mighty king Maharaja Adhiraja Sri Uddyaditya was 
succeeded by the mighty Mahiraja Adhiraja Sri Nara vabma 
Dby a, he by Sri Yasovarma Deva, and he again by Sri Java* 
vabma Dkva ; by the favor of this last mentioned raja, the learned 
and accomplished Prince Sri Harischandra Deva, received 
dominion. He hereby from his capital of Nilagiri notifies to the 
Government officers, the inhabitants, the Pate Is, brahmans and others 
of the villages of Mamati, and Sawdrd (or Palasawdrd) of the 
Maddpadrd pergunna, and be it accordingly known to you, that on the 
occasion of the eclipse of the sun which has occurred in the new moon 

740 Translation of a Copper Plate grant [Aug. 

of Paushavidya of the Samvat year 1235 of Vikramaditya, be 
after bathing in the sacred waters of the holy Narmadd, near the 
temple of the four-faced Markandksvar, and after duly robing' 
himself in white garments and making oblations of. water to the gods 
and to bis progenitors, and after offering due worship to the lord and 
ruler of all animate and inanimate objects, and after sacrificing to the 
sacred fire with the holy wood, kusha grass, sesamum seed, rice, &c. 
as prescribed, walking thrice round the sacred cow, and performing 
other purificatory ceremonies, has given away in gift 1000 cows. 
Seeing moreover that there is no stability in the affairs of this world, 
that they are more inconsistent than the water-drop trembling on the 
lotus leaf, and that youth and wealth are of uncertain duration, as it 
has been well observed, " the kingdoms of this world are as inconstant 
as the clouds agitated by the changeful winds, and all sensual pleasures 
last but for the instant of enjoyment ; the life of man is like the rain 
drop depending from the point of a tremulous blade of grass ; piety 
alone will befriend a man in the life to come," — I, duly reflecting on 
these matters, have, with a view of adding to the merits and glory of 
my mother and father and of myself, given to the learned brahman 
Dasaratha, son of the learned Sindhu of the Kdtydyana gotra 
and of three Pravars, two shares -of the registered rents of the 
village of Sawdrd. To the learned brahman Malvinu the son of the 
learned Dklu of the Parfaara gotra y and of three Pravars. I 
moreover gave on the full moon of Vaisikha of the above mentioned 
Samvat year 1235, the remaining share of the village, adding 
to the shares of both customary dues from the bazar below the 
Fort of Gunapura ; the village of Suwdrd thus divided into three 
shares and calculated at 40 manis of seed grain as measured by the 
kura of the Nilagiri Mandala, together with all the trees grow- 
ing therein and a right to all trove treasure that may be found, with 
its clear defined boundary, and with ail the Baolees> wells, and tanks 
in the same, has by this deed been duly granted with ablutions of water. 
Therefore let all the inhabitants of this village, the patel and others as 
also the cultivators, submitting themselves to the orders of these two 
pandits, pay unto them the whole produce of every due, rent, revenue 
and money payment. 

Let this my religious grant be duly observed and maintained by all 
tny descendants and also by all other future princes who may inherit 
the land, reflecting that the merits of the gift will thus be duly shared 
in by them whilst following this course. 

1. The earth has been enjoyed in succession by many kings, by raja 

1836.] found at Ptplidnagar in 1886. 741 

S a gab a and others. The reward of religious merit attaching to grants 
of land is participated by all maintaining those grants inviolate. 

2. He, who receives a grant of land and he who gives the same, 
are alike meritorious and are certainly inheritors of the kingdom 
of heaven. 

3. O, Indra ! A gift of land is held to be complete in all its parts, 
when accompanied by a conch shell, a seat of honor, a chhatra, a good 
Iiorse and a good carriage. They are the signs of a perfect gift which 
is enjoyed when accompanied by these. 

4. The fool, who yielding to the instigations of his evil passions, 
resumes a grant of land or causes a grant to be resumed, will be bound 
in the chains of Varuna, and in a future birth will be born a bird 
or quadruped. 

5. He who resumes land given either by himself or others will 
become a vile worm creeping in ordure for sixty thousand years. 

6. He who seizes a single gold coin, or a e ingle cow or even a 
finger's breadth of land, goes assuredly to hell there to abide so long as 
this creation shall last. 

7. Gifts of cows, of land and of knowledge are called grand gifts ; 
these purify to the seventh generation, by the milk, fruit, and informa- 
tion they impart. 

8. What man of virtue can be found so base as to resume the 
grants of former rajas, who acquired thereby as well religious merit, 
as their worldly desires and glory. Such resumption is as the return- 
ing to a vomit, or the claiming of what has been once offered to a 

9. Ramachandba thus again and again calls upon all future rajas, 
" Bear steadfastly in mind, that the merit of maintaining, is equal to 
that of making grants, that it will prove your eternal salvation ;" that 
grants should therefore be, from generation to generation and at all 
times preserved inviolate. 

10. To all princes whether descended from me or from other 
kings, who free from all sin, maintain the grants of land made by me, 
inviolate, I humbly bow my head, and kiss their lotus feet. 

Such are the sacred texts of Rishis rehearsed in order. 

Let all men reflecting that prosperity and life are as uncertain as the 
trembling waterdrop on the lotus leaf, bear these examples and warn- 
ings in mind and forbear to impair the good names of others. 

Given under the signature of the Prince Sri Haribchandra 
Drva (son of the great Sri Lacshmivarma Deva), who befriends 
the Paramar (Ponwar) tribe as the sun befriends the lotus. 

742 Proceeding* if the Asiatic Society* [Ana. 

lX.—Prooeedinfft of the AoiaHe Society. 
• Wednesday Evening, 6tk September, 1838. 

The Honorable Sir Edward Ryan, President, in the chair. 

Sir Graves C. Haumton, propoeed by the Secretary in the Committee 
of Papers was, upon their concurrent recommendation, elected an honorary 
member of the 8ociety. 

Lieut. J. Duncan, Hbskangobad, was proposed as an ordinary member 
by the Secretary, seconded by the President. 

Mr. John Blackburn, assistant Editor of the Englishman, propoeed by 
If r. Stooqueutr, seconded by fiabu Prosonooomar Thakur. 

Dr. Helper, M. D. was proposed by Mr. J. W. Grant, seconded by the 

The Secretary reported that Mr. DkVinnb, Financial Secretary, S. B. S. 
had paid over Mr. Mum's donation of 1000 Sicca rupees, Co/s Re. 
1,060 10 8. 

A letter from Major Troybr forwarded through the Secretary at the 
India house, the gold medal awarded to Mr. Hodgson by the French 
Asiatic Society. 

Resolved to dispatch it with permission under Government frank to 


The following books were presented : 

The Mahawanso, in Roman characters, with a translation, and an Introducto- 
ry Essay on Pali Buddhist ical Literature, Ceylon, 1837, vol. the 1st— Jy the Honor- 
able George Turkour, Esq. Ceylon Civil Service, 

Rise and Progress of British Power in India. By Piter Aubbr, M. R. A. 8. 
London, 1837, vol. the 2nd--/rom the Honorable Court of Directors, 

Debate in the House of Commons on the motion for ' a select Committee to in* 
quire into the allegations contained in the petition from Madras and Calcutta oa 
the subject of Act XI. of 1836.'—ey ditto. 

Illustrations of the History and Practices of the Thugs. London, 1837— from ditto, 

The George Namah of Mull a Ferux Bin Kawa«, chief priest of the Par si kmd- 
mis of Bombay; (in Persian), Bombay, 1837, 3 vols.— by Mull a Ritstam am Kai- 
xobad, nephew of the author and editor of the work. 

Rules of the Bombay Geographical Society, instituted April, 1831. B o m ba y 1836. 

The Proceedings of ditto, 1836-7— /rom the G, Society. 

Kjttob'b Illustrations of Indian Architecture, Jst Number— presented by the 

Astronomical observations St Madras (second copy) from Government through 
Gen. Sir W. Casement, Secretary in the Military Department. 

Meteorological Register for July— from the Surveyor General* 

Oriental Publications. 

A letter from the Secretary to the Government of Bengal, dated 15th 
August, intimated that the Honorable the Deputy Governor had sane 
tioned a subscription for 40 copies of volume I. of Mr. Torrens' {translation 
of the Alif Leila, at S rupees per copy. 

With regard to Mr. Hodgson's Nipal Zoology, the Deputy Governor 
of Bengal was of opinion that as the work was to be published in England, 
the application for patronage should be addressed to the Honorable Court 
of Directors ; which was accordingly resolved to be done through Sir A. 
Johnston, V. P. Roy. Asiatic Society. 

The Secretary read the report of the special Committee on the expedi- 
ency of publishing the Sarira Vidya> or rather the separate minutes of its 
members in support of their former report. 

Minute by Dewan Ram Comul Sbn. 
There are two questions before the Committee, the first is whether the Hooper's 
Anatomist's Vade Mseam should be printed ia the Sanskrit or the vcraacuUr to- 

1888.] Proctedxngi of the Asiatic SocUty. 748 

gmtge ? and the second whether publication! of similar works would be more useful 
mad would contribute more to the instruction of the people in a vernacular tongue 
than in the Sanskrit. 

With regard to the first my opinion is that the Yade Mecum should be published 
in Sanskrit for the following reasons. 

1st. The work has already been translated into Sanskrit, and prepared for the 
press, paid for by the Education Committee, and 32 pages hare already been printed. 

Sadly. This is one of the works transferred to the Asiatic Society, which has 
engaged to complete it. 

Sraly. When the Asiatic Society applied for aid from Government to finish the 
work, it never had it in contemplation to publish it in the vernacular language. 

ithly. The Sankrit is read in several parts of India, where there are many thou- 
sand Vaidyms practising in medicine, a considerable portion of whom are versed ia 
Sanskrit, and who will find the work useful and read it to help themselves in becom- 
ing acquainted with the European system of Anatomy. 

Sthly. Until the natives are put in possession of the means of learning this sys- 
tem through the language they are familiar with, it will never be successfully 
cultivated among them, and it is believed that this work with plates and illustrations 
If rendered into Sanskrit will be a preparatory step towards the accomplishment of 
that object. 

6thly. The learned and scientific class of the people of India has a prejudice 
against the vernacular tongue, through the medium of which they cannot be easily 
induced to learn a foreign science, however beneficial and instructive it may be. 

7thly, Mr. Muia, has made an offer of one thousand rupees for the work, on con- 
dition that it should be published in Sanskrit : from this it appears that he must have 
ascertained the feeling and opinion of the people for whom the work is intended. 

Sthly. The work will be useful to the cause of education and read with suocess 
by the Sanskrit classes in the public Colleges of Calcutta, Benares, Agra and Delhi, 
where there are still se feral hundred young men, studying Sanskrit, To these students 
It will be a valuable acquisition, as it will greatly help them in learning the system 
of Anatomy. 

Sthly. Modoosoodon Goopta, who has translated the work appears to be very 
anxious that bis labor should not be lost to his countrymen. This is I believe the 
first medical work that has ever been translated from English into Sanskrit, and if 
the wish of the translator is not realized, it will in future deter others from similar 
attempts, and at the same time damp the spirits of enterprizing men desirous of 
undertaking works of a similar nature. 

JOthly. The Missionaries of Setampore published some time ago a complete 
system of Anatomy called Vidya Harabuli in the Bengali language, but for the 
reasons stated in Para- 6th, it has met with a very indifferent reception. The 
work did not sell even to so much as to exonerate the publishers from the printing 

With regard to the 2nd question, I think the fund at the disposal of the Asiatic 
Society should not be confined to the publication of works of one particular Ian* 
gunge or subject, but its benefit ought to be held out for the encouragement of 
the learned natives, and the preservation and cultivation of the languages of Asia of 
which Sanskrit and Arabic are the two most learned in Hindustan, and translations 
from European science in these languages would be desirable* 

Books calculated for school purposes printed in the vernacular tongues, used ia 
different parts of the country no doubt will prove more useful than Sanskrit or Arabic, 
and conduce more to the instruction and improvement of the natives. If they are ia a 
form and of a nature suitable to their taste, and capacity and state of reading amongst 
them and the state of society. 

As for the term vernacular language, I do not understand what is meant by it. 
If ft is meant to be Bengali it is understood by the people inhabiting the coun- 
try which comprehends Rajmehal, Oriua, C hit ta gong, Assam and Mithila. But a 
considerable portion of the language is intermixed with Sanskrit, and when a work 
written in that language is of a scientific character, it must require a pandit to ex- 
plain its meaning. If it is meant to be Hindi a term by which languages spoken 
ta Benar, Lucknow, and Agra is called ; it must come under the head of Urdu, 
Biuff, or Bind*. 

The Hindi which ft* a degeneration of words derived principally from the ver- 
nacular language*, is very poor and incapable of interpreting any difficult and sciea- 

* By Hindi is meant the vernacular written In Nigarf, which differs so far from 
taw Persian-written I7'rdw that its reading is confined nearly to Hindus j and abstract 
terms borrowed from Sanskrit or rather Prdkrii wiHio it take the place of the Arabic 

5 A 

744 Proceeding* of the Asiatic Society* C Acer. 

tific subject, without borrowing a considerable portion of words from Urdu, 
thirds of which consists of Arabic and Persian words. 

The state of literature in those parts of the country where these languages are 
spoken is not yet such, as to be expected that the people would derive much benefit 
from books similar to the medical vade mecura. The great mass of the people can- 
not read works like these with proportionate benefit without a previous acquirement 
or knowledge in the Sanskrit, Persian or Arabic language. But a vernacular version 
from such works may be useful and prove advantageous only in colleges where 
medical science is taught ; but it will be necessary for the aid of the muuahl or a 
pandit to learn it. 

Ram Comul Skit. 

13th August, 1838. 

Minute by Dr. N. Wallich. 

I am clearly of opinion that there ought to be correct versions in the two classi- 
cal languages of the East, of at least the elementary works in sciences ; were it only 
for the purpose of fixing the nomenclature on some sort of sound basis. Speakies: 
of Sanskrita, I believe I am right in asserting, that the language is understood 
to be fully capable of expressing or rendering every possible term of science, that 
has any meaning at all. I therefore adhere to the opinion already expressed by our 
Committee that Madhusudan's translation should be published in the manner 
we have recommended. 

With regard to versions of works of this nature into the vernacular languages, I 
cannot help considering the matter as being of such obvious importance as scarcely to 
admit of a question or a doubt. But still I would say let us have accurate Sanskrita 
translations in the first instance ; it will then be safe — I had almost said possible 
to have accurate versions in Bengali, — for I presume that is the vernacular language 
to which Mr. Prinsbp alludes. 

With every deference to Dewan Ram Comul Sen's opinion, coming as it does 
from a first-rate Sanskrita scholar (the only Sanskrit scholar among us) and author 
of one of the best English and Bengali Dictionaries extant, I must suppose, that the 
reason alleged for the Vidya-hara-buli not being much used is not the only, per- 
haps not the chief one. 

N. Wallich. 
Minute by Dr. H. H. Spry. 

Dewan Ram Comul Sen's reason* are I think all cogent ; and being at this mo- 
ment engaged in a statistical investigation into the state of education in Hindustan 
I can show by the aid of figures that there are only two languages known in Hindus- 
tan through the instrumentality of which the translation of any work of E urop e** 
science can hope for success. Learning, as all must know, is in this country, limited 
by the peculiar grade in which the individual happen* to be born, and there is in 
consequence, no mutual connection between the vernacular and learned schools. Boys 
in this country do not go first to the preparatory school or academy and afterwards 
to the college, but these institutions are two separate schools, each existing for a 
perfectly distinct class of Society — the one for the trading and agricultural commu- 
nity, and the other for the religious and learned classes. .'Indeed so carefully is this 
distinction observed by the Hindu population that the children of the latter class are 
seldom, if ever, permitted to attend the village vernacular school, but such prepara- 
tory instruction as is requisite; before sitting down to Sanskrita, is given under the 
parent's own roof. Again, the Hindu vernacular schools never profess to afford in- 
struction beyond the mere knowledge of keeping accounts accurately, while the 
masters themselves are more than half (8{*)of the inferior (Kayastha; or writer 

caste ; and what is still more to the point there are in Lower Hindustan alone ao 
fewer than five distinct vernacular dialects— viz. Bengali, Hindi, Uriya, Trihutiya, 
and Persian with Urdu. In Behar and SKdhabad the second of these tongues is 
in general use, but it differs very much from the Hindi of Patna, while the Maro- 
wars speak a dialect of the Hindi language not less different from that of Pai*a 
than the dialect of Bhojp&r is, and with the Musalmaus, Persian instruction is the 
Only substitute for vernacular instruction except in cases in which Mussulmans 
resort to Bengali and Hindi schools ; and although the Hindustani or Urdu is the 
current spoken language of the educated Musalmans of Hindustan, it Is a remark- 
able feature in the constitution of Muhammadan Society in Behar and Bengal that 
it is only known colloquially ;— it is never employed in their schools but to give oral 
instruction in Arabic. In a total of 1459 vernacular schools in Lower Hindustan, 

or Persian terms so abundantly introduced in the other by itsMusulroaa penmen or 
by Hindu writers bred up in the atmosphere of a Muhammadan court, or of the courts 
of justice hitherto conducted in Persian.— Ed. 

1688.3 Proceeding* of the Asiatic Society. 745 

968 are without any written book* of instruction of any kind, — the ultimate object 
of this speeies of instruction being to teach accounts. To render a scientific book 
smeh as Hoopxr's Vade Mecnm into one or all (and if vernacular be adopted all will 
claim alike) of these vernacular dialects would therefore be a waste of time and 

On the other hand, although it be true that Sanskrits is open to a certain extent 
to all classes of native society, yet in reality it is exclusively confined to the brah- 
min?, and is essentially the language of Hindu learaing ; for it was found, that, in 
the whole extent of the country visited by the late survey, as well as that made 
known to us by Dr. Hamilton, that with the exception of five physicians the San- 
skrit teaching was a brahminical monopoly ; while out of a class of 1 53 students in 
the Moorshtdabad District, one only was a Kayastha, — of 393 in Beerbheom only nine 
wave of the Vaidya or medical caste ; — three of the Vaishnava or followers of the 
Cmmtanya and one a Daivagna or outcast Brahmin ; in Burdwan out of 1358 students 
45 were Vaidyas, 11 Daivagnas, six Vaishnavas, making a total of 76 while all the 
rent were brahmins. My opinion therefore is that until English Normal Schools of 
learning ean be sufficiently established whereby the young men of this country can 
study the science and literature of England in its original form, all works partaking 
of the character of the one now under discussion should be rendered into the two 
learned oriental languages, vis. Sanskrita and Perso-Arabic, and that translations 
for the use of the vernacular schools should be confined to books fitted to the wants 
of the class of boys who frequent these seminaries, 

Henry H. Spry, M. D. 

Minute by Prqfettor O'Shaughnisst. 

1 think a small portion of the funds of the Asiatic Society may be advantageously 
devoted to the publication of the Sanskrita version by Madhusudana Gupta of 
Hooper's Vade Mecum, improved and amended, as formerly suggested. The trans- 
lation is ready and only requires illustrations and a few additions, — it is paid for— 
Mr. Muir's munificent donation applies only to a Sanskrita volume — there exists 
a large class of individuals learned in that tongue who are represented by the Dewan 
Ram Comui, Sen as ready to read the proposed work. These facts appear to me 
sufficient to warrant our applying the funds of the Society in the proposed manner. 

Had not a version of Hoopbr's work been already made and paid for 1 would 
much prefer one of Dr. South wood Smith's " Philosophy of health," the most 
interesting, intelligible and instructive popular work on physiology, which has 
ever been published. Its illustrations are admirable, its size duodecimo. The 
work was published in 1837 in order to communicate to the educated classes in 
England, as much knowledge of the Science of medicine as would enable them to see 
through the impostures of the Moris ons and St. John Longs. I have no doubt 
but that it would be studied with avidity by the Sanskrita scholars of India ; and 
that the powerful though simple reasoning which pervades its pages, would force 
true knowledge on many a mind. 

A work on pure anatomy cannot be so useful, especially to the hereditary physi- 
cians of the Sanskrit a School, inasmuch as they will not have recourse to the 
practical anatomical studies, which alone can render the volume instructive to any 
material degree. The proposed illustrations will lend, however, a little intelligibility 
to the work, and for this little I nm willing that the proposed expenditure be made. 

As a complete work on an r\ to my already exists in Bengali, the question of 
publishing Hooper's "Vade Mecum" in that language instead of Sanskrita is of 
course set aside. And I do not agree with the Dewan Ram Comul Sjn as to the 
Causes of the Vidya Hara boli having proved unsaleable. I think it was simply 
because no medical school taught in the Bengali language, was in existence. When 
secondary classes spring up, as please God they soon will, in which our normal 
pupils will spread the instruction we are now imparting to them, through the Eng- 
lish language, then the Vidya Hara boli will be of inestimable advantage. I would 
respectfully suggest to the Society, as a measure worthy of their attention that they 
secure the preservation of the remaining copies of this work in anticipation of the 
rapidly approaching period when they will be rendered available. 

With reference to a version of this or any similar work in Urdu, I do not think 
It at present required, because there is no class of students prepared to profit by 
it. A class, 1 trust, will soon be formed, and then the advantages of such a version 
will assume a practical shape, intelligible even to my good friends on the sub-com- 
mittee, who affect to doubt the existence of the Hindustani language. They ought 
on precisely equivalent reasons to deny the entity of the English tongue, and pro- 

5 A 2 

745 Pr**d**gi oftkt Asiatic Stemig. [A 

pose that nil our schoolboys should receive the rudimeats of knowledge from tbe 
unadulterated sources of the Celtic or the None. 

As to the eld derivable from Sanskrit* la the versions of technical tonne there i» 
much more unanimity among all parties than they arc themselves awate of. Oar 
friend Ram Comul, if called on to translate the "membrane" of "Jacob* or 
the " Eustachian" " tube," woaid leave the proper names aa they stand and ado pt 
the equivalent term to be found In every language for the M*f denoted, If speak- 
lag of " Qaypea" which was baptised before its properties were tavestjgated, and 
the meaning of the name of which is now known to give an erroneous motion of its 
nature, In such a ease instead of multiplying error by tr m iUt i*? the name I pre- 
sume Ram Comul 8bw would trmn$fer the word as a conventional term. Look at 
*' Narcotiae'* so called because its discoverer funded it was the narcotise p rin ci p le 
Of opium. We now find that It possessee no such properties, but is a po we rful 
febrifuge, like quinine ; what will Ram Comul Sbk propose in such a oaa 
course not to translate the name but to transfer it as it stands. 

The illustrations of whatever work may be decided on may be obtained vory 
ly and quickly by application to Professor Quain, Mr. Paxton or Dr. Sum*. 
These gentlemen of course preserve the blocks, and I am convinced will gladly permit, 
the required copies of the plates to be struck therefrom, for publication ia the 
oriental languages, on being requested to do so by this Society. 

W. B. O'SflAUGHXBaar. 
30th August, 1838. 

Minute by G. Evans, Esq. 

The very limited acquaintance with the languages and literature of India which I 
possess, renders it a matter of some difficulty for me to, oiler an opinion upon a 
question on which I am. for from being qualified to decide, aad regarding which there 
also appears to be some diversity of sentiment. 

The advancement and diffusion of medical and other European knowledge amongst 
all grades and conditions of the natives of India, are unquestionably objects of para- 
mount importance, such indeed as merit the serious consideration of every enlighten- 
ed and well disposed mind : it becomes therefore a matter of great moment to deter- 
mine on the means best calculated to ensure their most extensive and permanent suc- 
cess, not only in medicine, but in every branch of science, and it is to these consi- 
derations that our endeavours, unbiassed by favorite pursuits, should be mainly 

Sanskrit is the fundamental, and one of the classic languages of the east, aad as 
such its study should be scrupulously upheld and warmly advocated by all who take 
an interest in the affairs and polity of the vast empire over which we rule and preside. 

The question the Committee is called on to express its unqualified sentiments 
upon, is whether the medical work, selected for publication in one of the native 
languages, should be translated into the Sanskrit, or into the vernacular tongue. 
The arguments advanced against the latter by Dewan Ram Comul Skn, coming as 
they do from a learned Sanskrit scholar, demand every consideration ; many of his 
objections do not admit of denial, but I think they ought at the same time to he 
received with certain limitations. The fittest medium for the diffusion of medical 
Instruction, in my humble opinion, appears to be the Urdu, a language compound- 
ed of Sanskrit, Bengali, Persian, Arabic, Hindi and into which English itself has. 
now been introduced, — printed in this language, the instruction intended to be con* 
veyed, would at ouce become accessible to all classes of natives, which I opine ia 
the grand object in view, whereas, if alone confined to the Sanskrit, the work would 
be useful only to Sanskrit scholars and the knowledge that it must impart, would in 
reality be merely a monopoly in the hands of a few pandits to the total exclusion of 
the less learned though not less indifferent inquirers after knowledge. With, this 
impression I would therefore suggest the propriety of selecting in the first instance, 
the Urdu, and as time, talent and money have already been spent on a translation 
into Sanskrit, and there is a further provision in the liberal gift of Mr. Muia, for 
the specific purpose of publication in the Sanskrit, I would further recommend that 
the original design be implicitly acted up to by having a translation also into that 

August SHt. GBO. EYAffS, 

[Dr. Eoxuton had not recorded hit opinion.] 

The President explained to those of the numerous members, who had not 
attended at the last meeting how the question had come to be referred back to the 
Committee. Their present minutes unanimously confirmed their first report recom- 
mending the publication, and it appeared only necessary to put it to the Sodetf- 
whether the report should be adopted and carried into effect, or otherwise. 

186&] Proce^tkngeo/the J$^a$kBsxmfy. T4T 

Babu Pmosowwo Cohab. TAQOn* advccte4 ta tfce condition on which the hooks 
had been transferred to the Society, and proposed, seconded by Mr. CnAcnorr : 

" That, as it appears that by the letter of Government the Society are 
bound to publish all works handed to them for publication, no discretion 
is left to us in the matter, and the publication of the work should therefore, 
be proceeded with/' 

The Secretary explained that although the general object of the transfer of the 
hooks wan their publication, yet no obligation was implied, inasm u ch as some-of 
theen (Dr. Tytlsu's translations for instance) could not now be completed. 

Mr. G. A. PaiNssp, proposed an amendment, seconded by Col. McLeon, which, 
was carried by a large majority : — 

" That this Society approve the report of the Select Committee, dated 
31st July, 1898, confirmed by the minutes just read, and proceed to act 

The following letter was read from Mr. J. C. C. Suthbulaki), Secretary 
to the Committee o£ Public Instruction, announcing a prize of 100 rupees 
offered by Mr. J. Muia, lor a Sanskrit metrical essay, < On the divine power, 
wisdom andgoednme a* exhibited in the creation.' 

7a Jk PUNS**, Esq., Secretary to the Asiatic Society. 

Mr. Mura has sent to the General Committee one handred rupees (Co.'s Rs. 100) 
as a prize for the best metrical essay ** On the divine power, wisdom and goodness, 
as exhibited in the creation." It is subject to these conditions. 

let, Competftofs are. to be the Professors and pandits of the Calcutta Sanskrit 
College, Benares Sanskrit College., Agra College, Delhi Qollege, Bishop's College 
and Asiatic Society.' 

9nd. The number of slokas is to be about 100. 

3rd. The measure is to be one of the following metres, Indravqjra and Upajati. 

4th. The illustrations are to be derived from European systems of science, many 
Unto of which are contained in the Pedirtba Vidyasara of which copy is enclosed. 

1 am, &c. 
Fori William, August*, 1838. J. C. C. Sutherland, 

Secretary to O. C. P. I. 

The Secretary reported that he had had the letter translated into Sanskrit and 
placed (along with Mr. Yates' * Paddrtha Vidyasara') in the hands of tbe three 
pandits connected with the society who were eager to compete for the prise. 

Extract of a letter (received overland) from the Baron Vow Hajh«r 
PsjaMMVAu. forwarded a translation of the first chapter of the Mohit, of 
which other chapters have been published in the Society's Journal. 

[This communication, will appear in the ensuing number.] 

Mr. Secretary MoNaghten, forwarded from Simla the official copy of 
the Gtrnar inscription communicated by Lieut. Postans to the Bombay 

- A second parcel of Sanskrit and Arabic inscriptions were received from 
Capt. T. S. Burt, with a manuscript journal of his overland trip to India. 

Capt. Alex. Burnss forwarded from Simla a drawing, by a lady, of the 
bronse relievo discovered by Dr. Lord, at Badaksh&n, representing ' the 
triumph of Bacchus.* 

The original Is on its way to Calcutta in eharge of Dr. Maolsod, eventually 
destined along with Dr. Loan's coins to be deposited in the British Museum ; 
otherwise we should have hastened to preseut a lithograph of the beautiful drawing,, 
which we doubt not is a most faithful representation of the original. 
and one of his attendants have lost their heads, bujt all that remains U decidedly 
of Grecian workmanship. 

748 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. [AcG. 


Mr. P. Anstrutheb, Col. Secretary in Ceylon, transmitted a further 
aeries of tidal observations at Matura, Belligaun, Devendra, and Gandurak 
for April, May, and June, 1838. 

Observations from Singapore were also received from Capt. Scott, who 
had incurred an expense of Rs. 66. 

Mr. Blundell had expended at Mergui, Tavoy and Amherst Rs. 258. 

The Secretary proposed mentioning this expenditure to Government in sending 
np the registers, having no doubt that the sums would be at once paid. 

Natural History, 

Dr. McClelland presented a paper on Indian Cyprinida, with proofs of 
IS (out of 16) plates already lithographed in illustration of his synopsis, 
which would be available for the Researches, should the Society think fit 
to honor the paper by publication. 

Resolved, after thanks to Dr. McClelland, that the paper should be 
immediately submitted to the Committee of Papers. 

Read a letter from M.Stepano Morricand, Secretary, Academy's Mate. 
urn Geneva, proposing exchanges of shells, insects, mammalia, and dried 
plants with the Society orjwith individual collectors ; bis own exchanges may 
include all the above objects from Brasil or Bahia, as well as from Europe. 

A specimen of the rock from the summit of Peterbot (a volcanic breccia) 
and a plant which grows thereon, were presented by Capt. J. A. Crommb- 
un, Engineers, who lately performed the feat of ascending it, in company 
with a friend, and a Madagascar apprentice. 

An animal of the Arctonix genus obtained from a hill chief in the interior 
of the Arraean province, was presented by Capt. Patbrson, commanding 
the Krishna. A note by the Curator on the same was read. 

{Printed in the present Dumber, with M. Duvaucel's original notice on a similar 
mal formerly at Barrackpoor.] 

A note on the New Zealand caterpillar lately presented by Major 

[This will be printed in the ensuing number.] 

The following articles were presented for the museum. 

Stuffed and mounted specimen of a variety of the Hylobates Lot or Leas- 
er Gibbon, presented by Lieut. Muirson Blake and differing in some re- 
spects from the H. Lor or Black Gibbon in the Society's museum, with 
which it is contrasted. 

Stomach of the same animal ; simple in its structure, lengthened in form, 
and very muscular at its py Ionic extremity. 

Ccdcum of the same ; differing slightly from that of the human subject, 
the Simla Satyrus, and Semnopithecus Entellus in having the vermiform 
appendix attached to the centre of the round end of the viscus ; whereas 
in all the above named it has a lateral situation. 

Uterus from the same subject ; in an undeveloped state consequent on 
the non-age of the animal. 

Digestive apparatus of several different descriptions and orders of birds 
preserved in spirits of wine with a view to determine by their internal 
anatomy in conjunction with their external characters, their natural affi- 
nities, and relations with each other—the only sure road to a true and 
correct systematic arrangement. 

The name of each bird is labelled on the bottle and the peculiarities 
observable in the structure and disposition of the digestive organs are 
noted down in the descriptive catalogue of the museum* 

1888.3 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society, 749 

Specimens of tiro specie a of land shells, the " Bulimus" ? No. 5, and 
Pupa No. 8, described f»v Lieut. Hutton in hie paper on the land shells 
of India. (See 3rd Vol. Society's Journal). 

They are found living in company with each other precisely as stated by Lieut. 
H. though in very unequal proportions, the Pupa being; about 1 to 50 or even J 00 
of the other ; from which they are easily distinguished by their beautiful scarlet 
color, each individual looking like a single bend of long seed coral. It is an 
elegant little animal, and with its shell is a fine object for microscopic examination. 
They are common in the gardens and moist grounds of Calcutta during the rainy 
season, living generally under rotten vegetation wheie they feed seen re from the 
sun's scorching rays. They are evidently oviparous, as the egus ran be distinctly 
seen through the diaphonous shell and are ul*o found scattered upon the surface 
of the earth. 

The following letter from Capt. Pembkrton was read, and the collection 
alluded to was spread out on the table for the inspection of members. 

To J. PrinseP, Esq., Secretary to the Asiatic Society. 

Under Instructions from Government 1 have the honor to present to the Asiatic 
Society a selection consisting of 145 prepared specimens of birds fiom the ornitholo- 
gical collections of the Bootan Mission. 

I have, &c. 
Calcutta, R. Boilxau Pemberton, Capt, 

Sept. 5/A, 1938. Envoy to Bootan. 

Dr. Helper, employed by Government to explore the natural produc- 
tions of the Tenasserim provinces, had arranged around the hall and stair- 
case a part of the very extensive ornithological collection he had brought 
up from Maulmain, concerning the disposal of which he awaited the orders 
of Government. 

He had prepared a note on the animal productions of the Tenasserim provinces, 
but on account of the lateness of the hour the President requested him to postpone 
the reading until next meeting. 

Statistical Committee. 

Dr. Spry, submitted his report, embodying the various tables he had 
produced at the last meeting. 

The report commenced by quoting the instructions of Government to Dr. Bucha- 
nan, (printed in the Statistics of Dinajpvr, Appendix I. to J. A. S.) in illustration 
of the Committee's objects. The results hitherto obtained are summed up in the 
closing paragraph. 

" One of the first attempts of your Committee has been to obtain possession of 
some of the numerous recorded documents and reports : and your Committee have 
now the satisfaction of stating that they have collected and arranged for immediate 
publication, partly from these sources, Tables bearing on the vital statistics of Cal- 
cutta ; the education of the people of Lower Hindustan ; and the commerce and in- 
dustry of the country ; making a total of forty tables. These your Committee con- 
sider will be sufficient to supply. materials for a first number of a series of proceed- 
ings, and they hope thus to bring forward from time to time a series of numbers, 
that shall contain a mass of useful and practical knowledge. Your Committee desire 
however to be guarded in their professions at the outset of their undertaking, and 
not to be understood as attempting more than is feasible, or presuming to grapple 
with more than may be considered fairly within their power. In conclusion your 
Committee trust that the language of the French Government, when addressing its 
diplomatic and consular agents, quoted by M. Hemso in his Theorie de la Statisttque, 
page 78, may always be borne in mind when application is made to their labors, 
namely 'that a result of two lines will sometimes cost a month of toil, bet that 
these two lines are a truth, and every truth is an everlasting contribution to hu- 
manity.' " 

Henry Harftjr Spry, 

13th August, 1838. Hon. Sec. Statistical Committee. 

Resolved, that the report and tables be immediately made over to the 
Committee of Papers to decide on the propriety and on the manner of 
their publication. 

X. — MaUcrotogkal Rtgiiter. 






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a 8 £ 4S3S3 =§2.8. ~ * 2S a: ? 3 . 



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No. 81. — September, 1838. 

I. — Botanico-Agricultural account of the protected Sikh State*. By 

M. P. Edgeworth, Esq., C. S. Masuri. 

The eitensive territory under the Ambala political agency comprises 
the hill states of Sirmur, Kahtyr, and a portion of the plains princi- 
pally possessed by Sikh chiefs, hounded by the above states to the 
north-east, the Sutlej to the north and north-west, the Jumna to the 
east, and the Delhi territory and BhaHana to the south. 

It is not my intention to treat of the hill Rajpoot principalities, as I 
am only very partially acquainted with but one of them fSirmurJ ; but 
solely of the " protected Sikh states" in the plains. 

This tract of country may be divided into three great divisions-, 
besides the narrow strip of hhddir land adjoining the Jumna and 
Sutlej according to their most abundant natural products, viz., the dakh 
the b&bul and the phalahi, 

I. The first of these, or dakh tract, extends from the high bank 
above the Jumna, which in most places adjoins the Shah Nahr to the 
Linda river, a small stream not noted in the exceedingly inaccurate 
maps* of this part of the country, which runs nearly parallel with the 
Markhanda at a distance of two to five miles from it, and ultimately 
unites with the Sarasvati a little below Thaneear. This tract of coun- 
try is generally high and called hangar, which term however is more 
universally applied to the southern extremity, and not commonly to the 

• 1 allude to the Urge maps published under the style of * Trigonome- 
trical surrey,' though this part of the country has never been surveyed trigono- 
metriemlly or otherwise ; to give an instance, Kotaha or Syyed ka garni, is divided 
isto three placet, viz. Kotaha or Syyed, and ka garhi I! 1 at a considerable distance 
one from the other. 
5 B 

< I 

752 Botanko*AgricuUural account [Sept. 

more northern and narrow part except in contra-distinction to the khd- 
dir in the immediate neighbourhood, to which my present observations 
more particularly &pply> &* I have never visited the more southern 
region. The most abundant natural product is the dojsh, (Butea fitm- 
dosa,) which springs up wherever the land is not cultivated, and in many 
places (especially towards Kaithalmd Jind) covers vast tracts of conn* 
try which might be rendered most productive. 

The flora of these jangals presents several features in common with 
that of the Dhun, such as species of Vtiis, Dioscorea, Gloriosa, 
Asparagus, Costus and Zingiber, 

This tract is intersected by the rivers Sarasvati, Chitang, and Rak* 
shasi a branch of the latter ; from these canals in all directions former- 
ly existed and in a few instances have been lately re -opened, but they 
are generally overgrown with jangal. These three streams as well as a 
smaller one which joins the Jumna near Buiia, all rise near one 
another m the high ridge above the khddir which skirts the Sewdtiks, 
in the neighbourhood of ChickrauH and Bildspur, and are partially 
supplied in the upper part of their course from springs, but the water 
from that source is quickly expended in irrigation and they are mainly 
dependent on rain. They are all characterised by excessive tortuous- 
ness of course, and owing to the great perpendicular depth of their 
banks, are exceedingly dangerous from sudden floods after heavy rain. 

The soil is, generally speaking, tolerably rich ; and in favorable sea- 
sons produces very fine crops, but, in parts of it, is exceedingly poor 
and scarcely worth the trouble of cultivating. 

The usual crops in the Kharif&re rice, which is pretty extensively 
cultivated in lands liable to be overflowed, and on higher ground cotton, 
maize, joar, and a very small quantity of bajra, mandiya*, kodon and 
chini. San. Hibiscus cannabinus is generally sown round cotton or 
pulse fields, while the beautiful sani ( CrotalariajunceaJ is sown in ex- 
tensive fields by itself. The oil seeds turia (Sinapis glaucaj and til 
(sesatnumjf both the white and purple-flowered varieties are sown, the 
former more sparingly and in richer soils is cut late in November or early 
in December ; the latter is extensively cultivated both by itoelf and 
mixed with various phassoli, such as urud, mottk, lubia> &c., on higher 

* It is as well here to remark a mistake I observed in Lieut. Hutton's 
account of hi* tour to the Borenda past in your journal ; be mentions the iettj 
of kodon in the hills, bat erroneously gives it the name of PaspaJum scroHcn. 
latum, which plant though called kodon in the plains it not cultivated in the 
hills : what the hill men term kodon it the mandss a of the plains or Blwtm* 

1688.] of the protected Sikh State*. 951 

and drier toils. All these crops suffer severely from the depredations 
of a hairy caterpillar ealled kamli of the genus Seritaruu 

In the rabiy wheat and barley form the principal crops, gram not 
extensively and generally mixed with either of the above, and masur 
( Erevan lens J very little cultivated ; sanon fSinapie dichotomaj is 
sown to a considerable extent, generally mixed with barley. The poppy 
is a valuable but veryprecariouscrop, it is extensively cultivated in 
rich irrigable lands, and when not destroyed by hail, which is too often 
the case, /amply repays the labor expended on it. The land is plough- 
ed three times, being plentifully watered between each ploughing, before 
sowing ; and subsequently the plant is kept continually irrigated till the 
fruit is formed* The opium is collected in the usual way, by women 
and children, an incision being made in the head by a three-pronged 
instrument. The heads are kept and sold, the seeds for oil as well as 
ail agreeable food, remarkably refreshing during fatigue and abstinence ; 
with the exception of what is sold in the neighbourhood the opium is 
sent to the westward where the poppy is not cultivated for it, for the use 
of the Sikhs who are immoderately fond of it and consume immense 
quantities. Tobacco is not much cultivated. 

II. The Babul country. This tract extends from the Markhanda 
(the narrow slip between that river and the Linda being intermediate 
in its character), to the high ground between the river called in the 
map "Khanpur ki nadcU" and the most western branch of the 
Ohaghar* It is intersected with numerous streams rising either in the 
outer range of hills as the Qhaghar, Markhanda, Began*, Baliala, 
TYmgrfeand Rhone> or in the high ridge which separates the tract from 
the 8abcollme Khadir as the Ombla, Charmdri and other nameless 
streams enjoying the generic name of chhoa when depending on rain, or 
ogal when fed by small springs. The soil is generally sandy and salt, 
which latter characteristic is shown by the abundance of fro* ( Tamari* 
jar as) which will flourish only in such a soil. The bdbiil or kikar 
(Acacia arabica) is the natural product, every where springing up and 
often forming extensive groves. The general appearance of this tract is 
pretty, the level of the plains being frequently diversified by gentle 
slopes towards the numerous rivers and their tributary ravines. 

The horizon is generally bounded by groves of bdbdl trees, which are 
also abundantly scattered through the fields. But what gives a pecu- 
liar feature to a considerable portion of the country, especially between 
Ambdtd and Patidla, are the numerous hedge-rows ofjras, which near 
the villages often form beautiful shady lanes, reminding one of English 
•scenery. This very useful tree is planted from cuttings about a foot 
5 b 2 

754 Botanico-Agricultural account [Sb*. 

long ; they are covered at the top with cowdung to prevent the moisture 
from rotting the wood, and are planted in little hanks raised along 1 the 
edges of the field or road, at the first commencement of the rainy sea- 
son ; in a week or two they begin to sprout and by the following year 
are frequently six or seven feet high, and in seven or eight years form 
middling-sized trees. From each cutting there are usually several 
stems, and as soon as any of these have attained a sufficient sise to 
render them available for small rafters, ploughs or other agricultural 
implements, they are felled, the smaller ones, if any, being left, if not 
the root soon throws out a new crop for a future supply. 

They rejoice especially in sandy and somewhat saline soil and it is 
remarkable that in dry weather the outside of the leaves is always 
covered with a saline efflorescence invisible to the eye but very percep- 
tible to the taste, but this is not observable in the leaf itself, which is 
tasteless. Probably in consequence of the quantity of salt in the wood, 
it cannot be used as fuel in a room from the intolerable fumes it 
gives out. 

A great portion of this tract is very low, especially that part between 
the numerous branches of the Ghaghar, and is cultivated with rice in 
the kharif and gram in the rabi. Joar is even less cultivated than in 
the first tract, and bajra scarcely ever seen, both being sown principally 
for the sake of the fodder. 

The rest of the kharif crops are the same as those in the first tract, 
except that tnandua, and til are not so much cultivated, and I have not 
observed kodon in it at all. In the rabi, wheat and barley are the 
principal crops, but gram and masur are abundant in the lower lands 
of stiffer soil. Surson is very abundant either alone or mixed with 
grain, as is flax like it cultivated for the sake of its oil. The Raphanui 
raphanistrum, called tdrdmira, is abo cultivated generally among the 
stubble of the cotton for a coarse oil yielded by it : it is exceedingly 
hardy and never . suffers from the frost which frequently destroys the 
surson crop. 

Mehndi (Latosonia inermitj is cultivated in a few villages by a 
peculiar caste called *maghs in the following manner. 

* This is the only caste who cultivate this crop, and they give the following 
strange account of their origin : Once upon a time there was a Sarsut brahmin, 
king of Mecca (who was maternal grand. father of Muhammad 1) hunmme was 
Raja Mukhtasur. 

From him sprung Sahaeiya who with his son Sal was turned out of Ara&i* 
by Hosban and Hossyn. Thence they migrated to Pundri an island, and 
thence to MaAmtidsur in the Barara mulk W. of Bhatinda, where they colonised 

1888.] of the protected Sikh States. 755 

The seed is soaked in water for three days, then strained and again 
soaked till the radicle begins to sprout. The seed beds are about three 
feet wide and twelve or fourteen long, from north to south, so that they 
may be sheltered by hurdles from the prevailing winds (west or east). 
In each bed about half seer pukka, of seed prepared as above, is sown, 
and is sufficient to sow from half to two bigas kucha according to 
the growth* 

After sowing the germinating seed they are daily watered in the even' 
ing till they sprout above ground which is generally the third or fourth 
day. Sown in Chyt, it is transplanted as soon as there has been a good 
[all of rain in Asarh or Srawan into fields, and watered as soon as planted, 
and subsequently every ten or twelve days as may be found necessary. 
It is ready for cutting the following Jeth, and again in Mangsir, again in 
Bysakh and then in A'san, and so on. After the first annual cutting 
it is well manured and watered, but after the autumnal one it is left alone 
till the Huli when it is again manured to be ready for cutting the follow- 
ing month. Thus treated it will continue to be productive for ten or 
twelve years. 

When cut, the leaves are beaten off the twigs, and about a pukka mun 
is produced from a kucha biga, and is sold at the rate of six to fifteen 
seers a rupee. 

Towards the foot of the hills, hulH (DoUchos unifiorutj, and the 
$dwank {PanicumfrttmentaceumJ, are moderately cultivated*. 

In both these tracts the sugar-cane is cultivated extensively, but in a 
very careless way. It is sown in March or the end of February as soon 
as the frosts have ceased, in large fields, not in lines or with any 
regularity, and is generally surrounded with a hedge of ticar, ( Cajanus 
hicolorjy which is sown when the canes are set. The only care taken 
is to prepare the ground by frequent ploughings and a quantity of 
manure depending on the supply from the village sweepings and the 
laziness or activity of the cultivators. On the first fall of rain after the 
young plants begin to sprout (in the end of March or April) the caked 
surface of the ground is broken either by means of a wooden mallet or 
a small hoe. The cane is seldom irrigated, never unless when a small 
canal (khdl) from one of the torrents, or ogals passes near them and 
consequently the crop is almost entirely dependent on the rains. It is 

17 Tillages. Thence they were driven forth, and after sundry migrations art 
now settled in the following placet : — 

1 Chaurira; 2 Iragarh, near Patiala; 3 Ysra, near Shahftbad; 4 Indri ; 
5 Thanesar ; 6 Deorina, near Ambala ; 7 Mmtafabad ; 8 Sadhoura ; in the 
Sikh states. And Lakhnanti in the Mozqfarnagar district. 

• Both of these are extensirely cultivated in the hills. 

756 Botanico-AgricuUmral account [Stt*. 

seldom fit for catting before the end of December by which time the 
frost fete in and materially deteriorates the quality of the juice* often 
even entirely destroying the cane and rendering it useless for any 
thing but indifferent fodder for the cattle and bad seed lor the ensuing 
year. The cane is even in the best years very poor, and seldom is more 
than six or seven feet long and three fingers thick ; but as the very worst 
is always kept for seed it is not wonderful that it should have deteri- 
orated. The only wonder is, that it should be considered worth the 
trouble of cultivating at all in such a way. The cane is cut from the 
field by sickles and carried entire to the kolu or sugar-mill, which is 
generally situated in the gohor or space surrounding the village. I 
have here never observed it at a distance from the village (as is usual 
in some parts of the country), except when a river intervene ; then it is 
chopped into little bits and pressed in the kolu> the mash from which 
the juice has been expressed, with the leaves, being used as fuel to heat the 
sugar boilers. The village cattle are allowed however to help them- 
selves ad libitum from the heap. The tall column of dark smoke from 
the kolu$ with the delicious fragrance of the boiling juice, greet one 
from almost every village from the end of December to the middle of 
February, by which time the work is generally quite over, though some- 
times it is continued till late in March, when the crop is unusually 
abundant. # 

In garden fields near town, species of the cwwostact* and si ■mi, 
with the sweet-potatoe and baigan, capsicum, methi (TrigontUa Jig- 
num gnecumj and radish (both as a vegetable made of the young pods 
and for oil) are generally cultivated. 

The best grasses in this region are, after the dhub grass, which is 
abundant, the dhaman (cenchri and penniseti, spp.J the p ah tim 
(Andropogon perhuum, hladhn and tcandensj from the jangals, and 
from the fields in the rains the annual species called jangU chini and 
sawank, Panicum colonum, brizoides, himawtn, &e. are cut in 
quantities for the cattle. The laqge Wr* or preserves for hay kept by 
the Sikh chiefs consist chiefly of the spear grass (Andropogam confer- 
temjwith ihepalwdn and dohamans, and" the coarser kinds 
Andropogon muricatum (dhabri and tenth) with the coarser m< 
cover considerable tracts in the dhmk region and are useful for thatch- 
ing. The small Perotis latifoUa and Imperata cylindrica form the first 
coating to the sandy channels of torrents deserted by the stream which 
are not unfrequent, but they are of little value and only used when no 
other grass is procurable. The bavt, a species of andropogon, h 
considered poisonous. 

1838.] of the protected Sikh States. 757 

The population of these two tracts is mostly Hindu* but among the 
semindars and lower castes there is a considerable sprinkling of Mu- 
salmaiis, Rajputs, both Hindu and Musalmin, but principally the latter, 
and Jats are the commonest classes among the semindars ; but Rors, a 
caste I believe peculiar to this part of India, are not uncommon among 
the cultivators. Musalman mdlie are the best. The Sikh persuasion 
is not common among the Jat semindars, but confined to the invading 
chiefs from the other side of the Sutlej, but it is not unusual for 
sweepers and ehamars to adopt that faith under the name of Rangrethas 
and Ramdasias. About one-third of the kahars are Musalmans, which 
proportion becomes larger as we advance westward towards Lodihana 
and the Pmnjtb. A Mosalman tribe Gtgra replace the sweeper caste 
in the charge ef leeches. 

IH. The Phmlaki tract. This extending westward from my second 
division, is bounded on the north by the Sutlejfom land or Bhet ; to the 
south by Bhmtima, while towards the west I am not acquainted with its 
limits or the nature of the countries that succeed it (if different) towards 
Ftroafmr. It may be divided into two great subdivisions, the Phalahi 
proper and the Jhand. 

In the first of these water is found tolerably near the surface (80 to 
80 feet), so that wells for irrigation are abundant ; in drawing water the 
lao or bag pulley and inclined plane is in almost exclusive use, the Per* 
sian wheel or harat being very seldom seen, and the depth of the water 
from the surface entirely precluding the. use of the dhenki which is 
not rare in the preceding tracts. 

The phalahiy Ac€una modeeta — Waljl,, from which I hare distin- 
guished this tract, is a small tree about the same sise as the hahul but 
very different in appearance, being very scraggy and armed all over wish 
sharp hooked prickles. It is deciduous and when the leaves first ap- 
pear in March remarkably beautiful, the delicate foliage being of the 
most brilliant light green and set off by the bunches of long cylindrin 
spikes of white flowers diffusing a delightful perfume through the air ; 
hut its beauty is very transitory, the flowers soon fade and the leaves 
assume a dreary glaucous hue and fall early in winter, leaving the tree 
covered with she compressed yellowish pods. The wood is- very hard 
and heavy, of a dark brown color, and is much used for a variety of eco- 
nomical purposes. It grows abundantly in all waste places. In this 
tract the Chamror f Ekretia lavit, again appears, being abundant at the 
foot of the Sewaliks but very rare in the babul tract : it also is much 
valued for the hardness of its wood. 

Sugar-cane is only cultivated in die most northern part of this trass, 

758 Botanko-Agi^icultural account 

but where grown is eminently successful, being cultivated with much 
more care than in those parts that I have previously mentioned, and 
kept constantly irrigated. The juice is expressed in the kulhari or 
roller sugar-mill, of which I formerly sent a description to the Agricul- 
tural Society. 

Cotton is also extensively grown in two ways, either as a rain crop, 
as in the before mentioned tracts, or is sown in April and receives mo- 
derate irrigation during the hot weather ; under this treatment it grows 
to a much larger size than is common under the former method. 

The irrigated wheat and barley are particularly luxuriant, and in 
good seasons the grain particularly fine ; it is freqnently sown as early 
as August or September so as to be in flower by December, but the 
fruit then formed is generally destroyed by the hard frosts, and in sea- 
sons of drought the white ants commit great devastation, laying waste 
whole fields by devouring the roots of the plants ; rats also do great in- 
jury to this crop, burrowing in the sandy hillocks so plentifully inter- 
spersed among them and denuding the margin of the fields. 

Mustard is also cultivated a good deal, and poppy sparingly and only 
for its oil not for opium. Masur I have never seen in this tract. 

Rice is only grown in that part of this tract bordering on the bibul 
region, and if ripe sufficiently early, is succeeded by a crop of gram in 
the same ground. 

The usual kharif crops are bqfra and joar and maize, all of which 
grow most luxuriantly and to an immense height. 

The southern portion of this division which I have designated the 
Jhand tract, is termed by the natives Malwa, whence that appellation to 
the Sikh chiefs of families from the south of the Sutlef in contra-dis- 
tinction to the Mdnjha and Doab Sikh* or invaders from the other side. 
It is also named Chowhdra as distinguished from the Tihdra, or lower 
part of the upper division just described, in consequence of only £ of 
the gross produce being demandable as the government share, while £ 
is claimable in the former and { in the remaining portion of this and 
the two preceding tracts, therefore termed Pachdie. 

What I have just remarked regarding the luxuriance of the gram 
and kharif crops holds good also with regard to this division when the 
rains are tolerably plentiful. But the wheat is generally poor, owing to 
the very sandy nature of the soil. Here irrigation is impracticable 
owing to the very great distance of the water from the surface, vary- 
ing from 100 to 800 feet. In many villages there is only one, in 
some not even a single well, therefore not only the cattle but even the 
inhabitants very much depend on ponds (tobas) for their support. In 

1838.] of the protected Sikh States. 759 


dry seasons villages are often temporarily abandoned in consequence 
of the failure of water. Therefore it is a custom that those who take 
water out of a pond pay for it by digging and carrying out a basket full 
ef earth for every pot they fill with water, so that the cavity is gradu- 
ally enlarged and deepened. 

The appearance of this part of the country is very peculiar. The 
fields are as it were basins surrounded by long low rolling hillocks of 
dry sand, either quite bare or clothed with a peculiar vegetation, and 
are almost universally surrounded by high thick hedges to protect them 
from the deer ; these fences are made of dry thorns heaped loosely to- 
gether, generally running along the summits of the sandhills, and be- 
tween them lie the narrow roads barely wide enough for a hackery to 

The vegetation on these sandhills consists principally of a species 
of Artemisia of a most delicious fragrance, and an aromatic species of 
Andropogon resembling A. twarancusa. (Is either of these, or which 
of them is the Nardus of Arrian ?) 

This Andropogon is much liked by cattle and is said to communicate 
its peculiar flavor to the milk. Besides it are species of Cenehrus and 
Pennisetum, one of which is a most disagreeable torment to walkers, the 
sharp recurved hooks of its involucre fastening to one's clothes and 
even to one's skin ; its seed however sometimes is used as food in times 
of great scarcity. The leaves both of this species and of two or three 
others which are indifferently termed dhamun are excellent fodder and 
are the principal grass for horses instead of the dhub which is very 
rare*. The madar, Calotropis Hamittonii, with Cucumis pseudo-colo- 
cynlAis and a species ofMomordica also luxuriant on those barren heaps, 
with a species of Clerodendrum the wood of which is used for obtain- 
ing fire by friction, and two species of Zizyphus> Z+jujubx, and another, 
peculiar I believe to this tract of country, with smooth glossy leaves and 
globular purple fruit. 

The most abundant thorn however is the Jhand, Prosopis spicigeraf, 
which covers barren spots as the Zizyphus does in other parts of India 

• This is remarkable for bearing on its roots a curious parasitical species of 
Orobanche, with very thick stalks from one to four inches in diameter, full of 
almost pure water, which it must have elaborated from the milky juice of the 
madar, and derived from sandhills so dry that it is difficult to believe that so 
much liquid could have been procured from them ; and what is more remarkable 
is, that this parasite is only produced where the madar grows in the very driest 
sandhills and only in this portion of the country. 

f When I first met this as a shrub I was unwilling to consider it as the Pro- 
topis on account of its large ovate stipubi, that tree being described as exsti- 
5 c 

760 Botanico- Agricultural account [Sett. 

as a low shrub, but it is also met with as a small tree mixed with the 
phalaki and rerul (I believe Acacia leucophlaa), which last as well as 
the J hand are utterly useless except as fuel. 

The dhak ( BuUa Jrondosa) and the hins (Capparis sepiariaj are 
almost unknown, while Capp. w&aphylla grows to the size of a small tree, 
and in the month of April its scarlet flowers hare a showy appearance 
mixed with the white blossoms of the phalaki. The rahere (Bignonia 
undulataj is found not uncommonly and is yery brilliant when in flower : 
this with a small liliacious plant is a curious instance of plants from the 
Sewalik hills reappearing in so very dissimilar an habitat. 

Of large trees the peepul is the only one of usual occurrence : some- 
times the Tamarix Fra* or Pharmi, as it is named in this part of the 
country, is found of a considerable size. The sissu extends even to the 
borders of the desert. Sirris 13 seldom to be seen ; mangoe, or jamvn 
never. The Nim is very rarely to be met with only near some Ma* 
salm&n saint's tomb. 

In the most south-westerly part of this tract bordering the desert, a 
considerable quantity of alkali is manufactured from a species of 
salsola* and forms a considerable article of commerce under the name 
of sajj%. 

The population of the third tract differs very much from that of the 
former ones. In the more northern parts the zemindars are mostly 
Musalman Rajputs, with few Jats among them ; but as we come south- 
ward the proportion gradually changes till in the Tihara a Musalman 
is scarcely to be found and the zemindars are almost universally Jats and 
of the Sikh persuasion ; in that part of the country also the Eahar or 
bearer caste disappears, and among the lower people the sweepers, 
assuming the title of Rangrethas, are the most numerous. 

Lastly, a few words on the two strips of land bordering the Jumna 
and the Sutlej. 

The Khadir of the former may be considered as upper and lower, 
the upper contained within the branches of the Jumna meeting near 
Rajghat, is almost entirely populated by Goojurs. The soil is cold, 

palate, but I have subsequently found stipules on the young branches of the 
full-sized tree, though they are smaller in proportion to the leaf than in the 
shrub ; besides the prickles are much more numerous on the shrub than on the 

• It is a curious circumstance that I found a species of taltola near AmiaU 
growing in a single salt-pan, and not another to be found, anywhere in the 
neighbourhood for miles, though I searched every salt-pan for it. 

1838.] of the protected Sikh Stabs. 761 

moist and sandy, as may easily be imagined, possession is most precari- 
ous as these upper branches of the river are constantly changing their 
coarse. An old tree is therefore seldom to be seen, or a pukka house, 
generally grass sheds form the only habitations, because the sandy soil 
will not bind to form mud walls but is washed to pieces by the first 
rain, therefore fires are very frequent in the hot weather. 

The crops are the same as in my first division, exclusive of those which 
I mentioned as peculiar to the higher grounds, and they only succeed 
in years when elsewhere there is a failure ; with moderate rain the whole 
country reticulated as it is with channels of the Jumna is overflowed, 
and it is only in very dry seasons that the crops succeed as in 1837 
when they were most luxuriant. 

The lower part of the Khadir is only intersected by a few channels 
of old streams now used as escapes from the Delhi canal, this portion 
is less liable to flooding and consequently in general bears middling 
crops. Gram is seldom or never sown in it, and masur replaces it. 

The ' Bhef of the Sutlej differs from the Khadir of the Jumna by, 
being yet more barren. (The upper part of this Bhet I have not seen, 
and the lower part is nearly entirely covered with thick grass jangal 
the haunt of wild beasts, similar to that in the Gangetic Khadir)* 

The sand of the Sutlej is much darker in color and with much 
larger flakes of mica than that brought down by the Jumna, and these 
larger micaceous particles are observable throughout the whole of the 
phalahi tract as well, while the bdbul and dhdk regions partake of 
the Jumnatic character. 

Throughout the whole of this territory I have never seen the matar 
of Bengal (Lathyru* eativuej cultivated, but it is constantly to be found 
as a weed mixed with pulse or corn. 

The arhar (Cajanu* jlavus) is never cultivated by itself, but the 
variety C. bicolor or tuar is sown round sugar-cane fields as before 
mentioned, and is cultivated in the hills under the. name of ktii which 
leads me to favor the considering them as two distinct species and not 

merely varieties. 

I had tioped to have been able to give a more complete account, but 
being removed rather suddenly I have been unable to complete some 
inquiries I was previously making and therefore send this imperfect 
as it is. 

5 c 2 


Botanieo-Agricultural account 


Appendix I. 

Abitract of Thermometer kepi at Ambala. 

Of temperature. 

Of dianud>ari&tioii. 




1838 Means. 




1838 1 

tf earns 

January, .. 63.15 



55.07 54.03 






February,.. 09.89 










Marco, • • • • 64. 



71.06 68.35 



20.84 19.5 


April; .... 77.07 



79.17 78.38 











21.93 23.9 







17.10 31.48 


July, 83.1 








August 84.73 








September,. 81. 









October,... 73.36 








November,. 63.2 








December, .55-91 









Mean...... 73.57 





18.46 20.6 



Of Minimum. 

Of Maximum. 

Of diurnal mriatioa. 

1836 1836 1837 1838 





18351836 1837 1838 

jM J Highest, 
Jan * I Lowest, 

63. 64. 




67.6 70. 


29.5 27.5 



34. 31.5 37. 










F*h J Highest, 
Feo - 1 Lowest, 

60. 64.5 61. 



76.6 73. 






40. 43. 











Mar J Highest, 
Mar# 1 Lowest, 

68. 67. 











48. 50. 











AP^, { SJSK!' 

74. 76. 











69. 60. 











»■* { K 

86. 87- 











68. 66. 











*-. { 2» 

93.5 86. 





105.5 1 13. 

28.6 29. 


74. 69.5 68. 







»* { Eft? 

83.5 83. 








73. 76. 








Au*> / Highest, 
An * I Lowest, 

85. 81. 








74. 73. 








fi»»f / Highest, 
Se P*- t Lowest, 

81. 81. 








66, 09. 








Oct J Hlfkett, 
ocl# I Lowest, 

70. 70. 








57. 53. 








'«-• { S2» 

57. 66. 








45. 43. 








»» {K£? 

58.5 53. 








39. 37. 








Whole f Highest, 
year, l Lowest, 

93.5 67. 

89.5 94. 









34. 31.5 37. 










Appendix II 
Abstract of Herbarium collected in the Sikh States, exclusive of plants 
only in the immediate neighbourhood of or on the Sewalik range. 



Total Cult 



Ranunculaces, • . . • . 3 

Papaveracee, 3 

Nymphasacee, 2 

Nelumbonacem, 1 

Apiacies (Umbelliferas,) ...... 9 6 

Vitacen, 3 1 

Onagrariaceas, 5 

Combretacee, 1 1 

Myrtacese, ................ .. 2 2 

Ficoidaceee, . . 
CruciaeesB, . • 
Resedacas, . • • • 
Violacem, .... 
Samydacese, .. 
Sapindacessi , , 








of ike protected Sikh States. 


Polygalaees, 2 

Elatinaceaa, 2 

Linaceae, 1 1 

Sterculiaceae • 2 

Malvaceae, 15 4 

Tiliamae, 10 1 

Lythraceae, 8 1 

M eliaceae, 3 3 

Cedrelaceaa, 1 1 

Aarantiaceae, 4 3 

Rhamnaceae, 3 1 

Evphorbiacee, 23 3 

Celastraceae, 1 

Portnlacaceae, 5 

Sileaaeee,.. 3 1 

Alaiiiaceae, 2 

Tamaricaceae, 2 1 

IHecebraceae, « 3 

Rntaccae, 10 

Zygophyllaceae 2 

BalsamioaceaB, » 1 1 

Oxalidaceae • •• 2 1 

Roaaceae, 10 8 

Tis. Pomeae, 3 

Amygdaltneae, 3 

Potentilleas, 2 

Roaeae, 2 

Fabaeese,(Leguminoic,) 88 26 

tis. Genisteae, 8 (1.) 

Trifolieae, 9 (3.) 

Clitorieae, 9 (2.) 

Galegeae, 3 1. 

Astragaleae, 2 

Hedyaareat, 14 

Virieae, 8 2. 

Phaaeoleae, 1 7. 

Dalbergiea, 3 2. 

Mimoseae, 9 2. 

Caaaieae, 12 6. 

Anacardiaces, 2 2 

Total, Polypetate, 270 88 

Urtieaeeae, 10 3 

Ceratophyllaces, 1 

Myricacec, 1 1 

Salieacea, 3 2 

PUtanaces, 1 1 

Amaranthaceae, • . . . 14 5 

Chenopodiaceae, . . • 9 4 

Phytolaccaceae, •• 1 

Polygonaceaa, 9 

3 1 


Total, 54 17 

Primnlacea, 2 

Sapotaceat, 3 3 

Ebenaceae, • 1 

Cwcutaceas, . . . . , 1 1 

ConvolTvlaees, ............ 15 2 

Hydroleaoe*, 1 

Carapanulaceav... 1 

Sphenocleaceae,. . • • 1 

Cinchonaceae, 10 1 

Galiacev, 1 

Cichoraces, 9 2 

Asteraceae, 33 4 

▼is. Veraoniacaaa, 4 
* Aeteroideae, 15 
Sanecionidae, 14 (4.) 

Cynaracea, •• 9 3 

Plantagioacea), 2 1 

SalTaduraoen, 1 

Plumbagioacese, 1 

Cordiaceae, 2 2 

Ehretiaceae, 6 

Boraginaceae, 4 

Lamiaceaa, (Labial.) 12 3 

Verbenacea, 8 1 

Bignoniaeeae, •«• 1 

Acaothaeeai 22 4 

Lcntibulariaceaj, 3 

Orobanchaceae, 2 

8crophnlariace«, 15 

Solanaceae, 12 6 

Gentianaceae, 4 

Apocynaceae 7 2 

Aaclepiadiaceae, •••• * ® 

Jaaminaceae, 5 3 

Total, 198 25 

Gnetaceae, 1 

Total, 2 

Zingiberaceae, 2 

Marantaceae, 2 2 

Muaaceae •• 1 1 

Amaryllidaceae * 4 

Iridaceae, 2 2 

Hydrocharidaceae, 1 ° 

Orchidacev, 2 

Palmaceae, 1 

Liliaceae, 9 4 

▼is. Talipeaa, 2 

Hemerocallideas, 2 (2.) 

Scilleae, 2 (2.) 

Anthericeae, 1 

Aaparageas, 1 

Aloinae, 1 

CommelinacMB, 4 

Butomaceae • • 1 

Alismaceae, 5 

Juiicaceae, 1 

Dioscoreaceas, 1 

Araceae, •••• 3 2 

Typhacee, 2 

Naiadacese, 4 

764 Botanico-AgricuUural account [Sbtt. 

Eriocaulonaces, ............ 1 Aerogene. 

Cyperacess, • 35 OphioglossacesB, .. 1 

▼is. Cyperess, 17 Polypodiacess 3 

Scirpess, 17 Chances, 1 

Caricess, 1 MarailiacesB, 1 • 

Graminacess, • • 112 _— 

▼is. Total, 6 

Pbaluridec 1 

Panicen, . 42 4 

Saccharines, ..........19 3 

Rotbollieae, ....30 

Olyress 4 1 2 ~ z 

Phlssoidese, 10 * g £ 

Agrostidee, 7 polypctal*, 182 88 270 

Stipe*, 3 Incomplete, 37 17 54 

Oryw» 2 1 Mo nope tale, 173 25 198 

Chlorides;, 8 1 Gymnosperma, 2 0* 

Menaces, 2 1 Endogena;, 163 30 193 

Arundtnacee, 2 Acrogene* 6 0S 

Triticeal, 4 2 • ' 

Festucen, 12 Total, 563 160 743 

Bambusess, 2 2 

Total, Endogena;, 193 30 

Out of these the following are peculiar to the Pkalahi and Jhand tract. 

Farsetia Hamiltonii. Plantago, ip. 

Reseda oligandra, (mi hi.) Euphorbia, sp. 

Bergia odorata, (mi hi.) Ephedra, sp. 

Malva MaWensis, (mihi.) Boraginearum, sp. 1. 

Fagonia Mysorensis ? Heliotropiearum, sp. 2. 

Zisyphus, sp. Acanthacearum, sp. 1. 

Crotolaria arida, (Royle) ? Astragali, sp. 2. 

Lotearum, sp. Orobanche calatropidis. 

And peculiar to the Khadir and Bhet are the following remarkable European 

forms. Erythrma, sp. 

Viola Patrinii, ^?) Ajuga decumbens. 

Viciearum ? sp. Butomus umbellatos. 

Lotus corniculatus. Alisma, sp. 

Rubus distans. Ophioglossum, sp. 

I subjoin a description of such species as I beliere to be new. 

Reseda oligandra, mihi. c. 

Herba glauca ramosa follis liniaribus acutis papulosis, ramilis azillaribu, 
stipulis 2 parvulis dentiformibus adnatis ad basin foliorum ; sptcis lougissimis 
terminalibus rachi striata floribus sub-distantibus solitarus sessilibus, brmcteis 
parvts solitariis calyculatis sepalis, conform ibus, calyce tetra-sepalo, sepafis 
UDceolatis,papilloso-marginati0, petals subsequantibus, orario brerioribus. Petalis 
duobus oblique lanceolatis, margine interior! subrecto exteriori t. obliquo ?. 
1 -lobato, vel duobus in unum trilobum coalitis inter duobus sepalis superioribos 
sitis concoloribus (albis) vel ad apicem sub-glandnlosis ; staminibus ssspius 3, 
basi coalitis antepetala sitis, Tel 5 (y. 4 uno t. altero absenti) quorum 3 
coalitis 2 lateralibus liberis sepalis superioribus opponuntur ; antheris geminis. 

Disco nullo nisi basin staminum sub-dilatatorum intelligis. 

PistiUo ad latus inferius floris sito ovario 4-lobo, lobis tumidis Teaieulosii 
cariuis 2 papillosis inttructis, stigmatibus 4 ad apicem loborum, inferiore ma- 
jore, superiore minimo capsula 1-loculari ante anthesin ore aperto marginibui 

I $380 of the protected Sikh Stat**. 7 65 

▼atailarum intns reflexis ; seminibus numerosis reniformibus plaeenUa 4 parie- 
talibus sutaraa subtendentibus affixis. 
Bergia odorata, (mihi.J 

Ramis decumbentibus ramosis teretibus pubescentibus. Foliis oppositis bistipu- 
satis oblongo-ellipticis aessilibus aerratia pubescentibus, stipulia subulatia, ra- 
mulia axillaribns ; floribus azillaribua 1-3 utraque axilla, pedunculatia peduncalia 
1-floris, calyce 5 sepalo, aepalis ovatis pubescentibus, petalia 5 obovatis integris ; 
■taminibua alterais brevioribua, stylis 5-o?ario 5-loculo. 

Odor aromatieiu Anthemidis. 

Habitat in inundetis proper Balawali. 
Maiva Matvtnris, (miki.) 

Prostrate hirsutissima, ramis teretibus foliia petiolatis quinquefidis, segmentis 
2-lobis obtusiuaculia ; floriboa axiilaribua aubaolitariia in apice ramorum sub- 
racemoais foliia floralibus minimia sub-nullis petiolatis. Bracteolia 6 subulatis ; 
Calyce Yentricoao hirantiaaimo. Corolla pallida calyce vix loogiore. Carpella 7, 8 
pleramque 9, lateribua planii mgoait dorao cottato. Odor aromatioua Pelargonii, 
Crescit cum prsecedente. 

Astragalus tetcmeus, D. C. II. p. 288. 

Ramia decumbentibus homi adpreaaia longia simplicibas teretibus hirantioa 
cutis foliia alternia 5-7-foliolatia foliolia ovalibus hirsutioseulis, stipulis liberie 
euneatis ; racemis axiilaribua, pedunculis in antheai folio brejioiibus in fructu 
elongatis, floribus sub-capitulatis brevissime pedicellatis, bracteis subulatis 
cUiatis ; calyce hiraato 5 dentato, dentibus acutia snpra fisso, vexillo obojato, 
enarginato recto, alia oblique ovatis unguiculatis carina obtusa, atom. 1-9-file- 
mentis breribus antberia hirsutis, atylo brcvi curvato stigmate capitato glabro 
legumine orato, dorso snlcato cum stylo peraistente apioulato viUoso seminibos 
oblique reniformibus. 

Flores miauti pallide pnrpnreis. Lodihana. 
Astragalus incurvus, D. C II. p. 304. 

Perennia hirsutus, caulibus radiatim prostratis, foliia alternia petiolatis alter- 
natim pinnatia foliolia oblique ovatis apice acutis hirautia, stipulia subulatis 
petaolo adnatia, floribus capitulatia pednncnlis axiilaribua breribus 4-5-floris 
bracteia aubulatia Mrsutis; calycibua 5 partitia aegmentis subulatis, corolla 
purpurascente, vexillo longo obliquo valde emarginato carina dnplo longiore, alia 
Texillo brevioribus 1 -den talis leguminibua stellatim dispositis margiue inferiore 
introflexo falcatis gibbis hirsutis, utroque loculo 4-spermo seminibus rbomboideis. 

Malta et Pentepotamia. These two species are remarkable aa being identical 
with or Tery strongly resembling the two African apeciea to which I have referred 


Perenne ramosissimnm omnino pilis snb-spinosia aaperrimum, foliis sessilibua 
lanceolatis valde rugoais aaperrimisque, cor ym bis snbterminalibua dichotomic 
floribus seasilibus, calycia segmentis obtusis marginatis pilosis corollas tnbo 
ventricoso Tiridi calyce dimidio longiore inferius piloso, margine brevi undulat 
albo 5-fido segmentis rotundia capsnla laivi rugoaiuscula vix 4-partabili. la 
Areaoaia Malwas et LodihansB abundantissimum. 
Boraginearum specie* — 

Annua erecta ramoaa hirsntiasima pilis mollibus spinulosisque mixtis, foliis 
lanceolatis diatantcr crenatis, ad crenae costaaque apinuloais aliter Tiliosis; 

766 Botanico-Agricuttural account, fyc. [S; 

floribui racemoale pedicellatie, rtoemif folioloeia ; calycibua ventricoeie, iO-< 
tis, 5-partitis, corolla tubuloea limbo 5-partito aegmentia rotundia, fence 
5-fornicata intna pilot* at non elausa, stamioum filamentia brevibne antheria 
ovatia cesrnleacentibua, ptttillo recto libero atigmate clavato, nncibos baai eJaxie 
oblique ovatia subragosia apioe acutiuacnlie, baai perforatia fence perfocationiB 

Herba habitu Hyoacyami, calyce Fhyeatin tcI Lychnideia veapertinaai auAulana, 
Corolla alba. — Malwa, Pentepotaneia. 
Orobanche Calatropidti, 

8pica confertiflora, caale (vel racbi) glabra epongioaa incci (aquas rienilis) 
plena bracteia ternii 1 -Aorta, una inferiore majoreovata apioe acuminate demuaa 
marceeeente calycem auperante carnoea, purpuraacente eupra talva, dmabee 
lateralibue ellipticii caaiculatia lateribua versus batin pilia camosia ctliatia, alitar 
glabris, calyce brevtoribua ; calyce 5- ft do aegmentia obtueia glabris corolla 
ringente tubo calyce snbduplo longiore curvato, limbo bilabiato labio euperiore 
2-fido minore auberecto aegmentia rotundia emarginatk purpuras, inferiore 
patulo 3-fido aegmentia rotundia emargioatia ad marginem purpuraacente, intet 
flavo, fence valleculia 2 luteis instructa, ataminibue 4 didynamia iaferioribae 
longioribua, giaberrimis, jnnioribua in antherium lineare antheram superana pro- 
ductia quod poatea maraceaceni ad antheram affingitur, antheria 2-lobie oordatii 
pilia albia presertim ad baain margineeque aaccaram hirtia, jnnioribua niece 
pilia arete coalitia poat impregnatione discedentSboa, polline ovnli. PiatiUo 
glaberrimo ad baain ovarii diaeo luteo circumdato ovario conioo 1-loculari plaeentia 
4. Stylo ttaminiboa longiore medio aaguatato, curvato, atigmate in apioe clavato 
styli glanduloeo. 

Creacit in rasdicibua Calatropidia Hamiltoaii in arenoeiaaintie Malvat Scapo 1-5 
pedali crassisaimo, bracteia inferioribus snpius efloratia. 
Plantago bauph&a, (miki.J—indiee ? 

Caulibus decambentibas ramosis aabhlrsatia foliia alternis ample canfibne, 
lineari-lanceolatia diatanter denticulatia, aub-carinatis, pilia raria apioe ardcalatia 
hirsutiusculis pednnculia axillaribua foliia longioribaa minute hirautie vel sub- 
glabris viridibua vel purpuraecentibua, apicia confertiflorie ovatia, bracteia uai- 
■oris coatU viridibua marginibaa latis acarioaia inferioribaa carinatia a] 
majoribue (at non foUaceia) aepalia 4. rotundato-ovatia, 2 exterioribna 
oribueque bracteiformiboe coata viridi, 2, interioribua o-mnino membranaeehn 

Corollas limbo 4-fido, aegmentia ovatia acuminatia acarioaia, staminibus in- 
fence insertis, filamentii nliformibus parpnreia aegmentia corolla sBqnalibue, 
antheria ovatia veraatUibna luteis, atylo ezaerto apice hirantiaacalo ; capsmla 
membranacea ovata versos fnndam circumactiea, rosea, aeminibna 2 naviculi— 
formibua, albamine coocavo ovato embryone oentrali immerao radical* inferiore, 
eotyledonibua linearibus placenta centrali ovata craaeiuacula in medio laternm ia 
valle lineari excavate propter receptionem embryouie, poaterinii in fructu mem- 
branacea. Malwa et Pentepotamia. 

8aUola Idtub, (mini,) nomine Indorum ? 

Fruteaeene ramoaiaaima, foliia breviter petiolatia cytindraceia vel ovatia, rectia 
▼el falcatia, acutiusculis vel obtusia, floribui 3-4 glomernlatia axillaribue seaafli- 
bua, aepalia 5 concavia rubria, stamina iia oppoaita tegentibna filam 5 : brevibue 
antheria viridibua sty lis 2-3-4. brevibus rectia exaertia ovario unico. 

Frnctum maturam non vidi.— Malwd et Pentapotamia. 

1833.] Translation of the Mohit. 767 

II. — Extract* from the Mo hit (the Ocean J > a Turkish work on Nd* 
vigation in the Indian Seas. Translated and Communicated by 
Joseph Von Hammer, Baron Purgstall, Aulic Counsellor, and 
Prof. Orient. Lang, at Vienna, Hon. Memb. As. Soc. fyc. fyc. 

First Chapter. 


First Section. Of the skies, stars, and elements. 

Be it known that all the skies are perfectly round in convexity and 
concavity each between two parallel surfaces ; their centre is that of 
the world ; they are nine in number, are called the ' universal skies/ 
and are comprehended one within the other. The four elements are 
within the concavity of the lunar sky, and have fixed themselves in the 
middle of the terrestrial globe because gravitating like all bodies to- 
wards the centre of the world, they found their repose there. According 
to the expression of philosophers the earth is surrounded by the water, 
but the surrounding is an imperfect one, because, according to the 
opinion of old sages, the fourth part of the northern side of the earth 
is shining forth ; the modern philosophers say more, and in fact, the 
Portuguese have found on the west of the Canarian islands a new conti- 
nent which they call the New World, and which is drawn up in the 
maps of our time ; we will mention it, please God, with more detail, in 
the chapter of the Indian islands. 

The water and the earth form together one globe ; the cause that 
the earth came forth of the water, is only God's grace, who raised 
towering mountains, and sunk flat valleys to make them the abode of 
animals and plants. The earth shone forth by the natural inclination 
of the water to descend to the deeper grounds, the effect of which was, 
that the higher places remained uncovered with water. Some say that 
there are six hundred species of animals on the continent, and eight 
hundred in the sea. The Sheikh, author of the She/a has said of the 
animals : that all those who have ears propagate by birth ; and those 
which have only auricular holes, by eggs. The eggs are of two species 
— those the shell of which is hard, have two colors ; one, that of the 
interior part and the other of the exterior covering ; but those, the 
shell of which is tender, are but of one color and have no exterior hide ; 
as the eggs of the fishes. After the terrestrial globe comes the aerial, 
after it that of fire ; then the skies of the moon, mercury, venus, sun, 
mars, jupiter, saturnus, that of the fixed stars, and the greatest sky 
which is called Attas. The reason that the universal skies are in the 
5 D 

768 Translation of the Mohit, [Skft. 

number of seven, lie9 in their different motions. The proof of it is that 
the before-said planets cover one the other. The covering sky is the 
inferior and the covered one the superior. 

The stars are divided in three classes. The first : the seven planets 
every one of which is moving in its proper sky. The second class are 
the fixed stars, which are real stars like the planets, and which are all 
fixed in the eighth sky. The third class are only imaginary and not 
real ones ; these are the two points which are called the poles. The 
two poles of the greatest sky, make the difference between east and 
west. In the same manner there are in the ninth sky two insensible 
points ; all the stars are fastened in the globe of the skies like the stone 
in a ring. Their rising and going down is fixed by returning cycles. 
The line which passes through the two poles is called the axis tysr*. 

In order to go on in the operations of this science it is necessary to name 
the four great circles which are the meridian, the equator, the hori- 
Men and the circle of height*. 

Second Section. Of the divisions of the circle of the #Ay. 

The learned in nautical science agree that the circle of the sky, that 
is to say, the horizon, is divided into thirty-two parts, called khan-f ; 
because the ship can go in thirty-two directions, which applied to the 
horizon make these thirty-two divisions, every one of which is named 
after a particular constellation to which seafaring men have given a 
particular name. So they call in Turkey the north, Yildiz, which the 
masters of the Indian seas call Kutb J&h *Wu^iiS. So the two calves 

(£. and y. in ursa minor) are true north, the rising point of them is N. 
by E., the setting point of them N. by W. The rising point of the bier 
(the square of ursa major J N. N. E. ; the setting point of the bier N. 
N. W. The rising point of the camel (£. in Cassiopeia :) N. E. by 
N. The setting point of the camel, N. W. by N. ; the rising point of 
Capella N. E. ; the setting point of it N. W. — The rising point of the 
falling eagle (a in the lyra :) N. E. by E„ the setting point of it N. W. 
by W. — The rising point of Spica E. N. E. ; the setting point W. N. 
W. The rising point of the Pleias E. by N. ; their setting point W. by 
N. The rising point of the eagle true east, the setting point of it, true 

gyuj tji]& This we presume is any circle passing through the ZemHh 
of a place, on which altitudes above the horizon are measured. — Ed. 

+ { j^- Perhaps the Persian word khdnth, place, house, division, or kksmd 
from the Sanskrit sji| part, division. — Ed. 

1838. J a Turkish work on Navigation. 769 

west The south it in Jsia minor and RoomeH generally called the 
Kibla. The master of the Indian seas calls it Kutb-4-Soheil, that is 
to say, the pole of Canopus. The rising of Solbar or Solibdr* (which 
seems to be aUPhard) S. by £. ; the setting point of it S. by W. The 
rising point of the two asses (7 and 8 in Cancer :) S. £. by S., the setting 
point of it S. W. by S. The rising point of the scorpion S. £.; the setting 
.point of it S. W. The rising point of the crown S. E. by £.; the setting 
point S. W. by,W, The rising of Arcitenens £. S. £.; the setting 
point of it W. S. W. The rising point of the twins £. by S.; the setting 
•point of it W. by S. These are the names of the thirty-two khans 
(points of the compass). The middle point of two khans is called the 
half of a khan, and the middle point of this is called the quarter of a 
khan. The word karta ££ is but a corruption of the word i3Aj 

quarto which in the language of the Francs signifies the fourth part. 
Hie denominations of the khans after the rising and setting of the 
above named stars, belongs to the Indian seas and the'denominatiaii 
is only approximative and metaphorical, and not real. The division 
is taken from the compass, which in Turkey is known by the name 
of Pussolaf. The above mentioned names are not used in the 
white and black sea, where Ursa major and minor are continually 
in sight, but where Canopus, Salibdr and the AssUi are not seen rising 
and setting ; the names used in the Turkish seas agree with the points 
of the horizon, independent of the rising and setting of stars ; this way 
is by far the more easy, because there are only eight names of winds, 
the middle and quarters of them, which makes ten words fifteen rising 
points (the setting points not counted :) the northern pole and the 
south pole, altogether seventeen names which it is easy to retain. It 
is by far more easy to say east by north or west by north, than to 
retain in memory the rising and setting points of the pleiades. 

The Third Section explains the Isbd, g*«J 5 and the middle of 
the Khans. 

The circumference of the circle (globe) is of 360 degrees, each degree 
6S§ miles, the whole circumference 24,000 miles ; each degree has 22$ 

* 8olbdr not Salibdr is the true vocalisation. [The navigators call it £a- 
Hbar.— Ed.] 

•f From the Italian or Portuguese Bustola, which the late M. Kla froth does 
mot allow to be derived either from Bossola, a box, or the old English Boxel, hut 

rather from the Arabic i\my pronounced Motttala, the point, or pointer. 

The present example however in which the word is written with a p rather 
proves that both the Arabic terms Pussola and Motmala are corruptions of 
Bussola. — Ed. 

5 D 2 

770 Translation of the Mohit, [Ssfr. 

far tangs; the whole 8000 far tangs. An ££*l is formed by If de- 
grees*. Eight fl3 zdms make one isbd, and again 4; zdms 
one degree; 114? miles are one isbd, 14? miles are one zdm; 
one degree contains seven parts of the twelfth of the isbd; so 
the whole circumference contains 210 isbd or 1680 zdms, the mid- 
dle of two khans is 6, J isbd ; counting by degrees, 11£ degrees; the 
whole circle 210 isbd at our time, but in ancient times the middle 
measure of each khan was 7 isbd, therefore the circle contained 224 
isbd ; the first is the better computation which is proved by the 

difference of the greatest and lowest height of uT;^<^ which is bnt of 
four isbds. Astronomers know that from the rising of Judda, that 
is the polar star, to its setting, 6 degrees and 6 isbds are counted, 
each isbd being 1 } degrees ; but the rising and setting of Judda is 
not always the same because its motion follows that of the sky of the 
fixed stars, by which, in the course of time, the distance of it from the 
Meridian becomes greater and sometimes smaller, according to the pole 
of the world ; in our time it is so trifling that it makes no difference. 
Be it also known that the isbd is of two species ; the one, that used 
by the masters of the seas ; this is the fourth part of the distance be- 
tween Capella and <jV4> (the two Ursa) ; the masters measuring with 
their instruments reckon this distance to be four isbd. If the mea- 
surement is taken in *%?- ( ^yv Leo) and that the measure is neither 
too large "nor too narrow. The distance between Capella and the two 
Ursee is four isbd. The second species of isbd is not the nautical 
but geometrical one, which is the breadth of six moderate grains of 
barley ; according to the systems of the moderns, 24 isbd or inches 
make one yard (p'jA) and 4000 yards one mile, and three miles one 

Hie Fourth Section, explains the distance of the stars, which 
are used to measure the khan from the mei x idia>is and from the pole. 

The distance of the polar-star is 86£ degrees ; the distance of the 
two calves (0 7) 77 degrees, the distance of the first star of the square 
of Ursa minor jjJ *dJL« 66 degrees; the distance of ^Uoir 52 

degrees ; of Capella 45 degrees ; of Lyra 38£ degrees ; of Arcturus 
23^ degrees ; of the Pleias I "J £ degrees ; of Aquila 7 degrees. AU 
these distances are northern. The southern ones are the following : 
Solbar called also Mohannis, that is to 'say, the perjurer 61 degrees. 
The reason of this denomination is because an Arabic tribe, having 
taken its rising for that of Canopus, swore that it was Canopus ; which 

• Should be 1° 36' 25" since 224 asssba = 360 degrees. 

188a] a Turkish work on Navigation. 771 

was a perjury. The distance of Canopus is 52 degrees. Ast his js 
a most renowned star, the southern pole has taken its name from it ; 
the distance of ^ aIIo which is the first of the two Aselli, 49 degrees ; 

the heart of the Scorpion, (Antares) 24^ degrees ; the Crown 17 
degrees ; the Arrow, else called Shaurani Yamani, that is to say, 
Straw, 16 degrees ; Djoza, (the girdle of Orion,) 1 degree. This 
last one though a northern one has been mentioned with the southern 

The distance between the north-pole and the polar-star (Djah) is 
two isbd\ some say that the difference is less. The distance between 
the pole and the star of the nail ^x^^SS* is 8£ isbd, the distance 

between the polar-star and the star of the nail 6£ isbd ; that between 
the polar-star and the greater of the two calves 7£ isbd. Those dis- 
tances were taken by the former masters, with the instruments made by 
themselves by which the elevation of the stars was at variance, which is 
not the case with the present instruments. The distance from the star* 
to the meridian and the pole of the world is not always the same, 
because the stars move with the eighth sky, so that by its motion 
some northern stars become southern ones and vice versa, so that the 
stars which in the zodiac are now seen in the beginning of Capricornus, 
may fall into the beginning of Cancer, the distance of which is nearly 
48 degrees. The rest may be guessed by this, but in our times the 
operations are sure. 

The Fifth Sbction explains the instruments of measurement. 
The first instrument which the ancients used, consists of nine tablets, 
or boards, 'S, the first of which, of the size of man's little finger is 

divided in four foldsf (^£m»*)> each of which is called one isbd, that 

is to say, that the first tablet is reckoned to be four isbd. Be it known 
that each pilot takes the tablet according to his hand, so that if he is a 
tall man the divisions happen to be great, and if he be a short man they 
are small ; therefore a difference must necessarily occur and the opera- 
tion is not sure J. The distance between Capella and Dobban ( L .Xf5) 

which in the lunar stations fall in JL^I (f 7* « of leo) is just four 

isba§ ; which agrees with the above measurement taken by the hand. 

9 This may be f cephei of oar globes by its relative distance from polaris sad 
the pole. — Ed. 

t Shikan may here be translated rather a groove or farrow.— Ed. 

$ i. e. If the instrument of one man be used by another. — Ed. 

$ The star here called Dobban must be understood, not as Dab be, & aurigss which 
U 7° 45' distant from Capella, making the isba^l 66', 

973 Translation of the Mokit, [Saw. 

The second tablet or plate is one isbd more than the first and so on, 
until the ninth. Through the middle of this tablet passes a thread so 
that it increases from the first to the second table half an isbd, and so 
on to the ninth ; by this the elevation of the stars is taken*. Be it 
known that the measurement of the ninth table is according with the 
first plan. Capricomus having the smallest elevationf? it will be found 
there to be 12 isbd. In the 8th table, 1 1 isbo\ and so farther on 
till the first, where its elevation is four isbd. In the same way the 
calves, the four stars of the square of Ursa minor and the elevations of 
the other stars are calculated. The method of taking the measure is 
as follows : — You take the table with the left hand and the thread that 
passes through their middle in the right ; you stretch your left hand firm 
and take the elevation which gives four isbd for that of Juddi («^Jk**). 
The moderns use to the same purpose a bar r J, three or four 
spans long, which they divide in five parts ; one part forms a tablet J 

the breadth of which is the half t>f its length, that is to say, the fifth part 
of the half ; a thread passes through the middle. The bar is divided in 
twelve parts and where it cuts off six parts a knot (or division) is made. 
The pilots begin their measurement from this knot, Juddi having the 
smallest elevation. The distance between the circle of the horizon is twelve 
isbd and at this time the stations Isarfa, (3 in the lion,) Awwa, (flvy* 
in the virgin,) and Semak Spica; are near, that is to say, in the 
zenith ; at this time Juddi is two isbds below the pole of the world ; 
the measure of an isbd is If degrees (1° 48') ; at that place the ele- 
vation of the pole of the world is 14 isbd or 24 degrees which is the 
greatest mile}. The greatest elevation of Juddi, is that in the lunar 
stations fera "ehmolcaddam, (« £ in Pegasus, J and tnoakhkhar, ( 7 in 
Pegasus and « in Andromeda : ) and Resha, ( & in Andromeda .'J there 
are according to this calculation six isbd : they call this measure, the 
original or fundamental measure ; that is to say, two isbd above the 
pole of the world. You divide then this bar in eleven parts, throw fife 
of them away and make a knot at the sixth, then remain 1 1 isbd for 
the elevation of Juddi. You divide again the bar in ten parts, throw 
away four and make a knot at the sixth which gives the elevation of 
ten isbd. Then you divide it in nine parts, throw away three and 
make a knot at the sixth so that nine isbd remain for the elevation. 
Again you divide it in eight parts, throw away two, make a knot at the 

* See the subjoined note.— Ed. 

f For ' smallest' 1 should here desire to read * greatest 1 — the meaning being, tb*t 
according to the estimated elevation is the loh to be selected.— Ed. 
X Perhaps the extremity of the scale should be understood by this expression. 

1838.] a Turkish work on Navigation. 773 

sixth, so that eight isbd remain for the elevation. You divide it then 
in seven parts, throw away one making a knot at the sixth, in which 
case the elevation of Juddt remains seven isbd. You divide it again 
in seven (six ?) parts, but you throw none away and make the knot at 
the end of the yard, in which case there remain six isbd for the 
elevation. Here the operation ceases ; but all this is calculated on the 
lowest elevation of Juddt which is the original measure. The way of 
measuring with the above said thread and table r J, is the following : 

irst you take the tablet in your left hand, take hold of the first knot 
with your teeth, stretch forth your hand, don't twinkle with the left 
eye, and take the elevation so that Juddt is above and the horizon be- 
low, no more and no less. At this time the arc of elevation between 
the horison and Juddt is 12 isbd ; each time that a knot in added an 
isbd is lessened till at last there remain six isbd, and here ends the 
operation with the length of the table or bar. If you wish to operate 
with its breadth it is as follows : at the knot made for the elevation 
of twelve isbd, that is to say, at the half of the yard the elevation of 
Juddt according to the measure of the breadth of the table, is again six 
isbd. Be it known that if you are operating with the breadth and 
a knot is added, the elevation loses half an isbd, so that it comes 
at last to three isbd, in which place the northern pole is five isbd. 
From this place the equator is distant 40 zdm, which makes nearly 
570 miles and the original measure (.JL*I L j*\&) 1S here at an end, 
because Juddt being in the original measure near the horizon its mea- 
surement is not just. They call this the original or fundamental mea- 
sure because Juddt is beneath the pole of the world in the lowest ele- 
vation opposite to the pole. Besides this they take the measure by the 
Farkadain, the Naash, and other stars. 

The Sixth Section explains the calculation of the greatest elevation 
of the stars. 

The way is this : you add the distance of the star in the northern 
quarter to the latitude if it has a northern distance, and you subtract 
it if it has a southern distance, and the result of the addition or subtrac- 
tion is the elevation of the star ; if it exceeds 90 degrees you throw it 
away from the half circle and what remains is the greatest elevation ; 
in the southern quarter the operation is quite the reverse. If you 
wish to change the degrees into isbd, you know by what has been said 
that one isbd is If degree, so that it is easy to make out the isbd; 
but in order to calculate just the elevation of the stars it is necessary to 
know to a certainty the distances. Be it known that as the stars move 

774 Note on the Compose stare {Sin. 

with their skies their distances are sometimes different which most be 
known for the purpose of operating. 

Note on the above chapter. By James Prinsep, Sec. t As. Soc. fyc. 

The first chapter of the Mohit, as I anticipated, explains all the alio- 
sions to the stars, the points of the compass, and the methods of mea- 
suring the latitude, which were so difficult to understand in the chap- 
ters of voyages first translated ; while the examination of the Arab and 
Maldive quadrants (if they may be so called) to which I was led in 
order to understand the nature of the * celestial inch' or isbd y kc 
has prepared me to comprehend at once the descriptions in the present 
chapter which, as the Baron states, " are quite incomprehensible without 
the knowledge or sight of the instrument itself, which no doubt must be 
actually known by Indian or Arabic masters*. " 

The first question to be solved is what are the actual stars corre- 
sponding with the designations adopted in Sim's work, as well as on the 
Arabic compass ? The fourth section furnishes the data for the solu- 
tion of this point, for it contains, not the azimuthal positions of their 
rising and setting, but their absolute declination north or south of the 
equator. But to compare these declinations with our present tables al- 
lowance must be made for the annual variation in declination for the 
time elapsed since Sim's tables were framed. To find this epoch we may 
take the declination of Polaris, &*^, which is given in the text as N, 
86° 30', whereas on the 1st January 1839f it is by the nautical alma- 
nac, N. 88° 27'. The difference, 1° 53' = 6780 seconds, divided by 
+19".3 the annual variation of this Btar, gives 353 years prior to 1839 
as the epoch, or A. D. 1486. Sidi's book was written in 1554, hot 
it was compiled from ten works of preceding authors, five of them 
ancient, and five modern. The tables he consulted were probably 
much anterior, perhaps those of Ulugh Bbg (A. D. 1437), or of 
Nasir uddi'n Tu'si', astronomer to the Mongol Halagu Khan at 
Tabriz in A. D. 1264. It is impossible to expect much accuracy where 
the text does not pretend to come nearer than the half of a degree, bat 
still as we have sixteen stars we may apply the Bkntley method of mi- 
nimum errors to find the date : 

* On board the Fattle Barry, (Fatih-ul bdrij I could find none of these in- 
struments—nor were the points of the ancient compass known — all is no* 
English in Arabic navigation. 

t I make use of this epoch because I happen to have on my table a Greta* 
wich Ephemeris for 1839, and Done for the current year. 

18S8.] quoted m the Mokit. 775 

bS «i!S 3 59 !2 3? «» o <© ^9>9kd«»^ina»9|et 

S 55' 2 2 55 S *° f? <o *» cocq^coh anojqo g 

3 fc.4; • 2 52 ° *• <• « <o 04 n(iH«eMiAi6NS 

-* |Pk-S * *+ ~ •■* »■* P-4 p*4 ~* ,-• ,M « -I -« r-l .-H pm|m 


I!. +LUJ++ 1 + + i + + + T+7 I 



lias «S2 2 2 Q0 2 o *tsfi®• H, * ,o,o •^ *I 

« . +111 I++I+I+I + ++I + I 1 


mS 2 m ** £ 3* "• »-• «* M» © ^ « « <6 tt 

S22 &Zf 3 S 2 2 S2 S <©»©<oo»<o*>»e*aD 

:^. is i » 5 t M I I'il Is all 

4 ^ . — 

= 8 * j? £,.8 & -- i K s * s s * 8 =3 i 

33- JS | f3 «««•& -3*311 

The average epoch of tine Arabic tables is then A. D. 1282 or al- 
precisely that of Nasir vl W* Txfai' before mentioned. The 
neatest discrepancies are naturally found in the stars of leaat annual 
variation; because half a degree, the limit of accuracy in the Arabic 
column, is in such cases equal to several centuries :— thus for Rigel, with 
annual variation of three seconds we cannot expect to come nearer than 
180O* -?- 8* «■ 600 years, nor in Canopus than 1800* -r 2* — 900 

years I 

It will be remarked that I have in some instances been obliged to 
abandon the usually received equivalents of Arabic stars, and to select 
others that were more conformable to the conditions. Of the forqa- 

5 u 

776 Note on the Compost Stars [S**y« 

dein, (0 and y Urs. Min.) only the former would answer. No. 3 is 
translated * the firststar of the square of Ursa minor,' but no star of 
that constellation has the necessary declination ; as the square of Urn 

major has the same name in Arabic (j&*aH> I have inserted « Urs. 
Maj. the principal star of the square, to shew that it will answer perfectly, 
but if I have read the Arabic name right (for in the manuscript it has 
no points to the letters), it should be ' the leading star of fmfa,' the 
dragon, to which I have accordingly given the preference, though it 

does not furnish so good an epoch, **tyj^x* < the bright star' of the 
she-camel I can identify with no other than the extreme star of the tail 
of the great bear, the last of the three ' daughters of the bier/ and itself 
named bindt-ndsh on our globe. I formerly thought it was <J the 
second star, but this is 5 degrees too far north. The Arabic globes 

and tables write dJ^J' ' the leader' in lieu of *5UJI # $ Cassiopeia? 
the star suggested by M. Von Hammer is 8 degrees too far northward. 
Of Capella, Vega, and Arcturus there can be no doubt : but the next 
of the series, translated Pleiaa by the Baron with a north declination 1 1* 
15' cannot certainly represent the Pleiades which are in 23° north. I 
have, as on the former occasion, prefered Aldebaran (the bright star of 
the Hyades) whose name>j^l the bull, does not much differ from 
IgJti) the pleiades: but for this interpretation it is advisable (though 

not necessary) to read 15° 11' instead of 1 1° 15', for the declination. 

To Jozeh, if it were to be taken in the usual acceptance of a con- 
traction of Rijal uljozeh (our Rigel) we should be constrained to allow 
a correction, from 1° to 10° south declination which would bring it to 
the compass azimuth of £. by S. : but the text mentions its being out 
of position and rather a northern star or one close upon the equator, 
so that we may safely assume it to be * Ononis as in the above table, 
without altering the text. The southern crown on our globes is far 

too south for the LH^' of Sim, or of the compass, which is evidently 
o»SjJ) JjJil? or fi Scorpionis. Antares is not liable to mistake r bat 
there is some misapprehension in regard to Zaltm *£&. The Baron 
translates it * the first of the two Aselli' (^J***) : now the Aselli are two 
small stars in Cancer, in 19° and 22° north declination, whereas Zatim 
is in 49° south. Again Dr. Dorm* states Fomalhaut of the Piscii 
Australia to be denominated fd>)b on the Arabic globe, but this again is 
still 18 degrees too northerly. My own opinion was before given in 
favor of a and £ Gruis for the Ham&rein, and the declination, now fur- 
nished by Sidi, corroborates my selection, which is further confirmed 
* Transactions Royal Asiatic Society, vol. II. page 392. 

1 838.] quoted in the Mohit. Ill 

by the Arabic appellation zaUm> which signifies ' a male ostrich/ not 
much differing from grus * a crane.' 

Canopus is too notorious a star to admit of any doubt, except to the 
perjured Arab tribe ! but its annual variation is too small to yield fair 
data for calculating the epoch of the tables. 

For the last of the list, Salibdr, I before wavered between « Eridani 
and i Argus, and I should be able to propound a plausible excuse for the 
Arab tribe's mistake, (were the latter to be found correct,) in the disco- 
very lately made by Sir John Herschbll at the Cape, of the variable 
brilliancy of this star ' which in a few months had come to surpass all the 
atari of the first magnitude except Sirius, Canopus, and « Centauri*:' 
but when tried by the test of the minimum errors it is found wanting. 
In 1839 it has S. Declin. 58° 50', with annual increase of 18.8 seconds, 
so that in the 14th century it would be 5 degrees too far north, ; whereas 

j^»l)jkJ\ or Achernar precisely corresponded with the Arabic declina- 
tion in 1288 A. D. The Baron's suggestion of Alp hard (3 Hydra) 
is quite untenable, that star having only 7° 57' south declination. 

The present section in addition to the above valuable information, 
tells us why the south pole has been called Soheilf. It is a contrac- 
tion of qutb ieoheil, or pole of Canopus, to distinguish it from kutb ijah, 
the north pole. 

There is no latitude in which the several stars, as now determined can 
be made to rise and fall in their assigned positions on the horizon : the 
names were purely conventional, yet in the latitude of 15° north a good 
. many of them find their proper places, — as if the system had been first 
framed at Loheia in the Red Sea, Saiban of the ancients, which is the 
starting point of all Sidi's voyages to India, and we have seen many of 
the terms quoted as "used by the Indian masters." 

I should here correct a serious mistake made in my former notice, in 
supposing that the ancient Arabs .like the modern navigators, or the 
Hindus, considered the polar star to be immovable. The chapter before 
us proves that its polar distance was known and measured, as well as its 
secular variation and the precession of the equinoxes. Their accuracy 
only was deficient for the want of good instruments : thus in the tables 
of Muhammad Tizin i published in Sharped SyntagtnaDinertaHonum, 
T. Hyde, we find the polar distance of Judda in A. H. 940 or A. D. 
1533 registered as 26' farther from the pole than in Sidi's work, instead 
of nearer. In general however Mah. Tizini's places of the stars lie 
between Sidi's and the modern tables. Thus, fi Ursa minoris is 

* See Procecdingi of the Asiatic Society, page 463 of this volume. 
f See note on Maldive compass, vol. V. p. 764. 
5e 2 

778 Note en the Compose Stars [Bar*. 

77% 7tf, and 74° 49' in the three :— « Lyra, («*?»,) k «$• 
3C, 38° 37' and 38° 38';— Aldebaran iell° 15' (? IS* 11'), IS'^aad 
16° 11' ;— and a Aquilss 7° CK, 7° 2*, and 8° 27 in the JTottt, JTa*. 
Tbtm* tablet, and the Naut. Aim, £mt 1830, severally. 

I now proceed to make a lew remarks on the mvth sacnoir which 
aflbrds tome curious though brief information en the M, n»Hil instru- 
ments of primitive use. I certainly imagined that nothing could hs 
more primitive than my Maldive friend's kasndl—* bit of horn with 
a knotted string passing through its centre, depleted in fig. 1, PI. 
XL VIII. of vol. V. when lo ! here is something even less advanced in in- 
genuity ! Instead of dividing the string and making one board or tablet 

(loh, £»j!) answer for all, it seems to have been an anterior pbn to 
have nine boards differing in diameter one finger (isbd) each ; the low- 
est having four isbds in breadth; the largest, twelve. These were 
all strung on one string, as long as the stretch of a man's arm ; and that 
board was selected in applying the instrument to use, which just covered 
the space between the star and the horizon. From the passage in the 
text it iB evident that this Beries of boards was in fact but a substitute 
for the more primitive employment of the fingers in the meaearement 
of celestial altitude. The fingers had however one advantage, — that 
stretched at the length of the arm, as radius, they could be placed in a 
curve, so as to represent equal portions of an arc ; whereas when fingers* 
breadths were transferred to flat wooden boards they became either 
sines, tangents or, at the best, chords of the angle measured. It was 
to correct this (as I imagine) that the string was shortened by the 
thickness of the board (half an isbd f) for each successive M, as 
they decreased in breadth ; and I have taken the trouble to calculate 
the effect on data furnished by my own arm and fingers, whence I set 
down — radius = 27 inches ; and isbd = f inch. The data therefore 
for each board or loh will be as follow : 

Radius vbl" No. of Breadth Equal to Angle Difference 

creasing by the loh of the loh natural deduced, or value of 

half an isba or in inches, line. one iaba. 

in inches. board. 

24.04 1 3.00 .1247 7 10 -r 4 «= 1 47§ 

24.41 2 3.75 .1536 8 50 1 40 

24.78 3 4.5 .1815 10 27 1 37 

25.15 4 5.25 .2087 12 3 1 36 

25.52 5 6.0 .2350 13 36 133 

25.89 6 6.75 .2607 15 7 1 31 

26.26 7 7.50 .2856 16 36 1 2* 

26.63 8 8.25 ,3098 18 3 1 27 

27.00 9 9.00 .3333 19 28 123 

Average of U 4*b* 1° 37* *•" 

18*6.] quotod m th* MohiL 779 

Itk evident that half an ubd is a great deal too much for the thick* 
nose of the plates or shortening of the string — I hare calculated what 
it ought to be so as to aibrd the proper correctioii for the diminution of 
the sines, and find it only a twentieth, instead of half, of an inch ; thus, 
making the ubd = 1» 36 $ we should obtain the following lengths of 
tiw arm or radius ; the ubd being assumed as before at Jthaof an 

Jhptkqf las dim ***** « TAMm— 
tkelokin D-^Hn.^uU. qf pl*t*. 

















8 2 




9 37 




11 13 




12 49 




14 25 




16 2 




17 38 




19 15 























The next instrument described in the fifth section, does not require 
much notice since, it is precisely the btii$ty 9 or square rod with a slide, 
depicted in PI. XLVIIL, fig. 2. p. 786, and the mode of laying off the 
divisions agrees with the plan detailed by my Maldw* informant. There 
seems however to be some unaccountable jumble of the divided rod 
(§•}) and the knotted string, unless the word translated knot may also 
signify (as is probable) a division cut on the wooden bar. The applica- 
tion of the breadth of the tablet for measuring lower altitudes with the 
same knotted string is of course only an approximation, but quite near 
enough for practice. The zero point (6 ubds) is explained to be the 
lowest altitude of Polaris = 10° 30' + 3o 30' = 14° ; once more 
nearly conformable with the latitude of Loheia. 

It is possible that the greater magnitude of the ancient itbd may 
have proceeded from the practice of taking the polar distance of Polaris 
as a constant of two ubd : thus in 1894 it would be 8° 52' -f- 2= 1° 56' : 
in 1550, l'dSs, &c. Even in the chapter before us hardly any two 
estimates of the ubd agree; in one place 210, in another 224, make 860 
degrees ; in the division of the gaf and string, the measure will be 
1* 52 / : in other places it is reckoned If degree or 1° 43'. 

The fifth section enlightens us further on the zero point of the isbd 
scale, which on the former occasion I deduced, from the ubd latitudes 
of places in. the Red Sea*, to be 5* 30 / nearly. It says that m taking 
the altitude of Polaris (always, aa I guessed, at the inferior pasaage) 
when it comes at last to three ubd (the pole being then five isbd) 

• Viet vok V. page 444. 

780 Vocabulary of the Laghmani Dialed. [Ssft. 

the scale ceases, because the star is too near the horizon to give accurate 
results. Now 3 isbd at 1* 43' = 5* 9* to which adding 3° 26' = 8° 85' 
latitude ; and 570 miles, the distance from the equator corresponding, 
gives a latitude also of about 8° 80'. In the table I constructed from 
the voyage latitudes I should have added a constant of 8* 26' to the 
absolute latitude of each place as the altitudes of Polaris were^upposed 
to be taken at its inferior elevation* 

The sixth 8BCTION merely gives directions for calculating the meridi- 
onal altitude of stars, in order doubtless to obtain the latitude, at sea. 
Here instead of north and Bouth declination, the term distance, quas 1 
north polar distance is alone employed ; the rule being for stars north 
of the zenith ; Altitude = iV" P D + Latitude ; and for those south 
of the zenith, Alt. = Latitude — NP D f—90J which is unintelligi- 
ble; it should be Altitu de = 180° —NPD + Lal. ; or latitude = 
180 — Alt. + N P D. Perhaps by southern distance is meant south 
polar distance, when the rule becomes S P D — Alt. = latitude. 
The isbd is here again quoted at 1°43' and the importance of having 
good tables of the stars is insisted on. 

I have got through my comment without consulting any native 
navigator, for the season of Arab and Maldive monsooners is - hardly 
yet arrived. — But as I have already remarked, the present chapter 
exhibits far less difficulties than the others did in the absence of this, 
which contains the very particulars we there wanted. 

III. — Epitome of the Grammars of the Brahuiky, the Balochky and the 
Panjdbi languages, with Vocabularies of the Barakw, the Pashi, the 
Laghmani, the Cashgari, the Teerhai, and the Deer Dialects. By 
Lieut. R. Lbbch, Bombay Engineers, Assistant on a Mission to KaM. 

A Vocabulary of the Laghmavni Dialect. 

La^Aman is a province (tnahdl) of the principality of Cabul^ situated 
opposite to Jalalabad ; it is sometimes written Lam^rAan. It yields a 
revenue of 1,13,000 rupees, and is included in the government of 
Muhammad Akbar Khan, the favorite son of Amir Dost Muham- 
m Ad. The inhabitants of Lawman are Tajaks or Farsiwans. 


Lae, day Lam, fort Laya, brother 

AtM, hand Kati, tree Warg, water 

Kitalik, girl Bakar, good A,u, bread 

Xe, mother VeJl, night Gung, hone 

Saya, sister Balakul, boy Ghora, horse 

Angar, fire Baba or tatiya, father Nakar, bad 


Vocabulary of the Lagkmdni Dialect 


Nandl, rirer 
Shotik, she-goat 
Lawega, pain 
Lodi, wood 
Nuai, butter 
Ave, flour 
Goling bull 
Gas, grass 
Adam, man 
Pani, husband 
Shelt, knife 
8wrao, gold 
Pichadak, be-goat 
Gal, abuse 
Wagan, wind 
Gull, bullet 
Gom, wheat 
Lon, salt 
MaaM, woman 
Tik, wife 
Pnl$em, son 
Chummar, iron 
Bdukhri, silver 
Wad, stone 
MaiAt, nose 
U'a*t, lip 
Jub, tongue 
Brut, mustachoes 
JCst, arm 
Kuchh, belly 
Dur, far 
8himek, black 
TAard, yellow 
Nil, blue 
Chhal, hair 
Gaud, large 
Sanni, thin 
Ligi, tall 
Perinik, coat 
Khadi, turban 
Pishundik, cat 
Pa, meat 

Karatik, female ass 
Shir, head 
Norikh, nail 

1 1 

8 do 
8 te 

4 char 

5 panj 

Chap, left 
DnyA, false 
Kam, little 
Mandi, neck 
Baa/fta), armpit 
Pind), calf 
Aneh, eye 
K*4, ear 
Dan, tooth 
Dad, beard 
Pi e, leg 
Oban, back 
Podi, near 
Khek, white 
Shunek, red 
Altai, green 
Kit, bedstead 
Chantali, small 
ChijA, fat 
Muti, short 
Kali, cloth 
Sutan, trousers 
JTAudtnk, dog 
Michh, fish 
Kir, donkey 
Dur, face 
Dur, mouth 
Bast, right 
Hist, true 
Bo, much 
Shini, shoulder 
AllaftA, side 
Bin, thigh 
Sang, earth 
Shila, mud 
TAur, sun 
Dum, smoke 
Zalsali, earthquake 
Giliph, scabbard 
Pasham, wool 
Gambi, deep 
Pyaz, onion 
Paki, razor 
Sunchik, needle 
Garm, hot 
JSTAargosh, hare 

6 khe 

7 /oat 
R a*At 
9 no 

10 de 

11 yie 
19 dui,e 

13 senzdi 

14 chadde 

15 panju 

Bar, fruit 
Akude, below 
Dura, out 
Pirn, brosd 
Karain, bow 
Kh&m, raw 
Janiwar, beast 
Limbe, tail 
PetAir, shoes 
Tuna, thirst 
Kani, deaf 
Kuti, lame 
Patik, gone 
Mi e, moon 
WaAA, rain 
AMI, cloud 
Sum, hoof 
Pichh, cotton 
Soni, thread 
Shimek murcb, black 

ArufrA, leek 
Ko, thing 
Shirin, swee t 
Shidil, cold 
Gul, flower 
Ude, upon 
Kuchai, in 
Ligi, long 
Tlr, arrow 
Pachik, cooked 
Paranagi, bird 
8haAA, horn 
Kalachi, speech 
Avti, hunger 
Andi, blind 
Gungi, dumb 
Chhi, well 
Aik, come 
Pikam, I go 
Paga, he goes 
PikatAa, ye go 
Pakai, dost thou go 
PikaiA, we go 
Pakaa, they go 

16 shinzi 

17 abdi 

18 hashda 

19 nosda 

20 vist 


Vocabulary of the Tirhai Dialect. 


A Vocabulary of the Cashgari (proprrlt Kashkari*) Lak- 


Dik, a boy 
Moasht, a man 

Lesun, a cow 
Astor, a horse 
Ashpai, a sheep 
Unth, a camel 
Chhinl, hair 
Pusha, cat 
Inch, forehead 
Naskir, noee 
Barup, eyebrow 
£non, lip 
Login, tongue 
Sir!, barley 
To kin!, who are you 
Chadur, turban 
Phadwal, trousers 
Chhan, take off (im- 
Bizwa, thin 
Pong, foot 
8hurik, thigh 
JTAwinu, belly 
Gaul, neck 
Trishty, thirst 
Asman, heaven 
Mid, milk 
Chho,!, day 
Dashminl, reading 
Ange, come 


Boofti, be gone 
Rupi,get up 
Pea, drink 
Dassa, take 
Ufc*, water 
Gomb, wheat 
Gumod, a girl 
Kumedi, a woman 
Deshawa, a bull 
GAod dou, an ass 
Pai, a goat 
Postam, wool 
Rain, dog 
GAarib, poor 
JU, veil 
Obisti, dead 
Z6m, mountain 
Ingir, fire 
Chohistam, I am hun- 


Ishgum, shall I eat 

Misarn ludath, speak 
with me 

Kisht, waistband 

Perahan, coat 

Anjam, put on (impe- 

Chale but, a fat man 

Huaht, hand 

Mujastt, calf of leg 

1 V 

S ju 
3 tru,i 

4 ehod 
6 punj 
6 Chu,l 

7 sut 

8 aneht 

9 nenhan 

Sur, head 

Kid, ear 

GfAaeh, eye 

Rlkish, beard 

Dond, tooth 

£ge, come hero 

Hishik, sit doi 

Ejube, eat 

Math, with, give me 

Maahr ba, goglet ef 

Shipfki, bread 
Karinj, rice 
Mah, waist 
Paz, breast 
Bum, earth 
Jind, bedstead 
Satire, stars 
Paghid, curds 
Paniyi, night 
Dashmantri, read 
Metal, a great mall 
Miwlat, country 
Koah, shoes 
Jinwiji, born 
Ult, round 
Him, snow 
Jin, wood 

10 jash 
SO jiaht 
100 dosanm 

A Vocabulary or th« Ti'rhai Dialect. 

The TVrhai language is at present confined to 8000 families, who 
abandoned their own country the district of Ttrd. on a feud breaking 
out between the Orakzais and Afridis, and settled in the province of 
Ninganh&r. They figured in the religious revolution I am now about 
to mention. 

In the reign of Akber, when Mirza Hask was Governor of CahU, 
a holy man by name Hisamodi'n an Ansari by caste came from Hin- 
dustan, where his forefathers had been left by Timurlano, to A^Aanis- 
t£n in which country he travelled and preached, and had succeeded in 
making many converts to the creed of the Shlahs, to which sect he be- 
longed ; when Akhun Darvbza whose shrine is now at Pe*hdwar> arose 


Vocabulary of the Tirhai Dialect. 


as his opponent, and as the defender of the orthodox faith of the Sun- 
nis: Hisamodi'n had obtained the title of Pi'r Roshan (father light) 
among his own sect, and that of Pi'R Tari'k (father darkness) 
among the Sunnta. Akhun Darvsza petitioned the king who gave 
orders to the governor of Cabul to co-operate with him in exterminat- 
ing the infidel Shiahs. These two laid many snares to entrap their 
opponent, who evaded their pursuit, accompanied by a body of 200 
cavalry, by reversing the shoes of their horses. He escaped and his 
fate is not known ; but his three sons were secured and put to death. 
The labors of Pi'R Roshan were particularly successful in the district 
of Ttr&y where he had 60,000 disciples ; who on the disappearance of 
their preceptor, returned to their former belief. 

Kutra, horse 
Bhadai, mare 
Pali, bread 
Wa, water 
8inth, river 
Das, day 
Kit, night 
Bir ukh, he-camel 
Stray Ma, she-camel 
film tsinda, he-goat 
Strisy taall, she-goat 
GAwar, good 
. Nakar, bad 
Ghodi, abuse 
Bali, wind 
Nar, fire 
Lada, wood 
Breaa, pain 
Tarwali, sword 
Dal, shield 
Golai, bullet 
Dudb, milk 
Kuchh, butter 
Gadh, clarified butter 
Ghom, wheat 
Dadi, beard 
Zav, barley 
Lon, salt 
Go, bullock 
Doen, cow 
Ghas, grass 
8trlzv, wife 
Mhafa, father 
Mi, mother 
Putur, son 
Kumar, daughter 
Spaz, &iater 
Bhra, brother 
Katari, knife 



Tsfmbar, iron 
Zyad, brass 
Postakai, leather 
Parannazar, silver 
Luhizar, gold 
Bat, stone 
Achha, eye 
Nasth, nose 
Kan, ear 
dftunda, lip 
Danda, tooth 
Zhibba, tongue 
Bret, mustachoes 
Hast, hand 
Pa, leg 
Tsat, back 
Damma, belly 
Boga, near 
Dur, far 
Paranna, white 
Luhl, red 
Zyad, yellow 
Kangana, black 
Sen, bedBtead 
Bal, hair 
Soda, little 
Crhana, large 
Plan, fat 
Sum, thin 
Kathau, short 
Driga, tall 
Tsabar, cloth 
Piran, coat 
Sathan, trousers 
Phagdai, turban 
Sana, dog 
Bilolec, cat 
Mahai, fish 
Khar, donkey 

Mun, face 
Azi, mouth 
Mas, meat 
Nukh, nail 
JTawai, right 
Chap, left 
Tsuk, little 
Brokh, much 
Oga, shoulder 
Mare, neck 
AWakh, side 
JTAarg, armpit 
Ran, thigh 
Pond!, calf of leg 
Brich, tree 
Bhum, earth 
Ga4> mud 
Duda, dust 
Spagmai, moon 
Sdri, sun 
Barsat, rain 
Dhung, smoke 
U'ryaz, cloud 
Zabzala, earthquake 
Gawar kand, thunder 
Tandr, thunderbolt 
Padakahar, lightning 
Nukh, hoof 
Kavza, hut 
Tekai, scabbard 
Maluch, cotton 
Pam, wool 

U'zh gun), goat's hair 
Zmarrai, tiger 
Gugh, deep 
Kangana mirch, black 

Sum, leek 
Pyas, onion 


Votothvlary of the BigMmd* ofDevr. 


Kurkumand, saffron 
Spans!, thread 
Biyitai, scissors 
Katarl, razor 
fihai, thing 
Dhung, needle 
MrMr&t, sweet 
Tre, salt 
TriMt, bitter 
T atta, hot 
fthha), cold 
8awe, hare 
Burod, wolf 
Gidad, jackal 
Yaya, bear 

1 fk 

s da 

3 tra 

4 tsor 
6 pints 
6 kho 

Btao, monkey 
Ath, flour 
Gul, flower 
Bar, fruit 
Phalli, grain 
Brig, long 
Plan, broad 
{Maaha, arrow 
G&uxr, kamin, bow 
Ragt, true 
Drlst, false 
Pakki, cooked 
Ama, raw 
Rassai, rope 
Lakai, tail 

7 sath 

8 aMt 

9 nab 

10 dah 

11 Iko 

12 bo 

IS tro 

14 tsoudi 

15 panzl 

16 khod 

17 sate 

18 a*»to 

Udhast, hunger 
Gushthani, house 
Tandrai, mouse 
H indwani, water-meki 
Ra^aa, plain 
Karffta, crow 
MorpAa, bird 
JTAka, horn 
Phanai, shoes 
Piratha, thirst 
Osai, deer 
Ku,ai, well 
Ghhx, mountain 
Bhana, plate 

19 kitnnai 
SO hhyi 
SO bhyoodi 
40 da bhyi 



Pand plshi, show the road 

Puch de, give a kiss 

Maga, don't 

Shilcha oth, I am thirsty 

Bal, hair 

Ghat ag, whence have you come r 

Andefhtig, I came thence 

Jib, tongue 
Mashtj throat 
Saaltt, will yon sell ? 
Maya, curds 
Chot, cheese 
Bat. rice 
Mulland, dead 
Pedah, ill 
Kichu, take away 
Pachha, cook (impera- 
Go il, bread 
Mish, man 
Kha, eat 
Shaya, come 
Beh, ait 
Jola, speak 
Ga, cow 
Angvur, finger 
Mulkanth, buying 


Chu ain pane), go this road 

Buchhakot, 1 am hungry 

Dat, full 

Paneth, money 

Jath. wool 

AndeiAki chon, I will go there 

Gomb, wheat 

Mas, meat 

Shid, milk 

Gad, clarified butter 

Ma,il, buttermilk 

Chond, writing 

Chantu, alive 

An, bring 

Jal, light (imperative) 

Piaht, flour 

Wane, water • 

1% woman 

Po, drink 

Chau, begone 

Uthi, get up 

God, horse 

Gau, bull 

Tlkod, girl 

Mekide, give me 

Ra,it, might 

Chail, goat 

Birbur, tiger 

No,il, cap 

Shah, put on (impera- 
Yar, friend 
Jar, fight 
Mir, kill 
Taran, forehead 
Dudh, lip 
Di,ir, chin 
JTAasha, cheek 
Thoho, hand 
Jang, calf of leg 
Gablt, anus 
Jola, speech 
Pu, son 
Ghin, uke 
Dub, day 

Rouns, musk deer 
Shirmukh, hyena 


Vocabulary efihe Meghal Aimaki. 


Yd, faulty 

Migmr, jey 

Shlsh, head 

Gujur, clothes 



JTAor, foot 

Shirbal, trousers 


, note 


Erkas, breast 

tH, 80W 

Kan, ear 

Us, strike 

Gkaftm, enemy 



Ting, back 

1 Yak 

6 Mo 

11 Ika 

16 shohud 

2 do 

7 ahat 

19 biyaha 

17 sataha 


8 ha*ht 

IS taeltaha 

18 haataha 

4 chor 

9 nob 

U choha 

19 unblst 

5 panch 

10 data 

15 panebl 

SO bis 



The Mortals are one of the four Aimaks ; they inhabit the country 
of Baghrdn and Mai ig&n, the former is subject to Candahar the 
latter to Herat. 

A story is told that one of the kings of Persia sent for a Mortal 
Aimak, to inquire the structure of his language, and was so disgusted 
with the discordancy of its sounds that he ordered the man to be killed. 

While the executioners were preparing to strike off his head, the 
king, to give the culprit a last chance, inquired the Mog-ftali for 
" face/* The man answered " nur" which in Persian signifies " light :" 
this lucky answer it is said saved the credit of the MogheX language 
and the head of its propounder or lecturer. 

Odur, day 
8onl, night 
Naran, warmth 
tiaar, hand 
Koun, boy 
Wokin, girl 
Baba, father 
Turuksan, brother 
JFAwar, sister 
Ussun, water 
titer, lire 
Ukpang, bread 
ttiahar, city 
Deh, village 
Darakht, tree 
Merin, horse 
Morin, mare 
Nakchir, dear 
Eljigan, ass 
Murgb, fowl 
Teman, camel 
WaUga, bear 
fianu, milk 
Uada, butter-milk 

5 f 2 


Ahin, iron 
Biza, monkey 
China, wolf 
Nokai, dog 
Baa, goat 
Sap&al, beard 
Saghlipa, sheep 
Ukarr, a bull 
Wina, eow 
Hoghul, a calf 
Bu^Adai, wheat 
Arpa, barley 
Gaurul, flour 
Chighan, rice 
Anar, pomegranate 
Augur, grapes 
Pyaz onion 
Sir, leek 
Zardak, carrot 
Dapsuny, salt 
Tosun, clarified butter 
-JTaagina, egg 
Tarakh, curds 
Kagar, earth 

Surab, lead 
Brinj, brass 
TilU, gold 
Nu/<ftr&, silver 
Kul, food 
Gesal, belly 
Kabr, nose 
Nuddun, eye 
Kelan, tongue 
Kala, chin 
Undun, trousers 
Kilpaasun, wool 
Naka, shoes 
Girr, house 
Kong&u, light 
Ulan, red 
Kok&, green 
Shira, yellow 
Burghaja, cooked 
Ould, blind 
Ukuba, dead 
Nira, name 
Yamal, saddle 
Quia, hill 


Vocabulary of the Moghal Aimaki. 


Khisht, brick 

Chaj&an, white 

TJchkodar, yen 

Oda, above 

Kara, black 

Kurt, stone 

Dunda > in 

Mor, road 

Keja, when 

Indar, here 

JTaam, raw 

Enakai, now 

Javla, before 

Lang, lame 

Han, yes 

Giiinwu, nail 

Ebat, pain 

Yema, whv 

Ekin, head 

Chah, well 

Be, I 

Chakin, ear 

Kulba, plough 

Te, he 

Nur, face 

GAajar, plain 

Inodar, to-da] 

Shuddun, tooth 

JTairja, hut 

Nuntar, sleep 

Kela, speech 

8hewa, below 

Modun, wood 

Kujunn, neck 

Ghadana, out 

j&Taana, where 

Gesu, hair 

Tindar, there 

Bag, enough 

Malghai, cap 

froina, after 

Ogai, no 

JTAatun, woman 


Khub, good 

La, not 

Kor, breeches tie 

Watar, quick 

Chi, thou 

Saman, gran 

Bad, bad 

Ekada, many 

1 nikka 

6 tlbun 

8 koyar 

6 jolan 

3 f&orban 

7 jurp&an, 

4 dorban 

&c &c 


Ira, come 

Ap, take up 

Hala, kill 

Ida, eat 

Umax, put on 

Guilya, run 

Buz, rise 

Orchi, go 

Tali, put * 

Barre, catch 

Son, sit 

Unnu, mount 

Bi niwla, don't cry 

Hug, heat 


Nam chi yama bi 

Kedu turuksan betar 

Kaun indai ira 

Bazar to horchi sun hachara bi- 

Mal^Aai non yemagaja Ion masu. 

Kanaur chi nantar 

Gh&r mence ebatunna 
Umur tamkedu sal be 
lndasa ta Cabul kedur mor be 
Orda man! koyar rape koobarpa 
Katai mint ntraini Halim Jan be 
Morini tani kimatni kedu be 
lndasa ta farrah morni kirainl kedu 

Baba tan) amdun be 
JCmdun ogai be ena ghorban sal beki 

Turuksan man! tan) nantar 
ChafAan bulja sa^Aal man! 
Bidanasai yam g?»ji kashuda janta 
Nazar tumi niran ki modr barish 

Agarchi fc&las ugai becht turuksan 


What is your name ? 

How many brothers have you ? 

Come here, boy. 

Go to the bazar and bring me 

Why don't you wear a new cap ? 

Where are you going > 

Rise early. 

My hand pains me. 

How old are you ? 

How far is Cabul from this? 

I have two rupees left. 

Halim Jan is the name of my chiet 

What is the price of your horse ? 

What is the hire of a horse from 

this to Tarrah ? 
Is your father alive ? 
He is not alive, he died S years ag* 

Do you know my brother ? 
Your beard has turned grey. 
Why are you angry with me ? 
It looks as if it would rain to-day. 

If you are employed send your bro- 

1898.] Note on the New Zealand CaterpUler* 787 

Wdka aataal eftem into barina How are you taxed in your country ? 

Nikka odurton kedd mor orcfal nanta How far can you go a day ? 

Moroi yamal ke ki unusunna Saddle the hone that I may take a 


Odor beg* burja box ki warehi ena The day is far spent rite and let 

us go. 

Bida ira labda frAismat tortani enaka I came to wait on you, now give me 

roA-*s*t kttunf ki warchya glrtuna leave to go home. 

Dundadv man) kudal beyagaga Let there be no deceit between you 

^ and me. 

T/odol dundaniji awaza bila ka There was a report in the camp 

Mohammad Shah ukujanna that Muhammad Shah was dead. 

Eljiganin manl nchkan eon! kulapilai Yesternight a thief stole an ass of 

achichanna; daisunni katkair yat- mine bv cutting his tether; the 

trajanne nikka mehman bila ten! thief also stole an ass of a guest 

eljiganin kulaghai achichanna of mine. 

IV. — Note on the New Zealand Caterpillar. By G. Evans, Esq. 

Curator of the As. Soc. Museum. 

After a careful scrutiny of the New Zealand caterpillar entrusted to 
my charge at a former meeting and on which I was requested to report 
as to the precise, or most probable nature of the remarkable and appa- 
rently anomalous connection existing between the animal and the 
vegetable fibril projecting from its head (an extraordinary feature in 
the economy of this curious insect that has led to the fanciful belief 
that we have here an unequivocal instance before us of animal and 
vegetable life linked together in one continuous existence) I am led to 
the following conclusions. 

That the caterpillar, the subject of our speculations and present in* 
quiry, is the larva of a lepidopterous insect, that contrary to the general 
law of its own order, it neither fabricates a cocoon, nor constructs any 
kind of defence to protect itself from injury for the time it has to con- 
tinue in the aurelia or chrysalis state, but as some provision is doubt- 
feftt necessary for its future preservation, to enable it to fulfil its desti- 
ny as intended by nature, it resorts to another expedient equally 
efficacious and tending to the same wise and benificent ends, and this 
i* by artfully suspending itself by the head from some part of the tree 
oy plant on which it feeds, in which pendulous state it continues 
stationary and undergoes its natural metamorphosis. 

The manner by which it contrives to attach itself to the slender 
t«ndril, (or vegetable fungus as some have considered it,) and which is 
tady pure vegetable matter, and a continuous part of the same tree it 
derives its support from, appears to be simple and easy of explanation, 

788 Note on the New Zealand CaierpiUer. [Sift. 

and, if I am right in my solution of the mystery, it is effected in the 
following way. 

A twig or tendril of the tree, or more probably a climbing plant, on 
which it subsists in the larva state, having been selected for its pur- 
pose, the caterpillar smooths off the end with its sharp mandibles and 
thus forms a clean and even surface to proceed upon. It then splits the 
bark and vegetable fibres for a short distance up the stem, separates 
the divided portions and insinuates its head between the intervals so 
formed, leaving the divided ends to close over and by their compressing 
force to retain the head in a fixed position, when by the aid of a kind 
of gluten plentifully supplied from all parts of the body, and apparently 
possessing the properties of caoutchouc, the two diMimiUr bodies are 
firmly glued as it were into one ; in this vertical posture I conclude 
the transformations from one stage to another pass on, till the imago or 
winged form is assumed. Beyond the idea of mechanical support oa 
the one hand and self-preservation on the other inherent throughout 
all animated nature, it is difficult to assign to this curious appendage 
any other more suitable office, and what would seem to give some sup- 
port for this conclusion is my having detected what has every appear- 
ance of being the divided and radiating fibres of the stem, extending 
over the head of the caterpillar as before explained, but the specimens 
are in such a dried and unfit state for an investigation of this nature 
that I can only offer what I have here stated as a provisional exposition 
to be confirmed or invalidated by more competent persons, whose 
advantages may afford a fuller scope for their investigations : to sup- 
pose that animal and vegetable matter, each possessed as we know they 
are of different and distinct properties, (though both composed of the 
elements of common matter,) can ever become continuous and co-exis- 
tent is irrational and contrary to the common laws of nature, for the 
changes and operations that take place within themselves separately 
and individually, are too widely diversified ever to admit of such a rela- 
tion as the one here erroneously conceived. 
Sept. 3rd, 1888. 

AW*.— Edwards, in his Gleanings of Natural History, a work published abort 
70 years ago, mentions an insect that was brought from Dominica and of «aay 
more found at the same place, having a fungus shooting from the hand, haihegim 
no solution of the extraordinary phenomenon. 

1888.] P& Buddhistical Annals. 799 

V. — An examination of the Pdli Buddhistical Annals, No. 3. Bu 
the HoribU Gkorqb Tornour, Esq. Ceylon Civil Service. 

[Continued from page 701.] 

Concerning the Jour Buddha of this koppo. 

Extracts from the Atthakalhd called the MaduratthawUdsini on the 
Buddhawansoy which is the fourteenth booh in the Khudakanikdyo 
of the Suttapitako. 

The Buddhdwanso purports to be the narrative of the history of the 
last twenty-four Buddha who have appeared during the last twelve 
regenerations of the world ; and, as will be shown by the ensuing 
quotations, it was delivered by Sakta himself in the first year of his 
Buddhohood, for the purpose of convincing his royal kinsmen, that the 
mendicant life he was leading ought not to be regarded by them in the 
light of a degradation. 

In this instance also, for the reasons explained, I give the preference 
to the ABhakathd. The following are the names of the twenty-four 
Buddha exclusive of Sakta, and the age in which each appeared, of 
whom the text and the commentary treat. 

In the 12th happo from the present one, four Buddha" appeared, the 
last of whom was Dipankaro, the 1st of the twenty-four alluded to 

In the 11th ditto; 2nd, Kondanno. 

In the 10th ditto ; 3rd, Mangalo ; 4th, Sumano ; 5th Rbwato ; 
6th, Sobhito. 

In the 9th ditto ; 7th, Anomadassi ; 8th, Padumo; 9th, Narado. 

In the 8th ditto ; 1 0th, Padumuttaro. 

In the 7th ditto; 11th, Sumedo; 12th, Sujato. 

In the 6th ditto ; 13th, Piyadassi; 14th, Atthadassi; 15th, 

In the 5th ditto ; 16th, Sidattho. 

In the 4th ditto ; 17th, Txsso ; 18th, Phusso. 

In the 3rd ditto; 19th, Wifassi. 

In the last ditto ; 20th, Sikhi ; 21st, Wbssabhv. 

In the present ditto; 22nd, Kakosandho ; 23rd, Kon/gamano; 
24th, Kassapo ; Gotamo, Metteyyo, who is yet to appear. 

As however, this article is only designed to advert to events connect- 
ed with the present creation, I shall commence with the history of the 
Kakusandho, after giving a few of the introductory observations fur- 

790 PdU Buddhistical Annals. [Sept. 

nished by Buddhoghoso at the commencement of his commentary on 
the Buddhawanto. He thus expresses himself. 

" By whom was this (Buddhawanto) propounded ? Where, on whose or what 
account, and when was it delivered ? Whose discourse is it, and how has it bcea 
perpetuated ? 

"In the first instance, concisely explaining nil these points, I shall then enter 
upon a detailed commentary on the Buddhawanto. 

" By whom was this Buddhawanto propounded ? It was propounded by the supreste 
Buddho, who had acquired an infallible knowledge of all the dhanma, who wai 
gifted with the ten powers, who had achieved the four wetarajjami, was the raja 
of dhanma, the lord of dhanmd, the omniscient Tatha'gato. 

" Where did he propound it ? He propounded it at the great city Kapilawatthu st the 
great Negrddho wiharo, in the act of perambulating on the Ratanackankamo, which 
attracted the gaxe of dewa end of men by its pre-eminent and exquisite beauty. 

41 On whose account ? He propounded it for the benefit of twenty-two thousand 
kinsmen, and of innumerable kdiiyo of d&wo and men. 

" On what account 1 He propounded it that he might rescue them from the four 
Oghd (torrents of the passions). 

" Where did he propound it ? Bhagawa, during the first twenty years of his Bud- 
dhohood led a houseless life (of a pilgrim), sojourning at such places as he found 
most convenient to dwell in ; viz. out of regard for Bdrdnati he tarried the first 
year at the Itipatanan, an edlfioe (in that city) near which no living creature could 
be deprived of life,— establishing the supremacy of his faith, and administering to 
eighteen k6iiyo of brahmans the heavenly draught (nibdnan). The second year, he 
dwelt at the Wiluwano mahd wiharo in Rajagahan for the spiritual welfare of that 
city. The third and fourth years he continued at the same place. The fifth year, 
out of consideration for Whali he dwelt in the Kuidgdra hall in the hiahdwane 
wiharo near that city. The sixth at the Makulo mountain. The seventh at Tee*. 
ttnta Bhawano (one of the DcwaWka), The eighth year, for the welfare of the .Sen- 
tumdra* mountain near Bhuggo, he dwelt iu the wilderness of Bhitakala. The ninth 
year, at K6tambia. The tenth year, in the Paraleyyako wilderness. The eleventh 
year, in the brahman village Nald. The twelfth at Wbranja. The thirteenth at the 
Chali mountain. The fourteenth at the J^tawano Maha wiharo in Sdwatthipur*. 
The fifteenth at the great city KapUawatthu. The sixteenth at Alawi subduing Ah- 
wako (an evil spirit) ; and administering the heavenly dranght to eighty-four thou- 
sand living creatures. The seventeenth at Rajagahan. The eighteenth at the deli 
mountain. The nineteenth at the same place, and he resided the twentieth at Raja- 
gahan. From that period he exclusively dwelt either at the Jttawano maha wiharo 
for the spiritual welfare of Sdwatthipura, or at Pubbdrdmo for the welfare of SdkHa- 
pura, deriving his subsistencef by alms (from those cities) . 

* Suntumdro is synonimous with KapUo, in Singhalese Kimbulwatpura, the birth- 
place of Gotoho Buddho. 

t In those days, Buddhistical religious institutions possessed no endowments, and 
the priesthood entirely subsisted on alms. It is stated to be mentioned elsewhere, 
though the passage has not been shown to me vet, that the period of Sa'kta's sojourn 
at Sdwatthipura was nine, and at Sdketupura sixteen years. By residence however, 
at any place is not to be understood an uninterrupted residence of the whole year, 
The year is divided into the hemanto (snowy or cold), gtmhdno (hot) and watsant 
(rainy). During the two former the Buddhist priesthood were required to devote 
themselves exclusively to a life of pilgrimage, and in the last, to have a fixed abode 

1888. J Pdli Buddhistical Annals. 791 

" On Satth A (the divine teacher Sakta) becoming Buddho, he held hii first 
at the Itipotanan an edifice situated at Bdr&nasi at a place so secluded that no wild 
mimal was disturbed ; and having completed his tcuuio there, repaired to Unuotlm 
where he tarried three months. Having there converted the three Ja Hlunu who 
v/ere brothers, attended by his fraternity of a thousand bhikkhus, he proceeded to 
Jta/aeoAM, on the fall moon day of the month of Uaga*, ("January-February ;) and 
there sojourned two months. Five months had then elapsed, since his departure 
from Bdrdnasi. The htmanto was also over ; and it was also seven or eight days 
after the arrival of the emissaryf Uda'yi. That individual in the month of Pao«- 
jaao, (February-March,) thus thought ' the htmcmto is past, and the wstanto (first 
half of the hot season) is arrived ; and it is the time Tatbaoato promised to repair 
to Kap&ncattku.' Having thus reflected, he set forth the gratifications of a visit to 
his native dty In a poem of sixty verses (to Buddho) • 

" Thereupon SaTtha', on his hearing this appeal, disposed to gratify the wishes of 
his relatives, attended by ten thousand (bhikkhut) of various tribes, from Auga and 
Magadka, and by ten thousand from Kspilawattku, being altogether twenty thousand 
ttaetified wrakanta, set out from Rdjagahan. By only travelling daily at the rate of 
one ytjoMl, he reached the dty of Kapilawattku, which is distant from JtyTts-ase* 
sixty ytfjami, in two months : and in order that he might command the reverence of 
his relations, he performed a miracle of two opposite results. It was upon this 
occasion, that he propounded the Buddhawamto. 

" Whose discourse is it? It is the discourse of the Supreme Buddho, who is not 
to be compared with the priesthood, and the Pachchi Buddkd. 

" By whom has it been perpetuated ? It has been perpetuated by the generation, or 
unbroken succession, of the Third (elders of the priesthood). This is that succes- 
sion : Saeiputto thlro, Bhaddaji, Tissokosyaputto, Siooawo, Moggali- 
putto§, Sudatto, Dhammiko, Darako, Sonako, Rbwato. By these it was 
brought to the period when the third convocation was held. 

" If it be asked, how has it subsequently (to the third convocation) been perpe- 
tuated by their disciples ? Be it understood, that in the same manner, it has been 
brought down to the present day, by the transmission from preceptor to disciple. 

" By thus much explanation alone, it will be understood, by whom, where, for 
whose edification, on whose account, and when it was propounded ; whose discourse 
it was, and by whom it has been perpetuated. It now behoves unto the expounder 
of this commentary, to enter upon his general explanation (of his work). 

" This Atthawannand is the (ntdtfas*) repository of the history in part of a remote 
antiquity; in part of comparatively modern, and in part of contemporaneous 

charging themselves with certain stationary religious duties. Though the Buddhist 
priests have lost in Ceylon mnch of their mendicant character, from the age in which 
their temples became endowed with lands, the observance of wuto Is so far pre- 
served still, that every priest of any repute is in general invited by some wealthy 
individual, or by a community, to take up his residence at some selected place for 
the tMitrfao, where he is provided with an habitation and his subsistence, and is 
treated with great respect. 

* The text gives Rustamato (December- January), which Is considered to be a cle- 
rical error. 

t An emissary from Kapilawaithu sent by Suddhodano, the father of Buddho, 
to entreat of him to be respectably maintained by his family, instead of leading the 
fife of a religious mendicant. 

1 About 10 miles. 

§ Not Moggalifuttatibso by whom the third convocation was regulated. 

5 G 

792 Pdli Buddhistical AnhaU. [Sift. 

•vents. The illustration of these three portions of the history, la a manner to he 
readily comprehended, would be an important work. Those who attend thereto and 
acquire a knowledge thereof from the commencement would lay np a store of vamabU 
knowledge. 1 shall therefore enter upon the exposition of these nidamdmi, rendering 
(their imports) manifest. Therein (in the study of this exposition) dan notice 
should he taken of the division of the three mddndni. 

" The nature (of the three nUUndni) may he thus briefly explained : the history 
extending from the age in which the sacred assurance was vouchsafed to the JMo- 
satto* at the feet of Di'pankauo Buddhof, until by his death in tte charac- 
ter of Wessantabo, he was regenerated in the Ttuntms* demoZnco, is called the 
Durinid&n&n or the history of remote antiquity. The history extending from the 
translation by death from Tdwatinsa to the attainment of omniscience at the foot of 
the Bodhi, is called the awid6r4-*idd*6n or comparatively modern history. The 
contemporaneous history contains records such as this, ' at such a period Bhagawa' 
dwells at Sawattki, at the JStawauno wihnro, an edifice belonging 1 to Anatho, a 
dispenser of charity :' ' he dwells at R&jagakan at the Wihtwmo wiharo (the wihnro 
in a bamboo grove) at which the squirrels are regularly fed/ * he dwells at WitaU la 
the Jtwfrfeara hall in the great wilderness.' la this manner whatever interv enes 
from the attainment of omniscience at the foot of the B6dki tree, until bis deathbed 
(scene) in obtaining maka parinibbanan f whatever takes place in the interval, be it 
understood that wherever he may have tarried, is included under the f*nr*%4-sna\nds f 
resident or contemporaneous history. In these few words an explanation exds- 
tlvely of three niddndni, vis. dmrt, awidxrt and umtikS has been afforded." 

I now proceed to quote from the Atthakathd on the DwApuaMmd- 
dhawan$o or the genealogy of the twenty-second Buddha* 

" From theioppo in which the Syambku, Wbmabhu, attained parinibbdnmn during 
twenty-nine kappi, no luminaries^ like suns, the vanquishers of darkness, appeared. 
In this present Bhadda kappo% four Buddha have already appeared ; vis. Kakvs- 
▲ndho, Kona'gamo, Kassapo and our own Buddho (Go'tamo). The ftftoonnd 
iittteyyo will be born hereafter. As this kappo is destined to comprize the manifes- 
tation of five Buddhd, it has been designated a Buddha kappo by Bb aGawa'. 

" Of these, Kaxusandho having fulfilled his probationary destinies, and been 
regenerated in the Tutitapura (Dtw6l6k6), after death there, he was conceived in the 
womb of Wisakha the principal wife of Aggidatto, the Prohitt brahman, who was 
the instructor in the tenets and doctrines of his faith, of the raja Khb'mo in the 

" Whenever rajas uphold, reverence, make offerings and render homages to, the 
brahmans, the B4dhisaUa\\ are born in the brahman tribe ; and whenever the brah* 
mans uphold, reverence, make offerings and render homage to the rajas, then they 
are born in the raja tribe. 

" At this period the brahmans were receiving the services and homage of the rajas, 
And on that account the illustrious personage, who was the true Kaxusandho 
was manifested in a pure brahman tribe, endowed with prosperity and greatness, 
causing the hundred Chakkawaldni, of which the perishable universe is composed, 

• The name of Buddho prior to his attaining Buddhohood. literally " the great 
mortal." * 

f Vide Mahawanso, p. xxxn. 
J Supreme Buddha. 
$ From the root Bhaddi excellence. 
I Individuals destined to be supreme Buddha. 

1888.] PdU BuddhUtkal Annalt. 798 

to glorify Mm, and to quake (with joy) ; and, in the manner before described, mira- 
cles were performed. 

" At the termination of ten months, he issued from bis mother's womb, like a dame 
of fire from a golden furnace, and lived the life of a layman, maintaining domestic 
relations for four thousand years. He had three palaces called RucM, Surucki and 
Wadkand ; and an establishment of thirty thousand females, of whom the brahman 
R6chi*i was his principal consort. 

" flaring (already) been visited with the four prescribed warnings, at the birth of 
hie illustrious ton Uttaeo by the brahman Rochini, he took his final departure, in 
his state car drawn by six high bred horses, and entered into the priesthood : — In 
pursuance of whose example forty thousand persona also entered into the priest* 

" Attended by them, having for eight months undergone the probationary ordeals, 
on the full moon day of the month of Wkako, having partaken of the sweet rice 
boiled in milk for him by the daughter of the brahman Wa jauudo, in the brahman 
village 8*ckari*do; and having taken his noon rest in the Kkadira wilderness, in 
the afternoon, accepting from one Subhaddho, a corn-grower, eight handsful of 
grass, and approaching the Sirisa (the sirisa acacia) his sacred tree, which was 
exhaling a heavenly fragrance similar to that of the pitali before described, and 
spreading out a sward carpet thirty-four cubits in breadth, seating himself on that 
throne he achieved supreme Buddhohood. 

" Having chaunted forth the udanan (hymn of joy) and passed there seven times 
seven day a, satisfying himself that the forty thousand bhikkhus who had been ordained 
with himself were qualified to comprehend the tactapajftoeW (the four sublime truths 
of Buddhism), he repaired in a single day to Iripatancn, an edifice near which no 
Hving creature could be deprived of life, situated in the neighbourhood of MahfUlona- 
farw (Benares), and in the midst of those disciples he proclaimed the supremacy of 
his faith." 

After detailing some further particulars of the early acta of Kaku- 

sandho the commentary proceeds thus : 

" At that period our B6dhi$atio (Sakta) existed in the person of the (reigning) 
monarch named Khbmo ; and presented alms, dishes, robes and (other) established 
alms-offerings to the priesthood of whom the Buddho (Kakusandbo) was the 
chief; and provided sandal- wood and medical drugs, bestowing also sacerdotal gifts. 
Attending to his doctrinal discourses he became a convert (to Buddhism) and was 
ordained a priest in the fraternity of that Bhagawa. The divine teacher (Kaku- 
sakdho) predicted to him that he would hereafter, within this kappo, himself be- 
come a Buddho. 

** The native city of this enlightened K a ku sandho Bhagawa was KMmana- 
gcran : his father was the brahman Aggidatto and this mother the brahman 
Wisakha. His chief disciples were WiDHuao and Sanjino : his Upatthigdko 
(assistant disciple) was Buddhito ; his two chief priestesses were Saina and 
Champacha ; his sacred tree the Mahasirita ; his stature forty cubits, the effulgence 
of bis glory extended ten ydjarui around ; the term of bis existence was forty thousand 
years ; his consort (while he was a layman) was the brahman Rochini ; his son 
TJttaro, and he departed (on severing himself from lay connections), in his car drawn 
by horses of the ajanna breed." 

Then follows a metrical repetition of the foregoing particulars quot- 
ed from the Buddhatoanso itself, and other details connected with 
Kakusandho to the end of that chapter, which it is unnecessary to 
adduce in this place. 
5 q 2 

794 PdU SuddUiUeal Anal* [Sm. 

Th$ gmtatogg 0/ tht toexty-tkird BvdVtt*. 

44 Subsequent to Kaxusandho Bhagawi and to the. extinction of hit religion* 
when the term of human existence extended to thirty thousand yean, the divine sage 
Kona'gabiano, whose heart was always benevolently inclined to others, was mani- 

44 It might appear from this statement that the term of human existence was 
dually curtailed ; but such was not the case. Be it understood, that it had 
curtailed, and having been augmented was again reduced. For example in this snaps* 
the Bhagawi Kakusanaho was born, whose allotted term of existence was for* 
ty thousand years. That term of existence gradually decreasing urns reduced to a 
term of ten years ; and subsequently increasing again to an 4iaa*Aejp/«*, and from 
that point again diminishing, had arrived at the term of thirty thousand years. Be 
it understood, that it was at that conjuncture that the Bhagawi Ko'na'gamako 
was born. That personage having fulfilled hit probationary courses, and been 
regenerated in the Tutiiapura Dtwaloko, and having demised there, wns conceived in 
the womb of TJttara', a lovely and youthful brahmani, the consort of the bfahsmn 
Aknabatto of the city Sfthawatte ; and at the termination of tea months issied 
forth from the womb of his mother, in the SMauwtU pleasure garden. 

44 At the instant of his birth, throughout Jaatoiutypo, a golden shower (kmnakmtm 
tdn) descended ; and from that circumstance he acquired the appellation of Kana- 
ka 'gamano, which name of his, by process of change, became Ko'ma'oamako. 

44 He lived in the domestic relations of a layman for three thousand yean, and he 
had three palaces, T*sit&, Sahtasiia and Smtfvttho, and sixteen thousand women, of 
whom the brahman Ruchiganttha' was his principal consort. Having been visit- 
ed by the four prescribed warnings, on the birth of his son Sattaw a'ho by Ru- 
CHIGAMTTHa', mounting his superb state elephant, and taking his final departure 
(from wordly grandeur) he entered into priesthood ; and his thirty thousand follow- 
ers following his example, also entered into the sacerdotal order. 

44 Having for four months (singly) undergone the probationary ordeals, and having 
on the full moon day of the month otwuako, partaken of the rice sweetened by being 
boiled in milk, which was offered to him by the daughter of the brahman Aggiss/ko, 
and enjoyed his noonday rest on the Khadira forest, in the afternoon, accepting 
the eight bundles of grass which were presented to him by Tinduko, a cultivator,— 
approaching (unattended) from the southward his sacred tree, the udumbaro, (Ftc*t 
glomerata) — which was adorned with fruit as described in the Instance of the 
pundarika tree, — and spreading out a sward carpet twenty cubits in breadth, 
seated on that throne, he annihilated the power of death, by attaining the wisdom 
of the ten powers (Buddhohood) and he chaunted forth the Udanan. 

44 Passing there seven times seven days, and having by his inspiration seen the 
proficiency of the thirty thousand bhikkhus who were ordained at the same time as 
himself,— rising aloft into the air he descended at the IsipatanAn near the city 

44 Alighting in the midst of them, he proclaimed the supremacy of his faith ; and on 
that occasion he procured for a thousand kdtiyo of living beings the first stage of 
sanctification. Subsequently performing a miracle, productive of two conflicting 
results, at the foot of the great s&lo tree, at the gate of Sundaranagaran he admi- 
nistered dhammo, the draught of heaven, to twenty thousand; kdtiyo of living 
beings ; and procured for them the second stage of sanctification ; and on the occa- 
sion of this Bhagawi expounding the Abhidhanmopitako to his mother Uttara' 
and the dhoata of the hundred thousand Chdkkavnldni, who had assembled for that 
purpose, ten thousand kdtiyo of living beings attained the third stage of sancti- 
fication. M 

• The name of Benares at that time. 

1888.] Pdti Buddkittieal Annals. Tto 

Here again the above particulars are repeated, being quotation, 
from the text of the Buddhawanso. This quotation is also in verse, 
but is leas detailed, though substantially the same as the preceding. 
The commentary then proceeds, as in the instance of the Buddho Ka- 
kusandho, first to give in prose the remaining particulars connected 
with the Buddhohood of K6nagam ano, and then to quote the passages 
from the text of the Buddhawatuo as propounded by Sakya. I avail 
myself in this instance of a short quotation from the text of the Bud- 
dhawanso as the revelation it contains is both concise and comprehen- 

" I was at that period the monarch Pabbato, powerful by my allies and minis- 
ters, as well as by my numerous armies. Having waited upon Buddho, (K6na'ga- 
if ako) and attended to his supreme dhammo, and after obtaining the permission of 
that vanquisher and his priesthood, having presented them every offering wished 
lor, for refreshment, I presented also the shawls with rough surfaces, China silk*, 
shawls made of the sttk of silk-worms, blankets, and slippers embroidered with gold, 
to the divine sage and his disciples. The said Muni seated in the midst of his 
priesthood thus predicted of me. * Within this Bhaddakappo this individual wiU 
become Buddho/ " 

Here the commentator, Buddh agh6so, notes that he has omitted some 

portions of the revelations which were probably not strictly applicable 

to the subject under illustration, and resumes Sakta 's discourse as 

follows : 

" On hearing this prediction of his (Ko'na'gamano'*) I (Sa'k ya) exceedingly 
rejoiced, instantly resolved to fulfil, thereafter, the ten probationary courses. Seek. 
ing, therefore, the gift of omniscience, presenting alms to the chief of men (K6na'- 
bamaito) I 'entered into priesthood in the fraternity of that vanquisher, abdicating 
my empire/' 

After again omitting an interesting portion of the revelation, not 
connected with the subject under consideration, the commentary pro- 
ceeds as follows with the quotation from the text of the Buddhawanso. 

" Sobhito was his city— and S6bb6* the name of the ruling monarch : that Bud- 
dho's father's family dwelt in that city. The father of that Buddho, the divine sage 
Koxa'gamano was the brahman Yonn ad atto, and his mother Uttara'. His 
chief disciples were Bmdso and Uttauo ; and his assistant disciple Sotthijo ; his 
chief priestesses Samudda and Uttaba', and the sacred tree of that Bhagawa- 
was the ndumbaro. In his stature, the Buddho was thirty cubits, and he was 
invested with a golden glory like the flames issuing from a blacksmith's forge. The 
term of existence of the Buddho was thirty thousand years. During that period, he 
rescued great multitudes (from the misery of transmigration). Having established 
dhammo, as (firmly as) a chetiyo which is decorated with the embellishments of 
dhammo, and with garlands of the flowers of dhammo— he, together with his disciples, 
attained nibbdnan. His miraculous essence, as well as his disciples, and his pro* 
mnlgated dhammo, all vanished in as much as aU that is transitory is perishable." 
The genealogy of the twenty-fourth Buddho Kasbapo. 

" Subsequent to K6na'gamano, the Buddho Kassapo, the chief of bipeds 
the raja of dhammo and the author of light — having bestowed largely in alms, and 
having conferred charity extensively and consoled the destitute, relinquishing (the 

796 P6U Buddhiiiical Ann*I$. [Sift. 

worldly riches which were) the reward* of hie piety, and (escaping from hie 
tic ties) like onto a ball rushing from the restraints of his pen, achieved supreme Bud- 
dhohood ; and this chief of the universe, Kamafo, proclaiming bis faith, vouchsafed 
to twenty thousand k6tiyo of living creatures, the first stage of taactifleation." 

After a few explanatory remarks on the foregoing- passage, the com- 
mentator again quotes from the text, setting forth the pilgrimages and 
discourses of Kassapo, by means of which he acquired, as his prede- 
cessors had done, the three states of sanetifieation for the living crea- 
tures then in existence. The commentary then gives the following 

extract from the Buddhawanso. 

" I (Sa'kya) at that period, was one Jotipa'lo, excelling in the mantra, aad 
perfect master of the three toe'rfrf, which I used to rehearse by note. I had achiev- 
ed the knowledge of signs of the itihdso and -of divination. I could reveal what was 
in the earth below, and the heavens above, and was in the exercise of these powers, 
free from all corporeal ailments. Kassapo Bhngawi had then a certain, assis- 
tant disciple named Ghatika'ro who was treated with great honor, possessed a 
well regulated mind, and had subdued the dominion of sin, by the virtue of the third 
state of sanetifieation. The said Ghatika'ro conducted me to the vanquisher Has- 
sapo, and having listened to his dhammo, 1 entered into the order of priesthood in 
his fraternity. Pursuing (my sacred calling) with zealous devotion, and performing 
all my religious obligations without the slightest omission, I fulfilled the ordinances 
of the vanquisher ; and having thoroughly acquired a knowledge of the whole scope 
of the Buddhistical doctrines composing the nine amgani, as propounded by the via* 
quisher, I glorified that dispensation of the vanquisher. That Buddho also having 
witnessed my miraculous attainments thus predicted. This individual will become a 
Buddho in this Buddhakappo. On hearing this prediction, astonished and delight- 
ed, I at once formed the resolution to fulfil thenceforth the four probationary courses} 
and consequently I led the life of a pilgrim, renouncing all domestic affections, 
and in exclusive devotion to the attainment of my Buddhohood, I consigned myself 
to that arduous task." 

The commentary then affords the following particulars regarding the 
personal history of Kassapo. 

" The native city of that Buddho was called B&ranasi, and the reigning monarch 
was Kiki', and Kassapo' 8 family was resident there. His father was the brahmaa 
Brahmadatto, and his mother Dhanawati : his chief disciples were Tlsso and 
Bha'ua'ddwajo ; his assistant disciple Subbhamitto ; his chief female disciples 
were Amila' and Ubuwb'la', and the sacred tree of that Bhagawa was the m- 
orddho. In his stature he was twenty cubits, dazzling like the lightning in the 
skies, and refulgent as the full moon ; and the term of his existence was twenty 
thousand years. He who had existed the whole of that period, redeeming multi- 
tudes of living creatures (from the misery of eternal transmigration), rendering dkam- 
mo refreshing as a pool, and $Ua like unto fragrant ointment, investing (living crea- 
tures) with dhammo as it were their vestments ; sprinkling dhammo as it were the 
flowers of a garland, and placing dhammo before those individuals, who were about 
to attain the beatitude of nibb&nan as it were a mirror, he vouchsafed to say, behold 
the perfection (of my dispensation). And converting tila into a cloak and jhdiu* 
into a breastplate, he covered (mankind) with the armour of dhammo, and provided 
them with the most perfect panoply. Bestowing on them sate as a shield, and /ft* 
hinnfaan as a sceptre, he conferred dhammo on them as the sword that vanquishes 
all that is incompatible with sila, investing them with thmjja as an ornament, and 

1 688. J PdK BuddkUtical Annals. 797 

the four phaU as a tiara. He also bestowed on them the six mbhina* at a decoration 
such as flowers to be worn ; assigning the supreme dkammo to them as the white 
canopy of dominion which subdues the sins (of heresy) ; nod procuring for them 
the consolation (of redemption from transmigration) which resembles n full-blown 
flower, he and his disciples attained nibbdnan. As well this incomparable Bnddho 
who had overcome the dominion of sin, as his perfectly propounded dispensation, 
worthy of the invitation ' Come hither and examine it,' and his priesthood, illustrious 
and strictly observant of sacerdotal discipline, the whole perished. If it be asked, 
why ? * Because all transitory things are doomed to perish.' 

" The Bhagawa Kassapo expired in the K&$i country in the Sitawy&no garden 
in Sctawydnagaran. His corporeal relics did not separate (his bones remaining 
jointed titer the cremation). The whole of the population of Jambudipo assembled 
and constructed a ih&po one Ydjanan in height, each brick for its outer work was of 
gold, worth a hoti and set with jewels ; and they filled in the inner part with bricks 
each worth half a kiR ; its cement was composed of red lead, using the oil of the 
Ula seed, in the place of water. 

•• The said Bhagawi K ass apo, fulfilling the object of Ms mission for the wel- 
fare of mankind, was a sojourner (ehiefiy) in the city Migaddyo (a part of B&rdnari) 
in the kingdom of R&si rejoicing the universe. 

" The rest of the Gdthayo are well known in all their bearings. The account of the 
genealogy of the Buddho Kassapo is thus closed in the Attkakatha called the Ma- 
ihnraalthawilisaid, to the Buddhawamso. In this extent of detail ; the history of the 
genealogy of the twenty-four Buddha is comprehensively concluded. Now in due 
course the history of the genealogy of our Buddho presents itself (for relation). 
This is his history. 

" Our Bodbisatto (Buddho elect) existed through four Asankheyydni and one 
hundred thousand kappi. His advent has been recognized and predicted by the (last) 
twenty-four Buddha, commencing with Di'pankaro of whose fraternity he visa, 
a member. It has been thus announced by the revelation of those twenty-four Bud- 
dha ' there will be no other supreme Buddho subsequent to Kasbapo, than this 

" These are the particulars (of his history) . It has been thus explained by Buddho 
himself : ' the (abhinchjra) final sanction (for attaining Buddhohood) is only obtain- 
ed while in the collective possession of these eight attributes, vis. being of the hu- 
man nature ; possessing perfect manhood and a propitious destiny ; being gifted 
with the privilege to approach a Buddho ; being admitted into sacerdotal ordination ; 
being endowed with pious impulses ; being full of holy aspirations and zealously 
devoted to his destiny.' By him who had by the accumulated possession of these 
eight attributes, obtained the final sanction of Di'pankaro to attain Buddhohood— 
it has also been said * while I was acquiring by all manner of means the qualifica- 
tions for Buddhohood, having succeeded in my search, I came in sight of the first 
idnaptrami saactificatioa.' 

" He who had been thus blessed with a sight of the first of the (ten) <M*ap4ramitd 
which lead to Buddhohood, continuing to fulfil his prescribed duties, reached at 
length his moatar in the person Wessantara (his last existence before attaining 
Buddhohood). Whatever those duties might be, they have been described in speak- 
ing of the rewards of piety earned by the (other) Buddha elect, who had ensured 
their election. 

" (Bnddho has also said) ' Thus individuals of perfect manhood who have been 
selected to become Buddha perform their pilgrimage through a hundred k6tiyo of 
kappS, a long period : they are not subject to be born in the Awichi hell, nor in the 
UkanUra hells, nor do they become inhabitants of the NigghdmatanM hell, suffering 
from thirst and hunger— nor, tenants of the KHakanjanhd hell. Though they may be 

*0* P&U BuddkiHical Annals. [Seft. 

reproduced in Jhtggati (a minor hell) In which men are reproduced in the form of 
animals, they are not born there a diminutive creature (smaller than a snipe) • nor 
when produced among the human race, are they ever born blind, nor do they test 
their hearing or become dumb. These selected Buddha moreover are neither pro- 
duced in the form of women, of ordinary hermaphrodites, or of hermaphrodites who 
periodically alternate their sex. Exempt from all misfortunes they are pure in the* 
mode of subsistence— avoid heretics and are observant of pious conduct : though they 
may be born among the Smoaggd, they are never reproduced in the BrakmmlSko anw- 
nasatto (as the term of existence there would be too long) ; and they do not possess 
the qualification (of the arahat sanctifieation) which wouid involve their reproduction 
in the SnddMwdsa brdhmaUko (from whence they would never return to the human 
world). These righteous individuals, forsaking all worldly advantages, and released 
from the bonds of eternity, perform their pilgrimage for the welfare of the world, 
fulfilling their probationary courses/ 

44 Be who was thus proceeding in the prescribed course of his destiny, having at- 
tained these (eighteen) attributes, and having thus reached his penultimate evafeV in 
the person of Wessantauo (the raja of Jthttarmagaran one of the twenty-five great 
cities of Jambudipo) thus spoke. • This earth devoid of the power of discrimination 
and unconscious of its blessings and its curses, has been made to quake seven times 
by the merit of my charities.' 

" Having thus performed those great acts of charity which caused the earth to quake 
at the close of his prescribed term of existence, from hence be was translated, ky 
death, into the realms of TmHapura. While the Buddho elect was sojourning in 
Tusitapvra the haWtaian (tumult) that precedes the advent of every Bnddhe came 
to pass. 

"In each creation there are three such tumults— they are these : the JFepaM-aftlas*- 
foi, the Buddha-haldhzia* and the Chakkav>att\-haW**Um. It is a proclamation, that 
at the termination of one hundred thousand years, the kappo perishes. The dews 
called K4mawaehar4 r with loosened topknot, and dishevelled hair, and with bewail- 
ing countenances— wiping their tears with their hands— clad in red vestments, sad 
assuming the most revolting forms, wandering through the human world, thus pro- 
mulgate their warnings : ' Blessed ! at the termination of one hundred thousand 
years from this date, the kappo is to perish : this world will then be destroyed : 
the great ocean will be completely dried up. This great earth and strewn (smneru), the 
monarch of mountains, will be consumed by fire and utterly destroyed ; and the werkt 
will be annihilated as far as the brahmaitko : blessed I embue thyselves with benevo- 
lence: blessed! impress thyselves with compassion, universal love and strict justice; 
comfort thy father and mother, and reverence the elders of your tribes.' This to 
called the kappa-haldhalcm. 

" Again it is proclaimed that at the termination of one thousand years an omniscient 
Buddho will be born In the world. The Detafd who protect the world, wander 
through it, proclaiming, * blessed I Buddho will be manifested In the world a 
thousand years from this period.' This Is called the Buddh*-h*24halan. 

•* Lastly it Is proclaimed that, at the termination of a hundred years, a Chokawotti 
raja will be born. The DhooJa, who are the tutelars of the world, wander through 
it proclaiming ' blessed 1 at the termination of a hundred years a ChaUtmoatti raja 
will be born.' This is called the Chakkawatli-haldhalatL 

" Among these, when the proclamation of the Buddha-haWtalan Is heard, all the 
DtwatA of the ten thousand Chakkawalane assemble at one place, and having ascer- 
tained who the human being is who will become Buddho— repairing to him they 
invoke him. These invokers, however, only address their petition to him en ms 
manifesting the pubbanimitti (indications of approaching death in the J>tooaMk t ). 

183&] TdU BuddhUtkal AnnaU. 799 

11 At the conjuncture (In question), the aforesaid assemblage, consisting of the four 
peat kings (of the dewot) Sakko (In dea) Suoa'mo, S antusito and Wabawatti, 
together with the great brihmat in each Chakkaw&lan, assembled together in one 
Chakkawala* (of the ten thousand) ; and repairing to the Bnddho elect on whom 
the pubbamimUU had been manifested ; thus addressed him. ' Blessed ! by thee, 
the ten probationary courses have been fulfilled, not for the purpose of realising 
the beatitude of a $akko, a br&hma or other deity : the state of omniscience has 
been sought for by thee, for the purpose of redeeming the world, by attaining 
Buddhohood.' They then thus invoked him : ' MakAwiro ! thy time is arrived j 
be conceived in tirfwomb of thy mother. Rescuing ddwd and mankind (from the 
miseries of sin) vouchsafe (to them) the condition of immortality.' 

** Thereupon the great elect, who was thus entreated by the dhod, without giving 
any indication of hie having acceded to the prayer of the deW— reflected succes- 
sively on these five principal points ; vis. as to the time (of his advent) j the quarter 
of the world ; the country and the tribe in which he should appear ; and who his 
mother, and what the term of his existence should be. 

" On examining, in the first place, whether it is or is not the proper time (for the 
advent of a Buddho) if it be found, that the term of human existence is then a 
hundred thousand years and upwards, it is not a proper period ; because under so 
protracted an existence, the hnman race have no adequate perceptions of birth, 
decay or death. The tenets of the dispensation of (all) the Buddha are insepara* 
ble from the recognition of those three points, characteristic of the Buddhist faith* 
To those (Buddha) who may expiate on those points, viz. perishability, misery (of 
transmigration) and anattA— thoeo (who are gifted with this longevity) would reply ; 
* what is it they are talking about : it should neither be listened to nor believed/ 
The state of aanctification (abkuamayo) i*, under those circumstances, unattainable. 
While that condition (of longevity) prevails, religion itself is divested of its sancti. 
ryiag influence. Consequently that age is not a proper one (for an advent). Nor 
is the age in which the term of human existence is less than one hundred years a 
proper one ; because from vices being then predominent among mankind, the admo* 
nition that is imparted to them is not allowed time to produce a lasting affect— 
vanishing like the streak drawn on the surface of the water. That also is not a 
proper age (for the advent). The proper age is that in which the term of human 
existence Is less than one hundred thousand and more than one hundred. At the 
particular period now in question, the term of human existence was one hundred 
years ; and therefore it appeared to be the proper age in which the advent of the 
elect should take place. 

" Then he reflected as to the quarter of the world, contemplating the four quarters 
together with their satellites groups ; and as in three of them the Buddha do not 
manifest themselves, he saw that Jawtbudipo was the quarter in which he should be 
bora. And on reflecting as to the country in that great Jambudipo, which is in ex- 
tent ten thousand ydjano, in which Buddha are born, he saw that the MajjHma- 
Uta was the proper one, and he also distinctly foresaw, that there, ia MajjMmadh* 
Kapilawattha was the city which was destined to be the place of his birth. 

" Thereupon, on pondering on the tribe, he found that the Buddha are not born 
In the Weud or Swddd caste, but either in the Khaitiya or Brahmd caste, whichever 
aught at the time be predominent in the world ; and he said, ' now the Khaitiya 
Is the superior. I shall be born therein, and the raja Scddhodano will be my 
Cither. 9 And then on considering as to who his mother should be, he said * She 
who is destined to be the mother of a Buddho is chaste and sober, and has fulfilled 
her probationary career through a hundred thousand kappi, and preserved uninter- 
ruptedly, from her birth, the observance of the five tit&xi ; such appears to be the 
5 H 

800 PiU Buddhutical Annals. [Sept. 

princess Ma'ya' : she la destined to be my mother/ And on inquiring bow loaf 
she had yet to lire, he found that was only ten months and seven days. 

" Having thus meditated on the Ave principal points, he signified his acquiescence 
In the prayer of the diwatd in those words. * Blessed I the time haa arrived for my 
assuming Bnddhohood ;* adding ' do ye depart,' he sent away those diwatd ; as4 
attended by the diwatd of Tuwitapmra, he entered the Namdama grove in Tmiitapmrm , 

•• In all the Dhoaldka, there is, most certainly, a Nandana grove (in each) wherein 
diwatd hover about, thus invoking (such of the diwatd as are about to die) : * by 
meditating on the reward of thy former acts of piety, when translated from 
by death, may yc attain a happy destiny.' He (the Buddho elect) in tike 
surrounded by the diwatd who were calling his former acts of piety to his recollec- 
tion, while wandering there, expired ; and was conceived in the womb of the great 
Ma'ya', under the asterism of Uttrasalhd. At the instant of this great personage 
being conceived in the womb of his mother, the whole of the ten thousand Ckakk*. 
waldni simultaneously quaked, and thirty-two miraculous indications were manifest* 
ed. For the protection as well of the Buddho elect, who had been than conceives, 
as of his mother, four diwatd* with sword in hand, mounted guard. 

" Unto the mother of the elect carnal passion was extinguished : she became ex- 
alted by the gift vouchsafed to her. Enjoying the most perfect health, and fret 
from fainting fits, (usual in pregnancy) she was endowed with the power of seeing 
the elect in her womb, as it were a thread whieh is past through a transparent 

41 A womb in whieh a Buddho elect has reposed is as the sanctuary (in which the 
relic Is enshrined) in a chctiyo. No human being ean again occupy it, or use it. On 
that account the mother of a Buddho elect, dying on the seventh day after the birth 
of the elect, is regenerated in Tusitapura. Other women give birth to their offspring, 
some before the completion of ten months, and some after their completion , seated 
or lying down. With the mother of a Buddho elect, it is not so. She is delivered, 
after having cherished the elect in her womb for precisely ten months. Sack is the 
peculiarity of the mother of a Buddho elect. 

" The great princess Ma'ya' having cherished the elect ten months in her womb* 
in her pregnant state, longing to repair to the city of her own family, thus applied to 
the rija Suddhodano' (her husband) ' Lord ! I long to repair to the city of JD^vo- 
dahd.' The raja signifying his consent by saying ' sadhu,' and ordering the rood to 
be smoothened from Kapilapnra to Dtwadahanaoardn, and to be decorated with 
arches of plantain trees and areca flowers, and with foot cloths, &c. ; aad pi»«*^ 
the queen in a newly gilt palanquin, with great splendour and prestige, dispatch- 
ed her. 

" Between those two cities there is a hall of recreation situated in the Sttm wil- 
derness, resorted to by the inhabitants of both cities. At this time, the whole of 
the forest trees, from the stem to the top of the branches, were covered with blos- 
som. On beholding this blooming forest, resembling the Nandana grove of the 
diwatd, ringing with the melody of the sweet-toned Kdkiia, which enchant the 
senses, from amidst the branches aad clustering fruit of the forest, like unto the 
chants of the celestial songstresses, the queen became desirous of besportins; in that 
wilderness. The officers of state having reported (this wish) to the raja, (by his 
command) escorting the queen, they entered the wilderness. She, repairing to the 
foot of the $al tree, at which sports are usually held, was seised with the desire to 
lay hold of a branch of that tree, which was straight, smooth, round, aad garnished 
with blossom, fruit and young sprouts. That branch, as if powerless, yet gifted 
with compassion, bendiug down of its own accord, placed itself near the palm of her 
hand. She then laid hold of that branch with her beauteous hand, which was re- 

1838.] Pdli Buddhistical Annals. 801 

spieadent with her red well rounded nails, on fingers rosy and round like flower pods, 
her arms at the same time glittering with newly burnished arm -ring*. Thus 
holding that branch, and pausing awhile, she shone forth, casting a halo ronnd her 
like that emitted by white fleecy clouds passing over the disk of the moon. She re* 
sembled the glimmering lightning, she looked the queen of the celestial Nando**. 
Immediately her travails came on ; and the multitude having drawn a curtain round 
her, retired. While still holding the branch, parturition took place. 

" At that instant the four great Brdkmbm presented themselves bringing with 
then a golden net work. Receiving the elect in that net, and presenting him to 
the another, they said to her, ' princess 1 rejoice, unto thee a son is born.' 

" Other mortals on their issuing from their mothers' womb, come forth involved 
in defilement. Not so, a Buddho elect. A Buddho elect, with extended arms and 
legs, and erect in posture, comes forth from his mother's womb, undeflled by the 
impurities of the womb, clean and unaoiled, refulgent as a gem deposited in a Kasmvr 
ahawL Though such be (the purity of his birth) equally for the accommodation of 
the Buddho elect, and of his mother, two streams descending from the skies oa 
the body of each, refreshed them exquisitely. 

" Thereupon the four great kings (of the DhoaUkd) receiving him out of the golden 
net from the hands of the attendant brahmano, placed him in an ajinappaweni (anti- 
lope's hide) fitted for state purposes, and delightful to the feel ; from their hands, 
men received him in a duk&la-chumba-taki*. Extricating himself from the hands of 
the men, and placing himself on the earth, he looked towards the east. The many 
thousand ChahkawaUni appeared to him as but a court-yard. Then the dhod and 
men of those realms, making offering of garlands of fragrant flowers, &c made this 
exclamation : ' O * great man : the equal to thee exists not here ; where will a supe- 
rior be found.* Having in the same manner looked at the ten points of the compass t 
without finding his equal ; facing the north, he advanced seven paces. He, who 
thus advanced, trod on the earth— not on air ; was unclad— not clad ; was an infant— 
not a person of sixteen years of age (an adult) ; and yet to the multitude he appeared 
to advance on air — superbly clad and to be full sixteen years of age. 

•* Thereupon stopping at the seventh step, and proclaiming this important an- 
nouncement, he shouted forth with the voice of a lion : * I am the most exalted in 
the world : I am the most excellent in the world : I am the supreme in the world : 
this is my last existence : henceforth there is no regeneration for me.' '• 

After mentioning certain circumstances connected with the former 
birth of Buddho, and specifying that on the same day with himself, 
there also came into existence— the princess Yas6daba (his wife) ; 
Chhanno and Kaluda'yi, his ministers ; his charger Kanthako ; his 
sacred tree, the b6dhi; and the four mines of wealth ; — the A^hakatfti 
proceeds : 

44 The inhabitants of both cities {Dhaadaho and KapilawattAu) taking charge of 
this great personage conveyed him to Kapilawatthu. 

" At that period, a certain tdpato, named Kal adb*walo, who was a confidant of 
the maha raja Suddhodano, and who had acquired the eight tarndpatli, having 
taken his meal, — for the purpose of enjoying his noon-day rest, — repaired to the 
Tawaiinsd realms. He there found the host of diwata, in the Tawatinsd realms, 
revelling in joy, and in the exuberance of their felicity, waving cloths over their heads 
and asked, * Why is it that ye thus rejoice/ in the fulness of heart's delight ? Tell me 
the cause (hereof ?' The dhoatd thus replied, ' Blessed ! unto the raja a son is born, 
who seated at the foot of the bo tree, having become Buddho, will establish the 

5 h 2 

802 PdU iBuddiisHcal Annals. £ Smrt. 

supremacy of dkamme : and we shall be blessed with the sight of the many attributes 
of his Bnddhohood, and with the hearing of his dkammo. It ts from this caste that 
we rejoice* 

" Thereupon the said dboata, the ttpiuo, on hearing this announcement of theirs, 
descending from the supreme Dewahiko, enchanting with its golden glitter; and 
entering the palace of the monarch Suddh6dano, seated himself on the pre-eminent 
throne erected therein. He then thus addressed the raja who had accorded to ha 
a gracious reception. ' Raja ! to thee a son is born : him I will sec.' The raja 
caused the infant, richly dad, to be brought, in order that he (the infant) might do 
homage to the t&paso, Dbtxdo. The feet of the great elect, at that instant, perform- 
ing an evolution, planted themselves on the j&td (topknot of Diwala) which glit- 
tered, from its hoariness, like unto the fleecy white cloud impregnated with rata* 
There being no one greater to whom reverence is due than to a Buddho elect, who 
had attained the last stage of existence, — instantly rising from the throne on whkh 
he was seated (Dlwaio), bowed down with his clasped hands raised over hit head, U 
the Buddho elect ; and the raja also, on witnessing this miraculous result, likewiss 
bowed down to his own son. 

" The tdpaio having perceived the perfection of the immortal attributes of the 
elect, was meditating whether he would or would not become the supreme Buddho ; 
and while thus meditating, he ascertained by his power of perception into fatuity, 
he would certainly become so ; and smiling said, * This is the wonderful mortal/ 
He again thus meditated :' am I, or am I not destined to behold his achievement of 
Bnddhohood ?' and said, ' No I am not destined : dying in the interval, though a 
thousand Buddhd be henceforth manifested, it will not be vouchsafed to sac to par- 
ticipate in such a blessing : I shall be regenerated in realms Inhabited by incorporeal 
spirits : never shall I behold the wonderful mortal : a mighty calamity is impending 
over me.' Having thus divined, he wept. 

" The bystanders remarking, ' Our oyyo (revered teacher) having thin moment 
smiled, has now commenced to weep,' inquired, ' Is there any misfortune impend- 
ing over the infant of our ruler ?' The tipato replied, * Unto him there is no im- 
pending calamity : beyond all doubt he is destined to become Buddho. 9 ' Why dost 
thou then weep ?' ' I am not destined to see so wonderful a mortal as this, oa his 
attaining Bnddhohood : most assuredly unto me this is an awful calamity. I weep 
in the bitterness of my own disappointment.' 

" Thereafter on the fifth day after the birth of the elect, having bathed his heal 
and nursed him, * let us (said the officers of the court) decide on his name.' Per* 
fuming the palace with the four regal incenses, decorating it with the four prescribed 
descriptions of flowers, and causing rice to be dressed in pure milk; and Am 
assembling eight hundred* brahmans who had achieved the knowledge of three 
«&*,— seating them— feasting them on the milk -rice, and paying them due honor— 
they required of them to examine the indications (about the person of the elect), 
saying * what is he to become ?' Among them there were eight named R4mm 9 flee whs 
were the interpreters of signs. Of these, seven raising two fingers up, declared, 
* He who is endowed with these signs, if he lead the life of a layman, is destined ts be 
a Chakkawaiti raja ; and if he enter into the sacerdotal order, a Buddho.' The young- 
est among these, a brahman whose patronimic was Kondanno, seeing by the si- 
Preme attributes which attached to the signs of the Buddho elect, that he was not 
destined for a lay life ;— raising up one finger only declared : * Most assuredly 
exempted as he is from the dominion of sin, he is destined to be Buddho. 9 Then 
those who were conferrers of a name, as he was destined to be the (sabbcloka-tid&i- 
karanatti) « establisher (of the faith) throughout the world/ gave him the ntmt 
of ' Siddha'tto' (the establisher). 

• From other passages it would appear that this numeral was log. 

1838.] Pali Buddhutical AnnaU. 809 

" Thereupon the brahmaus, returning to their homes and assembling their sons, 
thus addressed them. ' We are advanced in years *. it is doubtful whether we shall, 
or shall not, witness the attainment of the state of Buddhohood of the son of raaba 
raja Suddho'dano. Do ye, however, when he attains the state of omniscience, 
having previously entered the sacerdotal order, also become members of his frater- 
nity.' Thereafter seven of thein, in due course of nature, were disposed of accord- 
ing to their deserts (by death). The youth Kondanno alone (survived) free from 
all maladies. 

" On hearing however, the aforesaid prediction, the said raja thus interrogated 
them : * By what manifestation is it, that ye will be able to ascertain when my son 
will become a minister of religion ?' * On his beholding the four predictive signs,' 
(pnbbamimiildMi.) * What ! what are they ?• (asked the king impatiently). ' The 
decaying,' ' the diseased,' ' the dead' and ' the ordained person.' 

" Among the eighty thousand allied tribes who assembled on the day (of conferring 
the name) each undertook to devote a son (to the prince) saying : * Whether he be- 
comes a Buddho or a king, we will each assign him a youth. Should he become a 
Buddho, attended by a retinue of royal disciples, he will perform his pilgrimage ; 
and should he become a monarch, still surrounded by a suite of princes, he will 
fulfil his destiny.' 

" Thereafter the raja assigned to this great personage wet nurses of surpassing 
personal beauty, and free from all bodily infirmity ; and the great elect grew up in 
the midst of sumptuous splendour, attended by a great suite ; (but secluded from all 
other worldly intercourse in order that he might not meet the aforesaid predictive 

41 Subsequently, on a certain occasion, the rija had to celebrate the sowing festi- 
val. On that day, the raja departed for this sowing festival, clad in splendour and 
attended by a magnificent cortege. He took into his own hand the golden plough 
of the illustrious festival. The officers of state and others used silver and other do- 
eeriptions of ploughs. On such a day, a thousand ploughs are prepared. The wet 
nurses attendant on the Buddho elect (who formed with their charge a part of this 
eoite), saying among themselves ' let us also witness the magnificence of our sove- 
reign' — came out from within the curtain that screened them. The elect then looking 
in all directions, and not perceiving any one, quickly rising and seating himself 
upright in his canopy, indulged in the 4n6p&nasati meditation ; and acquired the 
patmmqjjhttan. The wet-nurses delayed a short while and partook of food and 
beverage, and the shadows east by the other trees past off in another direction : 
bat the shadow of the tree (under which the elect was) remained stedfast in a cir- 
cular form. His wet-nurses, exclaiming : * is not our lord's son quite alone ?' rushed 
In abruptly ; and on raising the curtain, and beholding the miracle of witnessing 
Mm seated in his royal canopy, they reported the circumstance to the rija. The 
king, quickly approaching, bowed down to him, saying, ' Beloved I this is my second 
act of reverence to thee.' 

"Thereafter, in due course, this great personage, acquired the age of sixteen, 
and the raja built for him three palaces adapted for the three seasons. The Jtdnuad, 
Svrammd and Subhd y one of nine, another of sevea, and the other of five stories. 
The edifices nevertheless were of the same height, but the stories were constructed 
on different plans. 

" The raja then thus thought, ' my son Is come of age ; raising him to the sove- 
reignty, let me behold his regal prosperity,' and dispatched leaves (dispatches) to 
the $&kya princes, announcing * my son is of age : I am causing him to be installed 
in the sovereignty, Let them all send, from their own homes, their grown-up 
daughters to this house,' Those princes on hearing that message, replied ' Although 

£04 PdU Buddhutical AnnaU. [Sept. 

the prince is in every respect endowed with personal beauty, he U untaught in a. single 
martial accomplishment, and it incapable of controling women : we cannot there* 
fore give our daughters.* The raja on having heard the reproach, repairing to the 
gon y communicated the same to him. The Buddho elect replied, ' What accom- 
plishment is it requisite for me to exhibit ?' « It is requisite, beloved, that yon 
string the bow, requiring a thousand persons to bind.' ' Well then have it 
brought.' The raja causing it to be brought, presented it to him. It was a bow which 
required a thousand persons to string and unstring it. This great personage, receiv- 
ing that bow, while yet seated on his canopy, twisted the bow-string round his great 
toe, and drnwing it with his toe, strung the bow ; and talcing the bow in his left 
hand and srawing the string with his right, let it (the cord) fly. The whole town 
started, and to tbe inquiry, ' what noise is this ?' the answer was • the clouds are 
rolling with thunder ;' some others observed, ' ye know nothing about it, it is net 
.the roiling of thunder : it is the ringing of the bow which requires the strength of a 
thousand persons which the great archer, the prince endowed with halo around his 
person, has rung.' The 84kya princes on hearing of this, from that circumstance 
alone, commencing to rejoice, were highly gratified. 
" The great mortal then inquired, ' what more should be done.' They replied, 

• It is requisite that an iron target eight inches thick, should be pierced with an 
arrow. Having pierced it, he said, ' what else.' ' It is requisite, that a plant of 
the atasd tree, four inches thick, should be pierced.' * Having transfixed that 
what else should be done ?' ' Then carts filled with sand and with straw. 9 The great 
elect then transpiercing the straw cart drove the arrow one msabhan deep into the 
water, and eight usab&tti into the earth. They then said, it will be requisite to 
pierce a horse hair, guided by the mark afforded by the suspended fruit of the aw- 
pngfao (which is attached to the hair). Replying ' hang it up at the distance of oae 
ytffaaaa' be shot his arrow in a direction whieh was as dark, under the obscurity 
of dense clouds, as if it were night ; and pierced the horse hair, which at the distance 
of one y6ja*a* was indicated only by the toatfaedao which was suspended from it, 
and it entered the earth. If fully related, these were not all that the great mortal 
exhibited on that day to the world, in proof of his accomplishments in martial needs 
Thereupon the Sdky* tribes sent their daughters superbly decorated. There wets 
forty thousand dancing and singing girls. The princess (who was afterwards) the 
mother of Ra'hulo, became the head queen. 

" The great mortal, like unto a celestial prince, surrounded by his heavenly host ef 
damsels, and attended by his female band of musicians, dwelt in his three palaces 
adapted to the three seasons, enjoying his great prosperity. Thereafter, on a car* 
tain day, wishing to inspect his grounds in his pleasure garden, he ordered his cha- 
rioteer to prepare his state conveyance. He replying ' sddku,' and fully deeoratiag 
the carriage, and harnessing to it four white horses, swift as the wind and the swal- 
low, and of the rtndha breed, reported it to the Buddho elect ; who entering the cha- 
riot, which was like unto a heavenly mansion, proceeded in the direction of the plea- 
sure garden. 

** The ddwatd, saying to themselves, * the time is at hand for prince Siddhatto 
to attain omniscience, let us present to him the predictive signs, ' exhibited to aim 
a certain dtwatd transformed into the character of a decrepid object, wasted in ap- 
pearance, with decayed teeth, grey hairs, and bent posture, tremulously leaning en 
his staff. Him the Buddho elect and charioteer alone saw. The Buddho elect thca 
thus inquired : ' Charioteer I who is this person ? His hair also is not like that 
of others,' and having also made the other inquiries, as recorded in due order is 
the Makdpadjna tuttan, and listened to his answers, he observed (to Uie charioteer), 

* My friend, let this be received as a type of the degradation of this existence, as it 

1888.] Pdtt Buddhutical Annals. 809 

is a proof that wheresoever an individual may bo born, be is subject to decay.* 
Deeply afflicted in mind, giving up his excursion, he re-ascended bis palace. The 
raja inquired t * why has my son returned ?' ' Lord 1 because be saw a person ia a 
decrepid state.' The indulgent monarch then ordered guards to be stationed at the 
distance of half a jt#**o*> 

" Again on a subsequent day, the Buddho elect having visited the pleasure garden 
and having beheld a diseased person, represented by the dhoatd aforesaid ; and hav- 
ing made inquiries in the manner already explained, afflicted la mind, he then also 
tare up his excursion, and reascended the palace. The raja, on bearing this, sent 
a band of musicians (to amuse him) saying * they will divert his mind from his de- 
sire, to enter into priesthood;' and giving up the former guard he established 
others all round, at the distance of three gdvmtdni. In the same manner having 
beheld a corpse, on a subsequent occasion, the raja established guards at the dis- 
tance of four g&wut&ni. 

"And again on a certain day, the Buddho elect, while on an excursion to the 
pleasure garden, noticed a well clad, and completely enveloped form, exhibited by 
the same ddwatd, aad said, ' My friend, charioteer, what is the name of this person ?' 
The charioteer, from that period not being a boddkotpddo (an age in which the Bud- 
dhistical creed prevails), was incapable of explaining either the nature of the sacer- 
dotal state, or the merits appertaining to that sacerdotal state, excepting by the ml- 
raculous agency of the dhoatd ; replying therefore by their inspiration, he said, 
* that the person is a priest,' and explained the merits of the priestly state. 

" The Buddho elect* impelled by his desire to become a priest, repaired on that day 
to the pleasure garden. Those Buddha elect, who are manifested in ages when the 
term of human existence is protracted, beheld these predictive signs at intervals of 
one hundred years each, but our Buddho elect, having been manifested in a short- . 
lived age, visited the pleasure garden at intervals of four months. The IHghabhdiw' 
ka fraternity, however, assert that he witnessed all the four predictive signs on tho 
same day. 

" There, having enjoyed the sports of the pleasure garden, during the day, and 
having bathed In the reservoir appropriate to occasions of festivity, at the setting of 
the sun, he seated himself on the rock of festivity, in order that he might redecorate 
himself (after his bath). The dhod Wisbakamm o, ordered by Sakko, the king 
of eVmtf, who knew his inmost wishes, repairing thither in the character of a barber 
decorated him with the vestments of the oVud. 

" While some from among his female bands were playing airs on musical instru- 
ments, and the beauties of the Stkya tribes were yet hymning forth the canticles of 
triumph and gratulations, peculiar to the brahminical observances then prevalent, unto 
the Buddho elect, who was thus adorned with all his insignia of celestial majesty, 
mounting his chariot, he departed. At that instant, (Yaso'daka') the mother of 
Ba'hulo had given birth to a son j and the maha raja Suddh6dano, on hearing 
this news, desirous of gladdening his son, sent him a message (to announce the 
event J. The Buddho elect, on receiving this announcement exclaimed, * Rarulo 
being born creates (another) tie (in domestic affections).' The raja Inquired (of 
his messenger,) * what did my son say ;' and learning what his exclamation was ; 
said, 'let my grandson be henceforth called prince Ra'hulo.' 

" The Buddho elect mounting his superb chariot, re-entered the town, attended 
by his retinue In great pomp and magnificence. At that moment, a virgin of royal 
extraction named Kisa'gotaiii, who was in the bloom of personal beauty, aad 
endowed with graceful fascinations, was standing in the upper story of his superb 
palace, and beheld the personal magnificence of the Buddho elect, who was in the act 
of entering the mansion : and under the impulse of the fervour of her admiration, 
she chanted forth this hymn of adulation* 

806 PdU Buddhittical Annab. [Sm. 

* NibbutSd t4 m&M, nibbui&nt t6 ptfd 
Nibbut&nt $6n4H t-afsoyna iditogaii.' 
" ' Whosoever'* destiny dm been tueh as his, most assuredly his mother must he 
blessed ; most assuredly bis father most be blessed, and most assuredly his consort 
also mast be blessed.' 

" The Buddho elect listened to this hymn, and thus thought : 'the grutulstiou 
she has uttered is worthy of being heard by me. It is requisite that I v who 
am performing my pilgrimage in search of nibbfaa*, should this Tory day, abandon- 
ing my lay connections, and departing (hence) and entering into the priesthood, pro- 
secute my pursuit of mood nan ; and adding ' let this be a gift to serve as a preceptor 
(of piety) to her ; he detached from his neck a peart necklace worth a lakh, and 
sent it to Kisagotami. She, in excess of her exultation, exclaimed, ' prince Sid- 
dratto, captivated by me, sends me a present.' 

- " The Buddho elect, with the utmost pomp, ascended the superb and enchanting 
palace, and laid himself down on his state bed. Thereupon women in the bloom of 
youth, resembling the celestial beauties of the Tfaoalinta heavens, with visages re* 
splendent as the silvery full moon, with lips in color like the bimbotkala* fruit, with 
beauteous teeth, white, pure, even, smooth and without interstice, with jet black 
eyes, and jet clustering locks, graceful in their movements like the voluptuous swan, 
with arched dark eyebrows, and breasts fully developed, globular, equal in size and 
exquisitely placed, covered only with the mtkhaH (the medallion of the zone) which 
was set with* gems in newly burnished gold and silver, with ••••plump, and circular 
as a wheel, and with thighs round and smooth as an elephant trunk, excelling in dance 
and song, taking with them musical instruments of melodious tones, and crowding 
around the great mortal, with the intent of diverting him from Ms purpose, by their 
voluptuous fascination, began to sing and to dance. The Buddho elect, however, 
being entirely exempt from the influence of carnal passions, took no delight in the 
dance and song ; and in n short interval fell asleep. They seeing this (indifference), 
and saying if the individual for whom we have commenced our song and dance is gone 
to sleep, why should we fatigue ourselves ?• and dropping each the instrument she 
had taken, on the spot on which she was standing, they all laid themselves down* 
The lamps of scented oil continued burning. 

41 The Buddho elect, on awaking, still seated eross-legged on the bed on which he 
had been sleeping, surveyed these sleeping females, who had laid aside their musi- 
cal instruments, some with their cheeks wet with the saliva that had flowed from 
them ; some gnashing their teeth ; some muttering ; some with round mouths (cas- 
ing), some denuded by their covering being displaced ; some in ungraceful postures, 
and some with dishevelled hair representing so many objects fit for a sepulchre. 

" The great mortal, on beholding this spectacle, became the more strongly eon* 
irmed in his abhorrence of sinful courses, frnto him, the splendid and charmlsf 
palace, which was like unto the mansion of the thousand-eyed deity (India), be- 
came (as it were) a disgusting object, filled with loathsome corpses, like unto u 
Amaka*%9&n<mf (a catacomb) ; and the three realms (of the universe) appeared to aim 
as if they were a single habitation involved in flames. Then resolving * most aster, 
edly the crisis is at hand ; my mind is fully made up to enter into priesthood ; it 
is proper thnt this very day my final separation should take place ; and rising frost 
his bed and approaching the door of his chamber he called out 'who is here?' 
Chhanko (who was born on the same day with Buddho) was sleeping at the 
door, making the threshold bis pillow, and replied ' prince, it is I, Cbbanmo.' 
* This very day am 1 resolved to effect my great final deliverance. Without utter- 
* A creeper, Tryonea gra*di*. 
f literally "raw cemetery" in which bodies were left unburnt or uninterred. 

183d.] Pdli Buddhistical Annatt. 807 

tog a word, bring me a twift tfctdfcnoa steed.' He, -replying ' t*dh* Lord I' and 
taking tbe trappings of the bone, repaired to the stable ; and seeing there the 
superb charger Kanthako, who was eapable of overcoming all his foes, standing In 
his delightful stall, under a canopy decorated with jessamine (lowers, and lighted 
up with lamps of fragrant oil, he said * It is proper that he should be capari- 
soned as a state charger, to be used to-day for the final deliverance of the prince ;' 
and he caparisoned Kanthako. The said charger In the act of being accoutred knew 
(what was to happen) ; and exalting in his master's approaching assumption of 
priesthood, neighed loudly, as if he had said * this caparisoning is unusually tight ; 
not like the saddling of other occasions, for an excursion to the pleasure garden : 
most assuredly, this very day the prince takes his great final departure.' That 
neigh resounded through KapUawatthu, The dhoata however suppressing the sound 
prevented its being heard by any one. 

" The Buddho elect, saying ' let me see my son once more,' and proceeding from 
his own to the chamber of the mother of Ra'hulo, gently opened the door. At 
that moment a silver lamp, lit with fragrant oil, was shedding its light oa the in- 
terior of the chamber ; and the mother of Ra'HULO was slumbering with her hand 
resting on the head of her infant who was reposing under a superb canopy, on a 
beading formed of one mmmanan of the common and the Arabian jessamine. The 
elect, his foot still resting on the threshold, and intently gasing— thus meditated. 
'If I remove the hand of the princess, to take up my child (and embrace him), 
she will be awakened ; and thus an impediment will be produced to my departure. 
Let me then, after 1 have attained Buddhohood, return and see my son.' Descend- 
ing from the upper apartment of the palace, and approaching his steed, he thus ad- 
dressed him : 4 0o thou, my cherished Kanthako, in one night translate me ; and, 
as the consequence of that translation, achieving Buddhohood, 1 shall translate this 
world together with those of the de'tod .' Then springing aloft, he seated himself on 
Kanthako. The said Kanthako, was eighteen cubits long from his neck— his height 
was in proportion— well formed, swift and in good condition, and in color like a 
bkeehed shell. 

" The Buddho elect, who had mounted this charger, having desired Chhanno to 
hang on by the tail, in the middle of the night approached the principal gate of the 
town. At that time, the guards, whom the raja had stationed to prevent the escape 
of the Buddho elect, were still watching, being in number one thousand to each door- 
way in the gate. The elect, however, had the power of one hundred thousand 
kotiyo of men, or the strength of a thousand kotiyo of elephants. There he thus 
resolved. • Should the gate not be opened, this very day, mounted on Kanthako, to- 
gether with Chhanno clinging to his tail, holding the steed fast between my thighs, 
and springing over the rampart eighteen cubits in height, let me quickly escape.' 
Chhanno and Kanthako concurred in that resolution. 

" The tutelar dhoata, however opened the gate. 

•* Instantly Ma/bo (death), the agent of sin, saying, * let me stop the great mortal, 
and rising aloft into the air, thus addressed him : * U oaeWro depart not : on the 
seventh day from hence, the heavenly Chakkaratanan will most certainly come to 
pass. Then thou shalt exercise sovereignty over the four great quarters (of the 
earth), together with their two thousand isles : blessed i wait.' The great mortal 
asked, * Who art thou ?' • I am Wassawatto.' ' I am aware that both empire 
and universal dominion are proffered to me : I am not however destined for royalty : 
depart Ma'ho ! approach not this. I shall become Buddho, making the ten thou- 
sand realms of the universe quake, in acknowledgment of there being no one greater 
than myself.' He thus spoke ; and Ma'ro vanished. 

" The great mortal in his twenty-ninth year, relinquishing the attractions of his 

5 i 

808 FiU BtidhiMtol AnnaU. ftef . 

imperial greatness, with the indifference that 1m woaM east spittle 

parted from hit mansion the scat of that regal splendour * aad is Quitting Use est*, 
on the full moon day of the month AuUM, daring the ascendancy of ffttaVarrinw laaar 
mansion, he was seised with a desire to gaae oa the city. At the instant of being 
seised with this wish, that portion of the ground on which (the city stood) spaa 
round, like the potter's wheel. By this means the Baddhoelcet (without taming 
rouad) surveyed Kapilawaltkm from tho spat oa welsh he stood, aad having anted 
the spot on which Ktmihako had stood, as the destined site of a dUftpe, he 
Kmnlhako'i head to the direction in which he ought to go* 

" While the elect was proceeding in his journey, with great pomp nod 
sixty lakhs of eVicaf d were preceding him, bearing torches. In the 
the right hand side of the pilgrim there were sixty lakhs of torches ; aad the same 
on the left. Other dewe/d doing homage with fragrant sowers and garlands van 
sandal-wood dust and chrnmbunh and flags and pennons, attended him in proeessroa, 
and kept up the symphony of heavenly song aad music 

" The elect who was making his progress ia pomp such as this, bavins; in the 
course of the night traversed three kingdoms, aad performed a march ef thirty 
yo/aaa, reached the bank of the Anomd river. The elect stopping oa the bank of the 
river thus inquired of Chhamno. What is the name ef this river? 'Lord! its 
name is A*om4,* Replying ' nor will there be any *^ft*wd (inferiority) in my 
ordination,' he pressed his heel to the horse, and gave him the signal to leap, lbs 
animal, springing aloft, alighted os the opposite bank of a river * eight unsnesis 

" The Buddhe elect descending from his steed oa a bank of send, which was Km 
unto a heap of pearls, thus addressed Chhanno; ' Chhanho, my friend, taking 
with thee my regal ornaments and my charger Kanthako, depart. I am going to enter 
into priesthood.' Chhanno replied, • Lord ! I will also be ordained.' « It will 
aot be permitted unto thee to enter the priesthood : depnrt.' Having, in thismaseer, 
three times refused his solicitation ; and made over the jewels and Kanthako to aha, 
the elect thus meditated : * These locks of mine are un suited to the sacerdotal 
state ;' nod, taking up his superb sharp* edged sword ia his right hand, and seiaisf 
his tresses together with the diadem on them, chopped them oft*. The hair wasthes 
only two inches long ; and it arranged itself (on his head) curling to the right hint ; 
and during the rest of his life, his hair remained of the same length. His beam 
also was proportiooate, nor had he occasion to shave any more. 

" The elect then taking up his locks with the tiara attached, threw them up into 
the air, saying * If I am to become Buddho let them remain poised in the air ; aad 
if not let them descend.' The tiara knot, rising into the air one #6jan6 in height 
remained poised there. Thereupon Sakko, the king of the *?eW, beholding It witt 
his supernatural eyes, aad receiving it into a receptacle in height one y6j&U>. trans- 
ferred it to the Tiwaiinsa realms, aad deposited it in a tkithfo (thence called) tLe 

44 The elect then thus meditated : ' these raiments, the fabric of £ost*, are costly, 
aad uasuited to my sacerdotal condition.' Thereupon Gatika'ro, the great brahmen 
who had formerly, la the time of the Buddho Kassapo, befriended him, out ef the 
friendship that had subsisted during the whole Buddhdntato, thns resolved : * My 
friend, on this very day, is about to sever himself final ly from lay connections: let 
me repair to him, taking with me the (indispensiblef portions of the) 

* This remark involves a pun :— a pun however ia by no means a matter of IevHy 
in Buddhistical literature. 
f These articles are indispensible, there are others' permissible. 

] Pitt Buddhisiical An**U. 009 

ec>lpu*«ats,^reepeetingwUeh Bddbho himself has (subsequently) uM, 
eve the eight requisites allowable to an orthodoi bkikk*. Three robes, a 
razor, sewing-needle, waist-band and bathing-cloth.' Bringing these eight 
twmwleite sacerdotal equipments, ho (by eVttdre) presented them. 

*• The froat mortal then assuming theeharaotsr of the Arwhtmi4 f by patting on the 
garb of the pre-eminent priesthood, eommaaded Chranvo to depart ; sayiag to him : 
' Ch« ajtwo, inform my wife and father of my happiness as a message sent by my- 
awlf.' Thereupon CiHiWO, baring bowed down to the great mortal, and walked* 
ind him, departed. The eharger Jtaafaahe, who had been listening to the conver* 
of the Baddho elect with Chsajtho, thas bewailed : ' Henceforth my master 
it he aeon again ;' and when ho had proceeded a certain distance, aad the 
(Baddho) was no longer risible, unable to eadare his grief, bursting her heart 
(HmdaytfhmMU) JCsaioeto expired ; and was reproduced in the form of a deW in 
the T<ho*ti*so hearens, where the Swrdrupt* (the Atari) hare no dominion. His 
regeneration (there) may be learned in the WimeimUkamUtsinJ, the A^kaka\hd on the 

44 Unto Chhanno, in the first instance, there was bat one engrossing object of 
£tief (the loos of his master, prince Siddhatto). The second cause of his grief was 
the death of Kmnthako ; deeply afflicted, bewailing and weeping, he departed- 

*• In the land in which the fiuddho eleetassamed hit sacerdotal character, there was 
A mango grove called Anupiyt, There, baring passed seven days, in the enjoyment of 
sacerdotal happiness, thereafter dazzling in his yellow raiment, like uuto the full 
disk of the son glowing under the biasing clouds of a glaring sun- set, and though 
alone, imposing in appearance as if attended by multitudes, and administering to 
and birds a measure of happiness as if heaven was presented to their sight ; 
like the solitary lion, and pacing like the tusked stately elephant; and 
treading as if to steady the earth, this lion of the human race, in a single day, per- 
forming a journey of thirty y6jan& and crossing the Oangi (Ganges), a river with 
high breaking waves and unobstructed course, entered the city called RfjagaMn, 
celebrated for the pre-eminent and superb palace resplendent with the rays of the 
gems with which it was embellished ; and having made his entry, without distinc- 
tion (of houses) he begged for alms. 

44 By the appearance of the Buddho elect, the whole city was thrown into commo- 
tion as if Dhanap&lo (a furious tusk elephant) had entered the town ;— as if the chief 
of the Anard had invaded the city of the dhed. While the great mortal was in 
the act of begging alms, the inhabitants of the capital confounded by the joy pro- 
duced by the charm of the appearance of that great being, became incapable of 
resisting the desire of gazing at the great elect. Among themselves, these people 
kept saying one to another. * Friend ! who is this 1 can it be the full moon descend- 
ed among us out of dread of Ra'hu, concealing the rays with which he is endowed? 
Such a one was never seen before. 1 Smiling at his suggestion, another said, * This 
is the god of love with his florial banner : disguised in person, he has come to revel 
among us ; having observed the great personal beauty of our monarch and of our 
fellow -citizens.' Laughing at him another said, * Friend ! art thou mad : the god 
of love has half of his body destroyed by the fire kindled by the jealousy of Isso' 
(Jswaaa), it is not he: it is the chief of the deW, the thousand-eyed deity (Indra) 
who has come here, imagining that it is the celestial city.' Another again playfully 
ridiculing him, said, * Friend 1 what nonseuse art thou talking. Where are his 
thousand eyes? where is his thunderbolt and where is his (elephant) er&wano? 
Assuredly he UBra'hma, who, having witnessed the indolence of the brahmaus, has 
come hither to teach the v>eda and their accompaniments.' Another ridiculing the 

• This proceeding is a mark of respect frequeatly mentioned, . 
5 i 2 

810 Ptli BuddhuHc*l Annal*. [Sfertr. 

whole of then, said, « Re is neither the moon, the god of love, nor the 

eyed deity, nor yet Brash a/. He is the wonderful personage, the supreme, and Ike 

teacher of the world.' 

" While the inhabitants of the town were thus discussing the nutter, the officers 
of state, repairing to the raja Bin bisa'ro said : ' Lord ! either a aVam, a eaw- 
dkabbo, or else a rtj* adew, or a yakkko, is wandering about our town, l u gging 
alms.' The raja on hearing this, still remaining in the upper apartment of law 
palace, but having obtained a sight of the great mortal, Impressed with fosHag* of 
wonder previously unknown, thus Instructed his officers: * My men, retire, and 
compose yourselves. Should he be an inhuman being (yaftfcae), on hie departing 
from the city, he will render himself invisible. Should he be a demsfd, he will 
depart through the air. Should he be a niga r&jm he will escape diving into the 
earth ; and should he be a human being, he will partake of whatever alma be may 

" The great mortal, who exercised the most perfect self-possession and control 
over his own senses (yet attracted the gase of the multitude by the splendour of bis 
personal appearance), did not permit himself to look at any object more distant from 
him than the length of a yoke-pole. Having collected as mueh food as he could eat, 
being the mixed scraps (which had been thrown Into his aims-dish by many), departed 
out of the gate by which he had entered the city ; and seating himself feeing the 
east, under the shadow cast by the Pan&awo mountain, although disgusted at the 
repast, repressing his disgust, he ate it*. 

" Immediately the persons sent by the raja returning, reported this dreumstaaeV 
On hearing this account from his messengers, the ruler of Magadha, the raja Bnr. 
B18ARO, who despised the pursuit of frivolous objects, and aimed at results as sted- 
fast as the mountains Mtru and Manddro, impelled by the desire to see the Buddho 
elect, which was produced by the account given of his pious bearing— departing from 
the town and repairing to the Pand&wo mountain, and there descending from Ins 
conveyance and approaching the Buddho elect, with his permission seated hinuelf 
(near him) on the ground, which (intercourse) was as refreshing as the affections of 
relations. Charmed with the deportment of the Buddho elect he offered to him the 
provision of every luxury. * Maha raja (replied the elect), to me there is no longer 
need either of the enjoyment of wealth, or the gratification of the passions : severed 
from the domestic and lay ties, my aspirations are directed to the attainment of su- 
preme omniscience.' The raja, after having, in various ways, renewed his entreaties 
finding that he would not gain his assent, said, ' Most assuredly thou wilt become 
Buddho : my dominion should be visited the first by thee in thy BuddhohoodY sad 
returned to his capital. 

" Thereafter the Bddhisatto, in due course, pursuing his alms pilgrimages, becauve 
acquainted with ALAaAKALAMOf and Uddakkaramo ; aad acquired from them the 
Sam&patti. Finding that the said Sam&patti was not the road that leads to Buddho- 
hood, relinquishing the same, he resolved to devote himself to the padhanm, and 
repaired to Uruwtid. Finding that a delightful place, sojourning there he devoted 
himself to the Mdhipadtoan. 

" Four persons, the sons of the brahmans who had been consulted (on the day that 
a name was selected for the B6dhisatto), as well as Kondakno (the youngest of 

* This must have occurred in the forenoon, as no substantial food can be taken by 
Buddhist priests after mid-day. 

t This interview is described in greater detail elsewhere, during which Bimbisa'- 
ao ascertained the elect to be the son of Suddh6dano, the ally and friend of his 
own father Bha'tito, the late raja of Magadh*. 

1838,] PaU BudJMstical Annali. 81 1 

the) eight brahmans, consulted) these fire, having entered into the sacerdotal order, 
im the coarse of their pilgrimage ia search of alms, through villages, towns and 
ksckgdoms, came to that place where the Bodhisatto was. For a period of six years 
these persons continued his personal attendants, sweeping bis cell and performing 
other menial offices, unto him who was devoted to the Mahdpaddnan ; and they con* 
•toatry indulged in this expectation. * Now he will become Buddho ! Now he will 
become Budd ho!' 

"The Bodhisatto resolving, ' Let me submit myself to the ultimate extremity of 
pen an ce ;* brought himself to subsist on a single grain of tiia (tctamum) or of rice, 
anmd even passed his day entirely without nourishment* The dftoatd however pre* 
•erred him by infusing (by their supernatural means) juices of food (gravy) into those 
pores of the skin through which the hairs of the body grow. Thereafter from his 
eon tinned starvation , he reduced himself to the state of a perfect skeleton ; and his 
person which had been of a golden hue turned black, and the thirty- two attributes of 
manhood (peculiar to Buddha and Chakkawatti raja) disappeared. 

" The B6dhisatto having been brought to this last extremity by adherence to his 
penance, deciding again, ' This is not the proper road to Buddhobood ;' and for the 
purpose of procuring full supplies of food, he made alms pilgrimages through towns 
«nd Tillages, and provided himself with provisions. 

" Thereupon his thirty-two special attributes of manhood were again restored, and 
his person regained its golden hue ; and thence his (aforesaid) confraternity, com- 
posed of the abovementioned five bhikkkus, saying to themselves : ' Although for 
a period of six years, he has consigned himself to penance, and has fasted to attain 
the state of omniscience, he is now making his pilgrimage through towns and vil- 
lages begging alms offerings in his desire to provide himself amply with food. (By 
«neh weakness) what can be effected ? He has certainly made a great effort : from 
it, what have we benefitted ?' and then forsaking the great mortal, they repaired to 
the Iripatanan in BArdaori. 

" At Urmoili in the town Send** at the house of the proprietor Kutimbiko of Se- 
sidm', there was a maid named Siqa'ta'. On the full moon day of the month We- 
stfJrAo, having partaken of a dish of rice prepared iu sweet milk by her, who presented 
to him with delight— taking up the golden dish (in which it was served) the B6dht- 
sojtto threw it from the bank of the Ntranjard river, up the stream ; and thereby 
awoke Ka'lo the nag* raja. The B6dhisatto having taken his noon-day rest in the 
delightful deep green forest otial trees, which is garnished with fragrant flowers, on 
the bank of the Nfranjora river, in the evening, he repaired to the foot of the Bodki 
tree by the path that had been decorated for him by the dtwatd. 

" D£wa£4, n&ga, yakihd and tiddhd made offerings to him of celestial fragrant flowers 
and odoriferous ointments. At that instant, a certain brahman grass-carrier named 
Sotthiyo, who was carrying some fmtha) grass,— in his way, presented himself 
before the great mortal ; and recognising who he was, bestowed eight bundles of 
grass on him. The Bodhisatto accepting that grass, and three times walking round 
the Attothb-bodhi, the monarch of trees and pride of the forest, which was as verdant 
ma ike Anjanagiri mountain ; and, intercepting the rays of the sun, was as refresh- 
ing as hie own benevolence, and which attracted flocks of melodious birds — and was 
embellished with branches which quivered under the gentle breeze as if dancing with 
joy — stationed himself in the north-eastern side of the tree ; and sprinkled that grass 
on the ground holding it by .the ends. Instantly that grass was transformed into a 
throne fourteen cubits in height— the blades appearing like ornamental lines drawn 
by a painter, and as soon as the B6dhJsatto seated himself on the grassy carpet, on 
the throne fourteen cubits broad, young leaves from the tree, resembling coral rest- 
ing on plates of gold, fell on him. 

Sit Pdli BuddhuHcal Annate \%vri. 

" On the Bddhisatto seating hiiaaelf thcre,M a'ro (death) ia the pcraMi ef Wm 
detoe, saying ' Prince 8iodhatto Is endeuvouriag to OTcrthrow my don riatu u 
htm t let me not yield to that desire ;' and explaining this resolution to his 
legions with the armiss of Ma'bo in his train, he set oat. The said army of Ma< 
extended twelve y6jam4 ia front and the same oa the right and on the left, and in Ike 
rear It extended to the contact of the Ckakkaw&Ut* : nnd nine ye/and up into the air. 
The sonnd of its uproar, as if bursting the earth, was heard from the distance of a 
thousand jro/ene. 

At the same time Sakko, the King of the eVrnd stationed himself near him, sonad- 
ing his Wijayuttara chank, which ehank (shell) is one hundred and twenty cubits 
long: PancJumkko, the Oandkabkm &Hoo t bringing with htm his ^toxiapdadu, lyre, 
three edtrafdat in length, stationed himself also there, playing and singing appropri- 
ate hymns of joy. The dhoa rtja Suta'mo, bringing with him his heavenly eMmnrd, 
in length three gawutdni and resembling the brillinney of the rays of the planet (the 
moon) which presides over the night, likewise stationed himself there gently fanning 
him. And the BrahmA Sakanpati, holding over the head of Bhaoawa' his white 
chkatta (parasol of dominion) three ycjand in width, as if it were a second disc of 
the sun, also stationed himself there. The king of the Ndpd Jfahdfcdle, presented 
himself attended by his eighty thousand choristers, singing hymns of joy. and bow* 
Ing down to the great mortal. The dhoatd in the ten thousand ChakkawaMmi attend- 
ed, presented offerings of fragrant garlands, frankincense and pulverized scent. 

"The dfrco, Ma'ro, then mounted his Girimikhah tusk elephant, which was oae 
hundred and fifty yojand high, like unto the Girmkaharo mountain, very superb to 
the sight, and capable of overcoming his enemies ; and raising up his many thousand 
arms, provided himself with weapons of every description, by not taking mp any two 
weapons of the same kind. His army also equipped with swords, axes, javelins, hows 
bent by great strength, arrows, Idkala, spikes, the broad spikes, the tSmara, dubs, 
(sharp-edged missile in the form of) rings, the kanaka, kappa**, hoppamm and 
(missile) wheels, and assuming the faces of the rttru (a description of deer), of lions, 
of the kapha (unicorn), of the tarabha, of bears, of the viyagghd (a description ef 
tiger), of monkies, serpents, cats, owls, buffaloes, theparadd, horses, elephants; 
and with terrific unnatural forms of men, demons and spirits, continued rushing 
towards the spot on which the B6dhisatto was seated at the foot of the Bodtt tree ; 
and surrounding him, halted waiting for the order of Ma'ro. 

44 On this army of Ma'bo congregating around the terrace of the BodM tree, it 
was impossible for Sakko and the other rfewd (before mentioned) to retain their 
stations ; and wherever they met (the dim**) gave way and led. Sakko, the king 
of demd, slinging his wijayutta chank across his shoulders, and departing, stationed 
himself on the edge of the orifice of the Chakkawdl&n. Maba' Brahma' depositing 
his white chkatta on the confines of the Chakkawdlim, fled to Brahmdfoko itself. 
Ka'lo, the king of the Ndga, abandoning his whole train of dancers and singers, 
and diving into the earth, and repairing to the Mangirika Ndga realms, five hundred 
yojand in extent, laid himself down, concealing his face with his hands. Not a singb 
dhtx> could retain his position there (at the Bodhi tree). >* 

" The great mortal, as if he were Maba/ Brahma' himself, alone retained hb 
station, in that deserted position. Thereupon, in the first place, apparitions of ill 
omen in various forms descended, yelling, * now Ma'ro will come.' At the 
instant of the conflict of the patron of the three worlds, (B6dhisatto) with the patron 
of procrastinators (Ma'ro) a thousand appalling meteors descended ; and clouds and 
darkness prevailed. Even this unconscious (earth) together with the oeeaas and 
mountains, it contains, quaked, as if it were conscious— like unto a fondly loving girl 
who is forcibly separated from her mate— like unto the festooned vine quivering 

leSS.} PdU Buddhiitical Annals. 813, 

4he Mttgn of a tooaaa. The m» rose under the 'vibration of this earthquake ; 
shore lowed book towards their aooroM t peaks of lofty mountains, against which 
oooo tte aa treee had boat (for ages), erumbliag rolled to the earth : a fierce atom 
howled all around and the crashing concussion became terrifie. The sua enveloped 
itself in awful darkness, and a boat of JGswaarfd (headless spirits) filled the air. la 
this manner was Ma'bo at the mosaent of his onset, attended by a host of the 
ayparitioasl spirits of ill omens who haunt the earth and the air, in various forms— 
a frightful and diamayiag exbibiUoa. 

•• The host of ddwd oa perceiving that he (Ma'bo) was designing to destroy the 
eJewe of desod (Bodhisatto), surrounded by all the celestial beauties, shouted out 
in tribulation ha I ha! The illustrious (Bodhisatto) indefatigable and fearless, 
retaJaed bis position in the midet of the host of Ma'bo, as if he were a gurulo amidst 
birds, aad the dauntless lion amidst animals. 

" Thereafter Ma'bo saying to himself, * terrifying Siddhatto, let me chase him 
away/ and yet falling in his endeavours to repulse him with the nine descriptions of 
Tains, via., with the rain of storms, the rain of weapons, the raia of stones, and 
subsequently with the raia of fire, of burning ashes, of sand, of mad and of darkness 
and with the ordinary rains, furious with rage, he thus addressed his host : ' Pel* 
lows! why are ye standing still; make this Siddha'tto an AtiddhAtto: seise 
aim, kill him, cut him up, bind him, release him not, drive him heacc.' Having 
given this order to this army, Ma'bo himself, mounting his eharger, Qirimikhmto, 
and hurling his javelin approached the Bodhisatto and aaftd, 'Sidwha'tto, rise 
from thy seat.' The retinue also of Ma'bo (attempted to) injure the great mortal* 
The great mortal however, by the power of the merite of his Pdromitd, reselling 
from his forbearance, bis benevolence, his perseverance, and his wisdom, over- 
coming the efforts of Ma'bo, as wen as of his host ; aad during the first swato*, 
in doe course, attaining the P*bbbuw*$m*&na* gift (the gift of knowing the past), 
during the middle ytma acquiring the Dibbuckahkh&n (divination), and at the dawn 
of day arriving at the Pachchagdkdrfndnan which are the attributes of all the 
Buddha ; and realizing the (fourth or) Chatutthajjhmum, by meaas of the Andpdmm 
(meditation or respiration), duly meditating on each part thereof, separately. . And 
glorifying the Wipassana* saactificatioa (he had realised) he overcame the power of 
every evil passion, by pursuing in due course the Magg6 which leads to the fourth 
Magg6; and having thus attained ia perfection the virtues (iahereat in) all the 
Buddha, he chanted forth the hymn, which is the established thanksgiving of aH 
the Buddha (on the achievement of Buddhohood). 

Anikqj&ti $antdran readWicusaa «mibbi$an, 
Oahaktrakan gawitanto dukkhdj&ti p**appmiu&. 
Gahakdraka / ditthon ; punagdfum ad ktiuui: 
Sabba U phdsakb bhaggd gahak&tan wisaakhita* 
Wisankhdra-gata* chittan tankdnm khafamqffagt. 

" ' Performing my pilgrimage through the (soasdre) eternity of countless existences, 
in sorrow have I unremittingly sought ia vain, the artificer of the abode (of the 
passions), i. e. the human frame. Now, O artificer 1 thou art found. Henceforth no 
receptacle of sin shalt thou form, thy frames (literally ribs) broken, thy ridge pole 
shattered. The soul (or mind) emancipated from liability to regeaeratioa (by 
transmigration), has annihilated the dominion of the passions.' 

" Unto the Bhagawa who was still seated, after chanting this hymn of joy, this 
reflection occurred. ' It is on account of (the secession to) this throne of glory 

• The Bight is divided into three ytfmo of ten hours each, each hour being equal 
to *e European minutes, a ydsso is equal to four laropeaa hours. 

814 PdU Buddhisticat Amah. [S«r*. 

that I devoted myself to * pilgrimage of four assKcfteyy*** tad a hundred 
Jccrppe. Let this be to me the throne of exertion as well as of joy. TJato aw who 
am seated here, all my aspirations have not yet beta accomplished : let me mat 
therefore yet rise from hence.' He concaved therefore seated there for seven days 
realizing innumerable lakhs of koiiyo of fmipmtHyo. 

" Thereupon certain of the dhoalt began to entertain adoabt (regarding him) ; ami 
said ' even nnto this day most assuredly there is still something more to he accom- 
plished by Siddha'tto : his passion for the throne appears insuperable. 9 

" The salthd on perceiving this doubt of the dtwatd ; for the purpose of fliimrHing 
their scepticism, rising aloft into the air manifested n miracle of two opposite results- 
Having by this manifestation dispelled the incredulity of the dcwmM, descending a 
little to the eastward of the north of the throne, he passed seven days more gazing 
on the throne with (animita) unclosed eyes ; — repeating, ' it was on this throne that 
omniscience was achieved : it was on this spot that the fruits of the pilgrimages per- 
formed through four aiansAeyjfdat and one lakh of years have been realized.' That 
spot became known by the name of the Animua-cheHyo. Then between the throne 
and the spot where he stood, having caused a ckankamun (a walk) to be produced, he 
passed seven days more walking (to and fro) on that long Ratana-chamkaaian and that 
spot became kaown as the Ratana ckttiyo. During the fourth week the aVmstf mi- 
raculously called into existence a JUfanae/sora* (golden habitation) on n spot to the 
north-west of the Bddhi tree. There seated on a throne he passed seven days, medi- 
tating on the A bkidkammopiiako ; and that spot acquired the name of lUfanepaaraa 

" In this manner having passed four weeks at the foot of the Bodki tree la the fifth 
weeh (departing) from the Bodki tree he repaired to the shepherd's Nigr*4Ao tree 
(Ficus Indies). There also meditating on dtanmo, he stationed himself enjoying 
heavenly beatitude. Having tarried there for seven days, he repaired to the Jfocat- 
Imdo tree (iiravadia). There for the purpose of being protected from a thunder- 
storm, having been encircled seven times by Muehalindo the raja of serpents, as if 
he were reposing in a dormitory remote from all disturbance, he enjoyed heavenly 
beatitude. Having passed a week there, he repaired to the Rajayatanb tree (Jmdms- 
*nia ItUifoHa). There also he tarried enjoying heavenly beatitude. Seven weeks 
were thus passed. During that period Bhaoawa' neither washed his face, per- 
formed any corporeal function, nor partook of any food : he supported himself entirely 
by his miraculous attributes. 

" Thereafter, after the termination of the seventh week, on the forty-ninth day, 
having washed his face, and cleansed his teeth with the teeth cleansers made of the 
ntgalatd creeper, and with the water brought from the Anotatto lake (in the IKmd- 
layan country) by Sakko, the king of (fciod— the $atthd continued to tarry there at 
the foot of the Rajayatand tree. 

" During thst interval, two traders, named Tapasso and Bbaluko, having been 
impelled thereto by a dVtooid, to whom they were related, exerted themselves to 
make a meal offering to the tattkd; and taking with them some parched rice 
and honey, and approaching the toMAd, said * Bhaoawa' I out of compassioa, 
vouchsafe to accept this repast ;' and stood by him. As the refection dish which 
had formerly been presented to him by the dViod had vanished on the day in which 
he first accepted the milk-rice which had been offered to him (by SiyaTa'ob the 
day he attained Buddbohood) Bhaoawa' thus meditated : * The Tathdgati are not 
permitted to receive any thing with their hands ; into what vessel can I receive this 
offering ?' 

" Thereupon on discovering that wish of the Bhaoawa', from the four quarters, 
the four kings (of the dbo4) brought four refection dishes made of sapphires. Bha* 

1838.] PdU Buddhiitical Annals. 81& 

«awa' rejected then* Subsequently they brought four dishes made of a stone of the 
color of the muggo seed. Bhaoawa', out of compassion for the four oVwtf, accepting 
the same, a ad converting them into one dish, received the repast into that predons 
etoae-dish ; and partaking thereof conferred hit blessing on them. Those two 
traders who were brothers, accepting Buddho, dkammo and sarona* (Buddho, his 
doetriaas and his salvation) became two una* olcd. 

" Thereafter the tatthd repairing: to the shepherd's Nigrodho tree tarried there. To 
him who had that instant taken his seat there, and who was folly impressed with 
the dee* importance of the dhammo which he was destined to establish— a misgiving, 
to aU the Buddha, arose— producing this exclamation * alas 1 that this 
should devolve on me to be established, etc.' Influenced by that reluctance 
he formed the resolution not to be instrumental in propounding the dhammo to others. 
Thereupon, the great Brahmd Sahampati, assembling from the ten thousand Chakha- 
woPhri, the Sakkd, the Swvdmd, 8a*tusHd, Nimmanaratino, Paratdmmitd, Watawtitino 
and the great Brwkmdno said to them— 1 Beloved 1 most assuredly the world is about 
to perish'— and repairing to the uxtthd supplicated of him to propound the dhammo— 
saying, as given in the text « Lord ! Bhagawi, vouchsafe to propound the dhammo.* 

" Theasttad seceding to his prayer thus meditated : ' To whom shall I fir*t pro- 
pound the dhammo* Being aware, that Ala'eabala'mo and Udaka'ra mo (before 
mentioned) were both dead ; and, in reference to the aid afforded to him by the five 
oJdkkhma formerly, saying, ' the Ave bhikhhus afforded to me the greatest assistance— 
where do they reside now ?» and finding that they dwelt at Migaddyo* in Bdrdmasi, 
he added— 4 repairing thither let me there proclaim the supremacy of dhammo.* 

" Having continued a few days longer in the neighbourhood of the Bodhi tree, 
receiving alms as a pilgrim ;— on the full moon day of the month of A'talhi 
(April, May, B. C. 588) saying t ' Let me repair to Bdr&nasi ; and taking his dish 
and his robes, be performed a journey of eighteen yojand. On the road, meeting 
an fajtwako) individual named Upako, travelling on his own affairs, he imparted 
to him his having attained Bnddhohood ; and on the evening of the same day he 
reached the IripatanatKf B6rdnati. 

" The five bhikthus recognizing Tathtgato, who was approaching, from a distance, 
said, (one to another,) ' friend 1 this is Go'tomo, the iumano (the priest) : having 
indulged largely in good things, and recovered his stoutness of person, aeateness of 
bis senses, as well as brilliancy of complexion, he is coming (hither) ;* and they eamo 
to this resolution : * We will not bow down, nor render any other mark of respect 
to hint— we will only prepare a seat for him.' Bhaoawa' divining their design, re- 
straining the expansion of thatuniversal benevolence which without distinction would 
have been extended over all mankind, manifested his benevolence exclusively (towards 
these five bhikhhus). They feeling themselves, under the influence of his benign 
spirit, became incapable, on the approach of Tathdgato of carrying their resolve into 
effect ; and bowing down rendered him every mark of reverence. 

* 'Thereupon, announcing to them his own attainment of Buddhohood, and taking 
his seat on the pre-eminent throne prepared for Buddho, and while the asterism of 
UttrasdUd still predominated, surrounded by the eighteen kotiyo of (celestial) Brah- 
mano, Bhaoawa assembled the five therd (above mentioned) ; and expounded to them 
the DhammachakkapawattananX (a discourse on the supremacy of dhammo) . Of these 
Kandanno (subsequently designated Anndkondanno Kondanno, the instructed) acquir- 

* Migaddyo, a place set aside for deer. 

•f Itipatana*, an edifice for the accommodation of the Isi (saints or devotees) situ* 
ated near Bdrinasi in the midst of the above mentioned deer haunt. 
X Discourse in the Sanyvttanikdyo. 

5 K 

81ff PdU Buddhutictl Annals. [Sept. 

tag b perfect knowledge of the same in the sense let forth in the sermon, a ttained 
together with the eighteen kottgo of Brahmaao the tttapattf saswtftientioa. 

"In regard to this circumstance, It ha* been Mid (by Bmddho himself) :— 

44 ' I, Go'tomo, of the Sakya dynasty, wlnvhttd attained omniscience, having: i 
pUshed my destiny, have achieved supreme Buddbohood, and at the prayer of 
I have proclaimed the supremacy of dkammo ; and unto eighteen Jfctfftyo (of being*) 
the first stage of saactiieation has been vouchsafed.' 

" Upon a subsequent occasion on his propounding the Bwddkaaa*so at JGaaft 
stuff**, having discoursed on things passed, in describing the subsequent 
tion, BhaGawa' has said ; ' Subsequently, while I was preaching; in an 
of men and dforf, a number of beings exceeding computation, attained the 
Sanctis' cation.' 

" In this instance Instead of speaking in the future tense, as the second snactiacn- 
tion had not yet been obtained, he spoke in the passed tease, and was enabled to 
substitute the past for the future (by his power of inspiration). In future instances 
we also mnst place the same construction on his discourses. 

" And again on the occasion of his propounding the Rdkmlawtd* tnffeai, he adminis- 
tered unto human beings whose number exceeded all computation, the sanctincatioa 
of the beverage of beaven, which was the third sa notification. 

"In regard to which Boddho himself has said in propounding the Bmdikawmu* 
* In this very place I will offer admonition to my son whereby innumerable fivins; 
creatures may obtain the third sanctification. , 

4 * Bhagawa' (during his own ministry) had but one general convocation of his disci- 
ples ; that convocation consisted of the three Kismp^ of whom Urbwblo was the 
chieff, and of (their fraternity of) a thousand Jatilt, of the two Aggammakml (chief 
disciples of Buddho), nnd of their paternity of two hundred and fifty. Thus It was a 
congregation of twelve hundred and fifty. Buddho himself has said (in the BwaMna- 
wmao, * There has been bat one convocation of my sanctioned disciples ; that con* 
gregation consisted of twelve hundred and fifty.' 

44 Bhagawa' taking his place in the midst of this assembly (held in the TTiftsiross 
edifice at Rajagahan in the first year of his Buddhohood) aad at the hour rendered 
appropriate by the four requisite conjunctions, propounded the Patimokkkan. There- 
after he explained his own designs in these words. 4 1 who have become exalted 
and purified from sins in the midst of this congregation of Nnkktou, bestow upon 
thee, the whole of the fruits resulting from the realization of my tows, which is 
like unto the jewety which realizes every wish. Let me also, out of compassion to 
those who both seek the reward (of nibbanan) and eschew the vices inherent in Mom* 
(the eternity of transmigratory existence) demonstrate the thetomchcham (fear 
sublime truths). 1 ' 

After some verbal commentary the Atthakatha proceeds to make 
the following quotations from the Buddhawanso of Sa'kya*s own words. 
" 4 KapHawatthu is my native city. The raja Suddhodano is my father ; and the 
mother who bore me is called Ma'ya'. Until my twenty-ninth year, I led the life 
of a layman, having three palaces called Rammo, Surammo and Sabho. I had an es- 
tablishment of forty thousand accomplished women. Buddhakachana (Yosodojla) 
was my consort, and Ra*hulo was my son. On witnessing the four predictive indi- 
cations, I departed on horseback. During the six years, I was undergoing my 

• " Sota" is a rushing torrent, " and patti" " arrival at the first stage of sanctifi- 
cation," the attainment of which inevitably leads to nibbjnan. 
t The others were Gat a' Ka'ssapo and Nadi Ka'ssapo. 
X Sa'riputto and Moggala'no. 
$ Analogous to the infatuation regarding the philospher's stone. 

1888. J PdU Buddhistkal Annah. 817 

probation, I endured severe trials. I am Gotomo' Bnddho the saviour of living 
beings. By me the supremacy oidhammo was proclaimed at Uipatanan (in Birdnasi 
the capital) of the king Buahmadatto. K a'lito* and UpATissof are my two chief 
disciples; and A'nando is my ( Upatako) confidential disciple who always lived with 
me. Khkii a and Uppalala wanna were my two chief priestesses. Chitto and 
Hatta'i.awako) were my principal attendants among male lay ascetics. Nandam a'- 
ta' and Uttara' were my principal attendants among female lay ascetics. I attained 
supreme Bnddhohood at the foot of the Aaattha tree. The glory (around my head) casts 
its effulgence sixteen cubits high, and the term of my existence k designed to be one 
bundled! years. In the course of that existence I am destined to save multitudes ; 
and for the guidance of posterity having established dhdmmo as a beacon, I shall also, 
at no distant period, together with my sacerdotal fraternity in this very world, attain 
nibMnan, like fire extinguished by the exhaustion of fuel.' 

" Having in this manner expounded the whole of the Buddhawansa, explanatory of 
the Kappd, of the names (of persons and places), of the genealogies and other parti- 
culars, perambulating on the Ratanaekankamo, which he had created at Kapilawat- 
thu ; and having received the reverential obeisance of his relations, descending from 
the air (on which the Ratanaekankamo was poised), Bbagawa' took his seat on the 
pre-eminent Buddho's throne which had been prepared for him. 

" On Bba'oa'wa', the saviour, having thus seated himself, his assembled relations 
relieved from their (previous) distress§, with perfect unanimity seated themselves 
also around him. Thereupon a Pokkhara shower descended, which was instantly 
absorbed through the fissures of the earth. Those who wished to get wet, did get 
wet. Those who did not wish to get wet, did not receive a drop of rain. On beholding 
this, surprised by the miracle and wonder, they exclaimed ' Lo 1 what miracle, what 
wonder !' On hearing this exclamation, Tatha'oato observed, ' It is not only now, 
on the occasion of my relations being assembled that a Pokkhara shower has fallen ; 
it has so rained in aforetime also.' Making that subject his text, he preached the 
Weu*ntarmj4tako[\ ; and it produced its effect. Bhaga'wa then rising from his 
pulpit retired to bis Wihdro. 

" Be it understood, that the eighteen g&td commencing with the words ' apart- 
wUjfyi ito kappi, chaturo dtiusu ntyakd,* (at a period incalculably remote from this 
kappo, there were four Buddha) are g&thd composed by those who held the convoca- 
tion?. Ail the information contained in the rest of the gdthd (of the Buddhawanso) 
needs no commentary. 

" Thus is closed the Madhura atthowildsiniyd Buddhatcansatthakathdbeing a com* 
mentary on the Gotomo Buddhawamo, the history of the twenty-fifth Buddho." 

TH~ m B. The distance from which I communicate with you deprives me of the pri- 
vilege of correcting the press. It is not my intention to trouble you with a list of 
errata, but there is one error, produced by my own carelessness in giving to my 
clerk an inaccurate genealogical table to extract from, which I must be permitted to 
rectify, as it materially affects the question under investigation, page 715, vol. 6, 
for " paternal grandson" read " son." In page 51, of the Introduction to the Maha- 
wanto, it is explained how this error was committed. 

* Subsequently called Mogoalano. f Sariputto. 

% All Buddha are released from existence before the period of extreme old age in 
their respective terms of existence. 

$ Being of a royal and reigning family they had remonstrated as already explained, 
with Buddho, on his leading the life of a mendicant pilgrim, instead of being respec- 
tably maintained by them. 

|| A discourse in the J&takan, a section of the Suttapitako narrative of Buddho's 
incarnation in the character of Wasantaro raja. 

f This occurred at the first convocation held after Sa'kya*s death . 5x2 

818 Table of Mortality. [Sep 

VI. — Table of Mortality for ages from birth to twenty years, framed 

from the Registers of the Lower Orphan School, Calcutta, By EL 
T. Prinsbp, Esq. 

In the article published by me in the Journal of the Asiatic Society 
for the month of May 1887, I pointed out the facility with which the 
principle of computation applied therein to the casualties of the Bengal 
Civil Service, might be extended to any fixed and continuous body, 
provided only there was a register kept of the age at which each 
individual came to belong to it, and of the casualties with the date of 
the occurrence of each, or if the life was lost to the registers, through 
retirement, discharge, or other similar contingency, of the date of such 
removal from the books. 

I advised the formation of books, arranged for each age of life, for 
registering the casualties amongst considerable numbers of each grade 
of the population of India, in order that tables might be framed there- 
from for the valuation of native life, so as eventually to extend to 
this class the benefits of life assurance in all its branches. 

I beg through the pages of the Journal again to point attention to 
this object, and as a first fruit of the wide field of statistical inquiry 
which lies open in this direction, requiring only a little labour to yield a 
rich crop of useful results, I now present to the public a table of 
mortality for children and young persons, from birth to twenty year f 
of age, framed from the registers of the Lower Orphan School of Cal- 
cutta, upon the principle before explained and inculcated. 

I am indebted to Dr. Stbwart, late Secretary of the Statistical Corn- 
mittee of the Asiatic Society, for the materials from which the table has 
been prepared. This gentleman, being connected with the Military 
Orphan School, found that a series of registers had been kept, and. 
were forthcoming from 1798, of every boy and girl who had been 
admitted to that institution. The books were made up annually, and 
the boys or girls' names being entered alphabetically at the beginning 
of the year, twelve columns were ruled down the page, and any casualty 
by death was entered with its date in the column of the proper month. 
In like manner at the foot of the list of boys and girls in the institution 
on the 1st January, the fresh entries in the course of the year were 
recorded, with notice of the age of each new comer, and the date of his 
admission appeared in the column for the month when it took place. 

Upon the first view of these registers, I at once perceived that they 
afforded the materials for a computation of the mortality amongst the 
inmates of the Orphan School, upon the principle applied to the Ciril 

1888.] Table of Mortality. 819 

Serviee of Bengal, and needed only to be re-cast and added up to yield 
equally valuable results for the ages of life tbey comprehended. The 
re-casting of thirty-eight years' registers containing many thousand 
names, has however proved a work of labour that has occupied several 
months. The Statistical Committee has furnished a writer, who has 
been employed on the work for this period without intermission, and 
the product of his labour in the volumes which show the name of 
every child, the date of his admission, and the manner of his having 
been disposed of, are deposited in the library of the Asiatic Society, 
as well for the verification of the table now submitted to the public, 
as that the detailed registers may be available for the ascertainment of 
other results which also may be gathered from them*. 

My present purpose, as above stated, is confined to the exhibition in a 
tabular form of the ratio of mortality for each year of existence as 
deduced from these registers. 

It will be satisfactory to explain in the first instance the process 
followed in the construction of the table ; for there are several circum- 
stances requiring to be noted, as guides to those who may apply the 
same principle of computation to other classes of persons, or may 
undertake the recasting of other similar registers. 

Firstly. The Orphan School books did not show in every in- 
stance the actual date of birth, nor, if they had done so, would it 
have been advisable to attempt to follow each child from birth-day to 
birth-day, and so frame a general register, true to the exact age of 
each individual. For example, a child admitted is simply entered as 
aged not one complete year ; in the re-cast of the registers this child 
stands as entered of the age 0, and he is considered as remaining of 
that age until the 1st January next following, though his birth-day, 
that is the date on which he completed one year, may happen to have 
been in November, or in February, or in any other of the twelve months 
following the date of his admission. All subsequent years of life are 
in like manner computed by the calendar year, from 1st January to 
dist December, without reference to birth -days, which, as the error 
will be equal both ways, and so balance itself, affords a complete result 
for our present purpose. 

Secondly. It is the object in the construction of this table, to 
deduce correctly in the first instance the annual percentage mortality. 
The a dm iss io ns in the course of a year do not give the risk of those 
lives for the whole year. If for instance all admitted at year of age 

* Note.— Amongst other purposes to which these registers may be applied is the 
ascertainment of the relative mortality in different periods of years, and in different 
months and seasons. 

829 Table of Mortality. [Sett. 

had entered on the 1 at December, there would have been the risk of 
only one month in their case, and the number of casualties upon the 
number admitted would have been one-twelfth only of the annual ratio. 
To provide accurately for this I furnished the writer, employed in re- 
casting the registers, with a table giving a decimal value for every day 
of the year, and thence, according to the date of admission, 1 made 
him enter the risk, as of the fraction for the period of the year remain- 
ing to 31st December. Thus, in the re-cast of the registers, each 
admission will be seen indicated by a fraction to three places of deci- 
mals : and the number of risks is by addition of the whole brought to 
the true annual sum for computation of the ratio of mortality from the 
actual casualties. 

Thirdly. When a life lapsed, its risk was lost for the remainder of 
the year. To provide for this, I made a reversed decimal table show- 
ing the fraction of the year to the date of the casualty, and by entering 
the lapsed life not as an entire year's risk, but according to the fraction 
to the date of occurrence, effectually removed this source of error. 
But those who follow this plan must be careful, when a life lapses in 
the very year of admission, to take both fractions from the same table 
for computation of the value of the risk : otherwise a child admitted oa 
the 2nd January and dying on the 30th December, would have the 
same fraction to represent both dates, and would stand as 0, though 
the risk of his life was an entire year, less only two days. The writer 
employed in re-casting the Orphan School registers made this mistake 
in the first instance, which is the reason of my noticing the point. 

Fourthly. Having thus settled the mode of entering admissions 
and casualties, I caused books to be prepared for each year of life. 
In that for age 0, I caused to be entered successively, all who were 
admitted at an age less than one year, taking their names in succession 
from the register of each year from 1798 to the present time. The 
number of names thus entered in this book for age 0, is 5930, but 
each being reduced to its fraction of the year of admission, and the 
death cases being doubly reduced, the number of annual risks, for this 
age is diminished to less than half, being 2646, which is what might 
have been expected. The names of the whole being thus looked out 
in the successive books, and entered in a fresh register for age 0, the 
page was ruled for forty years of life from 0, and each name was 
marked as a year of life in the columns following 0,. as it was found in 
the successive registers, until the date of decease, or of removal from 
the institution. 

Fifthly. The book of those who entered at an age less than one 
year being completed; and the individuals followed out, a similar book 

1836.] Table of Mortality. 821 

made up for those who entered at an age between one and two, 
and so for each year in succession. The pages of all were then sepa- 
rately summed tip, and the aggregate of the books for age being 
placed at the top of the page of a general abstract, the aggregates of 
the books of other ages were arranged in order so that the columns for 
age should correspond, and the whole be added up for the general 
result. This general abstract is amongst the papers deposited in the 
library of the Asiatic Society. 

Sixthly. It will be evident that tables framed on this principle 
must be quite perfect, if only the registers on which they are framed 
be complete; but I am compelled to acknowledge that this is not 
the case with those with which I have had to deal. In the first place 
the registers of three years 1802, 1804 and 1805, are altogether 
wanting. The deaths of these years are therefore not all counted. 
I have traced in the casualty book, thirteen deaths for 1802, nine for 
1804, and four for 1805, which have been duly entered, but this cannot 
be all. On the other hand if the children's names were found in the 
register of 1801, and again in 1803, and afterwards in 1806, they have 
been entered as giving the risk of their life for the whole consecu- 
tive period. The effect therefore is to increase the number of risks 
and diminish the ratio of mortality. This error has no influence on 
the ratio for year 0, and less of course on that for age one year, than 
for the advanced ages, because the risks of column 0, are all fresh ad- 
missions, which are likewise lost for these three years, and a large 
proportion of the risks of age one are of and the same description. 
The number of names lost to the tables, in the years of these missing 
registers, that is, which appear in the book of 1801 but not in 1868, 
or in 1803 but not again in 1806 is 288, of which a large proportion 
will probably have been deaths, and the rest removals from the institu- 
tion during the period. I might have provided for the error occasioned 
by the want of these registers by excluding all the risks of the three 
missing years, but have preferred to leave them ; partly because of the 
deaths found in the casualty register which have been entered, and 
partly because of another source of error, which as it operated the 
other way required something to counterbalance it. 

In re-casting the registers, which as I have mentioned were framed 
originally by the year, I have not found that all the names of each 
register can be accurately traced. On the contrary in the 35 years' 
books, there are no less than 830 names lost, without notice of the 
cause of their being omitted in subsequent registers. This certainly is a 
large number. A considerable proportion of them may be ascrib'able to 
the children changing their names, and many to their being taken 

822 Table of Mortality. [S 

away from the institution without formal order, when the removal not 
being settled and recorded at the time, the date and particulars have 
slipped from notice. Out of the 880, however, there will assuredly 
have been some errors from carelessness, occasioning omissions of at 
least fractional risks of life : on the other hand every death being a for- 
mal thing, attended with ceremonies and expenses, it is not likely that 
such a casualty should have escaped entry. The omissions therefore 
will have operated to reduce the proportion of risks to the deaths, and 
so to balance the effect of the want of the three years' books. I might 
have been less inclined to adopt the conclusion that these omissions had 
operated to diminish the risks, if I had not found that the rates of 
mortality produced by the computation, as made excluding them, were 
extremely high for all the ages comprehended in the table, so high in 
comparison with the most approved tables of Europe, as to prevent 
suspicion that there is error from understating the deaths. I am obliged 
however to confess, that in consequence of the want of the means of 
tracing these 830 names, my table framed from the results of the Orphan 
School of Calcutta, is only an approximation, instead of being based on 
perfect data. 

Seventhly. When preparing the first general abstract of the results 
of these registers, it occurred to me rather as an object of curiosity 
than with any hope of finding matter of separate interest, to direct the 
boys and girls to be stated separately for every fifth year. Bat on 
obtaining the first rough abstract so drawn out, I found so great a 
difference in the ratio of mortality amongst the boys for the years 
beyond the sixth, that I determined to sift the matter through the 
results of each year. The consequence is, that my present general 
abstract is on a roll six feet long, much too large to be printed in the 
Journal. It must therefore lie for inspection, with the books in detail 
upon the table of the Asiatic Society's library. The table computed 
from it will be exhibited in a much more compendious form. 
. Eighthly. It is necessary to observe that for the purpose of show- 
ing the mortality separately amongst the boys and girls, and the num- 
ber of each upon which the casualties occurred, the number living on 
the 31st December of the year for each age is stated in the column* 
and the deaths are those that occurred in the year ending on that date, 
that is, not in any given 12 months, but amongst the children who 
gave the year of life then brought to a close. To compute from these 
data the ratio of mortality on the boys and girls respectively, the fol- 
lowing calculation has been adopted. For age 0, the boys that reached 
the 81st December, following the date of their admission, were 2719, 
and 243 died before that date. As all these were births or admissions, 


Table of Mortality. 


none being brought on from the preceding year ; each may be assumed 
therefore, on the average, to have given half a year's risk of life, when he 
Jived to the end of the year, and half that period, or a quarter of a year, 
when he died before the 31st December. This assumption for the pro- 
portion is borne out and confirmed by the general number of admissions 
reduced to years, which, as above observed, is somewhat less than half 
the total of boys and girls. Strictly perhaps, instead of half, the frac- 
tion y|iS» ought to be the ratio of reduction applied to the lives, or the 
reverse fraction £| j$ to the casualties by death, to bring the calculation 
to the results of a complete year ; but for our present purpose it is 
quite unnecessary to be so minutely accurate. It will be convenient 
therefore to adhere to the broad and simple ratio of the half and 
quarter. The percentage ratio per annum of the boys who were admit- 
ted at an age less than one, will then be obtained thus : 

Tear's risks. Half year Deaths 

deaths, per annum. 

2834 (2713 + 2 | s ) : (243 X 2) 486 : : 100 : 17,148 
In the following years the risks being mostly of the entire year the 
calculation is more simple. 

2430 + *|" = 2679 : 498 : : 100 : 18,589. 
The above explanation will make the following table quite intelli- 

Ratio of mortality deduced from the Registers of the Lower Orphan 

School of Calcutta. 

2:5 «j 

t o S 


w 9 








Lives at risk 
duced to 
complete yc 

















g Deaths of Gii 





































































71 1 





























































































. • 

. • 









• • 








• • 

. . 







1 3.061 

1 8 


• • 




5 L 


TubU of Mortality. 






















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1838.] TabU of Mortality. 825 

It will be seen from this table, that the percentage of mortality is 
almost universally worse amongst the boys than the general average, 
and amongst the girls better. The only ages which are exceptions 
are 4 years, 6 years and 13. The last may be susceptible of soma 
explanation, as it might be expected that the girls at that age should 
be more liable to disease than the boys, but not so the other two, 
in which the difference indeed is not very wide from equality, and may 
therefore be accidental. 

The consecutive increased mortality amongst the boys will, however, 
require more careful notice. 

In the first three years of life when both sexes receive equal care, 
the per centage difference is only as follows : 

Death*. Per ct. per aniu 

7775 1120 14.404 

Lives. Deaths. Per ct. per son. 
7842 1082 18.798 

equal to a difference between the sexes of one in 24. In the second 
three years it increases, being 

lives. Deaths. Per cent. 

6656 237 4.190 

Lives. Deaths. Per cent. 

6712 ...... 209 3.659 

equal to a difference of nearly one in seven. In the next five years 
H becomes 

Liven, Deaths. Per cent. 

6676 167 2.538 

Lives. Deaths. Per cent. 

7284 146 2.004 

or more than one quarter in excess for the boys ; and from the age 

of 1 1 to 15 it is as high as 

Boys. I Girls. 

Lives. Deaths. Per cent. I Lives. Deaths. Per cent. 

1791 38 2.121 ! 4613 64 1.170 

or nearly double. 

The number of boys becomes so small after the age of fifteen, that 
it is needless to pursue the comparison, but the deaths amongst 70 
and 88 boys of the ages of 15 and 16 respectively being so high as 
8.219, and 7.692 per cent., there is reason to believe that in respect 
to the youths of this sex after the age of 14, the institution is merely 
a hospital, the healthy boys being all apprenticed out, or otherwise 
disposed of, while the sickly remain, because they are unfit to enter 
the army as musicians, or to undertake any trade or profession. 

But this circumstance, though it accounts for the large mortality 
amongst the remnant of boys after 14 and 15 years of age, will not 
account for the consecutive increased mortality on the large numbers 

826 TabU of Mortality. [S«pt. 

of the previous ages. I fancy the circumstance must be attributed in 
part to the greater exposure the boys suffer, and the harder living they 
are inured to, and in a great measure perhaps to the mortality known 
to have prevailed amongst the boys, when they were at the other 
school-house over the river, which was given up in consequence of 
its insalubrity. 

For practical purposes, therefore, the ratio of mortality calculated 
from the deaths amongst the boys of the Orphan School institution, 
must be set aside as too unfavourable for an average. The girls' 
deaths for the same reason afford a better average than the general 
table, which includes both sexes ; and, being more favourable, the results 
on the girls' lives correspond better with the results of the European 
tables, which I have collected for comparison. 

I have not been able to lay hand upon any explanation in detail of 
the precise manner in which the Northampton and Carlisle tables were 
framed. I have great doubt, however, if, for the early ages especially, 
the results have been deduced from data, which can lay equal claim to 
accuracy, with those used for the table I now present to the public. 
The means may readily be forthcoming of ascertaining the number of 
deaths, which occur in a town or in any community, and the ages of 
the persons dying are of course entered on the burial registers, but 
it is by no means so easy to number a fluctuating population, and to 
register the ages of each individual, so as to get at the number of 
risks at each age, upon which the casualties by death have occurred. 
The great difference observable in the rates of decrement in the 
different tables of Europe seems to confirm the doubt, as to the cor- 
rectness of this material of the calculations upon which they are 
based : and the results of the London bills of mortality, as given in 
Dr. Young's article in the Philosophical Transactions, compared with 
Dr. Price's Table framed from the same bills, afford a further confir- 
mation of the doubts entertained, in respect to the accuracy of any we 
yet possess. The only tables known to be constructed from perfect 
data, are those of the Equitable Life Insurance Office, but these are 
confined to lives of ages exceeding twenty years*. It will be seen that 
the London table of the Philosophical Transactions comes nearest to 
those framed upon the Orphan School registers as far as the age of 
six years, and after that age Dr.* Price's table framed from the saint 

• Ths total number of Equitable lives between 10 and 20 is less than 1510 
which is quite insufficient for an average upon those ages. 

1838.] TahU of Mortality. 927 

materials. The decrement in India is, as might be expected from the 
climate, greater from birth than in London, but the favourable year* 
are the same, via. from nine to fourteen, and there will be observed, with 
due allowance for insalubrity, and for not perhaps the most favourable 
rearing in a large school like oar Orphan Asylum, that there is a ge- 
neral correspondence in the results up to the age of six. After that age 
the London decrement, in the first table given, is unaccountably small 
compared with ours, as well as when compared with that of Dr. Price, 
and is less than in many other European tables. I have seen in a 
recent publication the following statement of the mortality of the 
children brought up in the Blue Coat, or Christ Church School in 

Lives* Deaths per ann. 

From 1814 to 1818 5180 51 

1818 to 1823 5193 44 

1824 to 1828 5412 40 

1829 to 1833 5670 36 

From this it would seem that the deaths in the early period were 
about one per cent, per annum, but are to two-thirds per cent, 
in later years. Assuming the lives comprehended in the statement 
to be from seven years old to fifteen, we have from the girls* table of 
the Orphan School for the same ages the following result : 

lives. Annual Deaths. 

10,121 151 or 

one and a half (1.49) per cent, which is a double mortality for our 
Calcutta institution, as compared with that of the London school, at 
the most favourable period. 

The general bills of mortality for London, as given in the Philosophi- 
cal Transactions, show for the same age an average rate of decrement 
of 0.70 per cent.*, which would lead to the conclusion, that for those 
ages the table is not perfect : for it is not possible to conceive, that the 
general population of a city like London, including the half-starved 
ragged children of the pennyless poor, are subject to fewer casualties 
by death, than the well-fed and well-clothed inmates of this richly 
endowed institution. 

Dr. Pbicx in his table calculated from the London bills of morta- 
lity, gives a ratio of deaths for this period of life uniformly exceeding 
one per cent., being in the aggregate, upon 102,190 risks, 1280 
deaths, or one and a quarter per cent, per annum, which is borne out 

• Lires, 5,22,172— Deaths, 3704. 

SSft Sketch of the Temple to Durga at Badbmur, $c [&n. 

by the results of the Blue Coat school, and corresponds more nearly 
with the ratio deduced from our girls' table. Dr. Prick's rate how- 
ever for the first three years of life, and especially for the first year, is 
so much higher than that of any other table, as to make it probable, 
that he has adopted a different method of computing the early deaths. 
Perhaps also he has included the children still-born amongst the 
deaths of the age 0, whereas our table of course excludes these, and 
for the most part the additional risks of the first month alter birth. 
September f 1838. 

VIL — Sketch of the Temple to Durga at Badtowur, $c. extracted 

from Lieut. Kittob's Journal. 

Before reaching the small town of Badeewur situated just beyond 
the Mulakai nullah, there is at its debouchure an isolated hill with 
a modern temple to Mahadkva on the top of it, built by a Mahratta 
lady; at the. foot of this hill, on the southern face under some large 
tamarind trees, is a very curious and ancient temple to Durga ; it is in 
the same style with that of Kundhurpur, and likewise unfinished ; the 
plinth is buried in the sand ; it is very small, about 6 feet wide, 9 long, 
and 14 high. The accompanying drawing represents the elevation on 
the south side, and will serve to illustrate this peculiar style, the large 
temples only differing in proportion, and in the increased number of 
compartments, but not in ornament ; the idols are destroyed. Vide 
PI. XL. 

The small town of Badhwur is certainly the neatest and most pic- 
turesque place I have seen ; there is one long street which is very broad, 
having a row of small gardens up the centre of it with trellis work 
coverings, over which beans and other creeping esculents and flowering 
plants are trained, forming one continued bower ; at intervals there are 
fantastic vases made of pottery in which the tulsi plant is cherished : 
some of these are very tastefully constructed. There are also several 
wells with terraces round them ; the houses are all elevated on plinths 
with narrow ledges projecting beyond the walls ; the thatches also pro- 
ject considerably so as to admit of the rain falling clear of all ; these 
ledges serve for the people to sit on in the fine weather. There is a 
mart here for grain, iron, cotton, cloths, silk dhotis, ironmongery, &c. 
which are both manufactured and brought from the neighbouring places ; 
the unwrought iron comes from Ungool ; there is a ferry here and a 
direct road to Nyahgurh and Berhampur in the Madras Presidency. 


1838.1 Proceeding* of the Asiatic Society. 829 

The bill of Badeswtur is a quarter of a mile beyond the town, at the 
foot of it, and on the east side are several small temples of antiquity, 
bat destroyed by modern innovations : there is also a fine stone well. 

I observed several idols executed in a very superior style in chlo- 
rite ; amongst them was a figure of Budh erect, with the different Bud* 
dhas in the sitting posture encircling him, similar to that dug up at 
Samdth by Lieutenant Cunningham ; it was besmeared with sendoor 
and ghee, the same as the other idols. I endeavoured to persuade a 
brahman, that he was guilty of heresy in thus worshipping Budh ; he 
assured me that it was not Budh, but Maha'dkva. So much for the 
knowledge of the people of Orissa, for I have remarked the same 
wherever I have been. 

We descended at this place into the bed of the river ; then alter 
rounding the hill and passing the mouth of a large nullah called the 
Kdldgiri, we re-ascended the bank and entered another extensive plain 
which continued uninterrupted till half a mile beyond where our camp 
was pitched at Puddumbutte : it also extends for several miles south of 
the river. 

The hill of Badeswur has a volcanic appearance and consists of a 
brick- red marl and masses of gravel, breccia, and decomposed granite. 
It is about 800 feet high and rises abruptly from the river, on the 
opposite side of which (to it) is another rock forming an island having 
an equally curious appearance ; there is a temple on it also, for all such 
singular places are looked upon as the abodes of some " thakoor" or> 
form of the deity, and resorted to accordingly. 

VIII. — Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 

Wednesday Evening the 10<& October, 1838. 

H. T. Prinsep, Esq. Vice President, in the chair. 

Lieut. J. Duncan, and Dr. Helper, proposed at the last meeting, were 
unanimously elected members of the Society. 

Jambs Middleton, Esq. of the Hindu College, proposed by the Secre. 
tary, seconded by the Vice President. 

Oriental Publications. 

Read a letter from the Secretary of the Bombay Branch of the Royal 
Asiatic Society, acknowledging the receipt of the Arabic works published 
by the Society. 

Read the following correspondence relative to the interchange of works 
•f Oriental Literature with the Egyptian Government : 

830 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. [Sift. 

To J. Pmnsbp, Esq ., Secretary to the Asiatic Society, Calcutta. 

I am directed by the Right Honorable the Governor General to transmit te 
you, for submission to the Asiatic Society, the accompanying copies of papers 
relating to the interchange of works of Oriental Literature between India tad 
Egypt, proposed by Gubtani Bar, a Spanish gentleman at the head of the Medi* 
cal establishment at the latter place : and to convey the wish of His Lordship, 
that the Asiatic Society will be pleased to favor bim with their opinion on the 
points indicated in my letter of the 18th instant, with a view to acknowledge in 
some measure, the handsome overture made by Gubtani Bet. In the meantime, 
Major Fblix has been requested to forward to your address the books, per lint 
No. 1, which have been already received from Egypt, and are in hk possessioe, 
excepting the " Biography of celebrated Philosophers by Asdulla Bin Hoo- 
•bn" which is herewith sent, advising you of the date and name of the vessel ta 
which the books may be forwarded to Calcutta. 

I have, &c. 
Simla, \ W. H. Macnaohtbn, 


20*A Amy.' 1838. / Secy, to the Govt, of India with the Gear. &•/. 

To the Secretary to the Govt, of India in the General Department with let 

Governor General. 

I beg leave to state, that while at Lahore on my recent Mission, I received 
two letters from Major Fblix, private Secretary to the Governor of Bemsay, 
dated June the 8th and July the 5th, the first forwarding a letter to my address 
dated Cairo, the 16th of April, from Col. D« Hbzbta, who returned from India 
to Europe via Egypt last cold season, and from Gubtani Bbt, a Spanish gentle- 
man at the head of the Medical Establishment in Egypt, dated Alexandria, the 
11th of May. 

2. I have annexed extracts from Major Fblix's letters and from that of CoL 
Db Hbzbta, together with a copy of Gubtani Bbt's communication, and of the 
two lists which he has furnished of European works translated into Arabic. No. 1, 
is a list of the books actually sent to India by the Bby, and No. 2, is a list of 
the books translated, which the Bbt expresses bis willingness to send should a 
desire be expressed to have them. 

3. The Governor General will observe, that my learned correspondent ex. 

greases his conviction that the Governments of Bombay and Calcutta, animated 
y the same desire of being useful, have published similar translations in differ- 
ent Oriental languages, and that an interchange of these works between Isdis 
and Egypt would prove of the greatest utility, as well to the people who are under 
the beneficent rule of Great Britain, as to those who obey " the regenerator, 
Mahomed All" 

4. I am apprehensive, that, as regards translations on this aide of India, ve 
shall be able to make but a very poor return to Egypt for the valuable collection 
transmitted by Gubtani Bbt. I would venture to suggest, that the Govers- 
ment of Bombay be requested to furnish a liat of all works which have then 
been translated into the Oriental languages, and that I be authorised to forward 
a copy of this correspondence to the Secretary of the Asiatic Society at Calcutta, 
with a request, that that learned body be solicited to furnish their opinion, at to 
the most appropriate mode of acknowledging the handsome overture of GubtaVI 
Bbt, and as to whether it would be advisable, with reference to our inability to 
make a suitable return, to request a further supply of works according to the list 
No. 2. It occurs to me as being possible, that the Society may deem it proper 
to lay out a portion of the funds, which the Honorable the Court of Directan 
have recently placed at their disposal for the encouragement of Oriental litera- 
ture, in the purchase of some of the works published in Egypt, and thereby » 
tome degree to aid the useful labors which are there being prosecuted. 

5. I would further suggest, that I may be authorised to request Major Fsitf 
to forward to the Secretary of the Asiatic Society at Calcutta, the works wake 
have been already received in Bombay from Egypt. 

IMS.] Proceedings ofth* Asiatic Society. 83 1 

6. One spearmen ef these works being the " Biography of celebrated Philo- 
sophers by Aboqlla Bin Hoosbn," has been tent to me by Major Felix. It 
is inbnrittftd herewith for the inspection of Hit Lordship. I have looked into 
thfe work here and there, end the atyle appears to me to be extremely penpice- 
eus and good. 

I hare, Ac. 
Jtatfc, 1 (Signed) W. H. Macnaghtex. 

IStkAnp. 1838./ 

A Monsitmr Le Cksmnttsr, W. H. Macnaohten, 

Mm n t tir * 4m Gowrtimement dm departement do Cdcmtta. 

Graces an* heureux e> eaeinent politiques qui ont decide depuil quelque lustres 
dee destinies dee nations, la eitilixation Europdenne a pdndtrde ea orient et con- 
tinne a y faire tons les jonra de rapides et donees conqndtes sons i'innuence de 
la propre contention dictee par l'exemple de nos mosurs, et les principes de 
notre im partial e justice. 

La connaissance des outrages sclentifiques les pins remarqnables, issnes des 
pinnace des tatans d'oceident est sans nnl donte le moyen le pins propre pour 
parrenir a nn complet rdeultat. 

L'lUnatre et renommd Mi / bi / nit Alt Pacha intimement persuadd de cette 
verifd en a fait tradnire plnsienrs en langne Arabe et continue aana relache cette 
centre de philantropie. 

Je n'ignore pas qne les gouternemens eclaires de Bombay et de Calcutta 
anime's dn mdme esprit citilisateur ont fait pnbiier des semblables traductions en 
diverse* langues Orientates. 

Mon digne compatriote Mr. le Colonel de Hkbta, dont tons trouterftz ci 
joint one lettre d* introduction m'aaussi parld a son passage par ce pays dont la 
maniere la plus favorable, des efforts du gouternement Anglais pour de>aciner 
Pignorance qui depnis tant de siecles a abruti les habitant* de l'Inde. Nons 
atons pense* qu'un dchange de ces outrages ponrrait e"tre de la pins' grande 
utilitd ponr les penples qni ont le bonhenr de se trouter sous la bienfaisante 
domination "de la drande Bretagne, anssi bien que pdur ceux qni obeissent a 
Mehemet Alt le rdglndrateur. Jal communique cette idee" an Viceroi qui en a 
aprecie tottte la taleur et les biens qui en ponrront rdsulter. En consequence 
jai Thdnneur d'exitoyer nn exem^laire de tons les outrages scientiflques imprimis 
an Cairo en langne Arabe par ordre de S. A. a I'usage des Itabissemens d'instruc- 
tlon, que je tons prie d'agrder comme tdmoignage de mon estime et consi- 

Nous atons entoyd encore d'autres outrages traduits dout je joins id la note 
8Mls peUteut vous dtre agreables je ma feral nn trai plaisir de tons les adesser 
dds que j'eh serai inform £. 

Agrees tl. le Secretaire l'hommage de ma consideration la plus dlstinguee 

Le premier Medecin Chimrgiende 8. A. A. V. Roi d* Bgypie, SfC. Sfc. 
Aie*andrie 9 It 11 Mai, 1838. (Signed) Gaetani Bet. 

Litt qf Arabic books. 

2 Copies. A Treatise on military discipline. 
2 „ A work on medical science, by Mahomed Hubbowee. 
' 2 9t Ditto on mineralogy, by Rbfuah Budweb. 
2 u Treatise on Geometry, by Mahomed Boyumbb. 
2 9 t Ditto on anatomy, by Mahomed Hurrowee, and Sheik Mahom- 
ed Rushbedeb, 
2 m Ditto on Surgery, by Mahomed Hurrowee. 
2 „ Ditto Medicines, ditto. 

2 „ Art of Judging of diseases, by ditto. > 

2. n Treatise on the preparation of Ointments, by MoosTUtA H^sso*. 
2 n Signs by which Domestic animals may be judged of, by ditto. 
2 „ Treatise on the cure of horses, by ditto. 

832 Ptoceedmgtoftiu Atiatic Society* [Ssrt. 

1 Copies. Geographie, or work on geography, by Hjbtuah Buwbi. 

2 m Elements of Philosophy, by Mahomed Hubeawsb. 

1 „ Biography of celebrated philosophers, by Abdulla biw Hooam*. 

2 tt Treatise on the use and advantages of the several members of tint 

body, by Mabombd Hubeawbb. 
2 „ Explanation of mnoommon terms ; by Rjcfuah Bvvwbb. 

Ontre^ef trmdmtt in Arm** tt imprwmh. 

1. Anatomle g4a4rale humaine. 9. Pharmacia, id. 

2. Anatomie descriptive, id. 10. Traite de l'exterieur dn CheviL 

3. Traite de chirurgie. 11. Traite de Mineralogie. 

4. Physiologic. 12. Geographie. 

5. Pattrologte iaterne humaine. 13. Vie dea Philoeophes. 

6. Hygiene. 14. Geometrie descriptive. 

7. Traite de Pharmaeie. 15. L'Ecole dn soldat et de Pelotor. 

8. Anatomie Veterinaire. 

Ouvrmgtt traduitt en Arabs et taut preue. 

16. Physiqne. 18. Histotr dn moyeu-age. 

17. Abreg* de l'histoir Aneienne. 19. Traite de bandages et appereil*. 

Ovtrsyt t tr*dnU$ et & isnjirimir. 

20. Traite do Botanique. de la Geographie de Malte Brnn (le tra- 

21. Chimie d'Orfila. duction de eette ouvrage ae continue.) 

22. Traite' de Chimie. 41. Gnide dn Jnge militaire, 

23. Traits des aeeouchemens. 42. Traits de Mythologie. 

24. Mannel de l'aoeonehemens. 43. Progres de la Civilisation en 

25. Physiologie de hagoas. Europe. 

26. Pharmaeie pratique. 44. Traite" d' Agriculture. 

27. Pharmaeie veg&ale. 45. De la culture dn savior par 

28. Chimie pharmaceutique. Julien; 

29. Geographie physique. 46. Mannel des Sapeura. 

30. Geographic eiementaire. 47. Traite de Geometrie MOitain. 

31. Traite 1 des Poisons par Orfila. 48. Table dee Logarithmea. 

32. Geometrie. 49. Vade mecum dee mededns V4* 

33. Arithmetique. te'rinairea. 

34. Algebre. 50. Formnlaire Vetennaire. 

35. Traits de meeaniqne. 51. Reglement sur le service medical 

36. Histoire Moderne. Veterinaire. 

37. Logique de Dumarsais. 52. Fathologie interne Vetenaaire. 

38. Histoire de Charles XII. 53. Pathologic ezterne Veterinaire. 

39. Blemens et principes' dn droit 54. Matierc medieale Veterinaire. 
natural. 55. Anatomie general* Veterinaire. 

40. Los quatres premiers volumes 56. Traite* des Articulation*. 

Oumregm traduitt en turett imprimdt, 

57. Reglemens sur les sendees interi- 64. Traite*. 

eur d r iDfanterie. 65. L'Art de la guerre. 

58. Ordonnances sur les exercises et 66. Geometrie de Legendro. 
manoeuvres d' Infanterie. 67. Campagne de Napoleon en Itans\ 

59. id. id. id. de Cavalerie. 68. Histoir de Napoleon ecrite par 

60. id. id. id. d* Artillerie. lui-meme a* Sainte Heieoe. 

61. Reglemens sur la fabrication et 69. Logique de Dumarsais. 

des Ames. 70. Histoire d* Alexandre le grind 

62. Sertices des officiers. (sons presse.) 

63. lUgleuiebt sur le service en Campagne. 

Je prie, Mr. Le Secretaire, eVenvoyer one copie do oette Note a Calcutta. 

(Signed) Gastaju Bit. 

1838.J Procmtofi ofth* Asiatic Society. 889 

Bmtrmct* of Utter* /ram Major Felix and Col. J. De Hjukta. 
From Mmjor O. Felix, dated %th /«**, 1838. 

" I e n close a letter which came under cover to me from a Spanish gentleman 
who is now the head of Medical establishment in Sgypt. He has also sent a 
great many books printed in Cairo, which are translations from European an* 
thorn into Arabic ; bat, es I think it probable that yon will desire them to be 
■eat to Calcutta, I shall not forward the box till I hear from yon. 

" Of coarse the Bet explains his motives for opening this correspondence, bnt 
I ana assured by Col. D» Hbzbta that he is a man of talent and consideration.*' 

From Major O. Felix, dated $tk July, 1838. 

" I enclose two lists which Gaetani Bit " Le premier mededn chirurgien-de 
S. A. A. V. Roi d* Egypte," as he styles himself, has requested me to forward 
to you. 

" No. 1, is a list of the books he has sent, and No. 2, a list of sll that hare 
been translated into Arabic at Cairo, and any, or all of which he will be happy 
to be allowed to present to you. 

" I have pecked the books named in list No. 1, and shall keep them till I 
hear from yon*" 

From Col. Ds Hbxeta, doled Cairo, 16th of April, 1838. 

" Ton will readily excuse that I intrude on your valuable time, when you will 
aoe that my letter has for its object the promotion of education in India, by 
moan* of elementary and didactic work* well translated in tha vernacular lan- 
guage*. Travelling in this country I had the good fortune to meet my country- 
men Gaetawi Bet and Clot Bit, the first, the favorite and personal physician 
to his Highness the Pasha, and the second the chief inspector of hospitals, and 
both the creators of a medical college not only of males, but also of females for 
tha obetetric art. They hare had the merit of overcoming by dint of persever- 
ance and energy, and even at the risk of their lives, all the prejudices of the 
JMoelem, and to see them dissect, and sonre have already performed on living 
subject* delicate cases of lithotomy. No sooner I heard of the great number 
of translations which they hsve caused to be made into Arabic of medical works 
which are already printed, I ssw the great advantages which might result to 
India and Egypt from a mutual interchange of snch works. My wishes hsve 
been met with alacrity on the part of these high-minded and learned indivi- 
duals, and the consequence is the public letter which will accompany this. 
I have no doubt that Lord Auckland and yourself will sympathise with him 
in philanthropy. 

" What would your Education or School Committee have said if they had wit* 
neseed as I did four days ago a polytechnical ochool, which deserves completely 
its name and in which evejy branch of mathematical science is taught without 
the help of any European language ? 

•' This, I acknowledge, is carrying the thing too far, for we ourselves can- 
not be thoroughly learned without the assistance of the classical languages. But 
1 prefer even this, to making a distantly foreign language the vehicle of all ele* 
mentary learning." 

Mr. Sutherland, Secretary, Committee P. Instruction, informed the 

Society that the esaays intended to compete for Mr. Mum's prise matt 

be delivered in by the 15th March, 1839. 


The following books were presented to the Asiatic Society : 

The Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, for the 
years 1835-6-7— /rem the Royal 8ociety. 
The list of the members of the Royal Society for the 30th November, 1837. 

834 Proceeding* aftke Asiatic Baektf. [Ssnr. 

Proceedings of the Royal Society, Not. from IB to 31, in the yean 1834—1838. 

Abstracts of the papers printed in tie Philosophical Transactions of tke 
Royal Society of London, from 1830 to 1837 inclusive, vols. 3. 183ft to 1837. 

Address of his Royal Highness the Duke of Sussex, K. G. te. Jtc the 
President, read at the anniversary meeting of the Royal Society, on Thursday, 
ffovember 30, 1837. 

Address to Her Majesty referred to in the addreja of H. R. H. the President 
ot the Royal Society. 

Defence of the resolution for omitting Mr. Pannissi's Bibliographical notes 
from the Catalogue of the Royal Society. 

The Sixth Report of the British Association for the advancement of science, 
vol. 5— presented by the Council. 

Annual Report of the Regents of the University of the State of New York;— 
by Me Regents to James PaiNser, and by kirn to the Society. 

A Catechism in the Tai or Skyan language, by Nathan Browk, Esq. printef 
at 8*diya—hj Captain Jenkins. 

Tarjamah Kitab nl Pilasafat, an Arabic work, printed at the Government 
Press of Ma homed Ali, at Cairo. [See correspondence above ] 

Meteorological Register for August 1838— fy the Surveyor General. 

Meteorological Registers from Mauritius in continuation of the series before 
sent— fy M. Julibn Desjabdins. 

LAnDNsn's Cabinet Cyclopedia, •• Statesmen,' 9 toL 5th -^rom the Booh- 

Two' Arabic books, printed, entitled " Destur-ul-Qors^t," and «• Satan 
Ekhtiyar"— presented by Maulavi Za'hub, Ali. 

The Gardens and the Menagerie of the Zoological Society delineated, 2 vols, 
purchased at 16 rs. on recommendation of the Museum Committee. 

Literary and Antiquities 

A despatch from the Acting Secretary at Bombay forwarded, throng! 
the Government of India, Lieut. Pobtans' journal of his visits to Gtrner. 

The facsimiles of the inscriptions are stated to be on their way — when we 
•hall be able to revise the translations and place the whole upon sure foundations. 

Extract of a private letter from Profiteer Lass*n, dated Bonn, 19th 
February, 1838, (which however only reached Calcutta on the 16th Sen* 
tember) was read by the Secretary, announcing his discovery of the 
Baetrian language being closely allied to, if not identical with, the Peti, 
and propounding a new alphabet, in almost exact accordance with that 
adopted in the July No. of the Journal. 

We venture to extract the' passage alluded to :— 

41 To the very curious fact, that those inscriptions axe la Pali (or perhaps 
Prakrit), let me present you with the analogous one, that the legends of the 
Baetrian coins, at least in my opinion, ere also in Prakrit. But here I most ask 
your pardon for some alterations I make in your alphabet of that character. 
The letter ^ or 3 cannot, I think, be d, because this vowel is not expressed 
by any sign in other places* where it ought to be written. I propose to read it 
fJl or J. Then I find, that \ may every where be read ^r or. 4. The legend ea 
the coin of Am yntos (Asiatic Journal, v. p. 720) I read thus: lltferny 4 /ejNWCff 
emito. This dialect omits n before t and. d, as the names prove ; jayavato is 
therefore the Prakrit mnffij, Sanskrit ejrf^vji^, the victorious. The word for 
eWcaref is apalihetd, the Prakrit of the Sanskrit ^ nyfd^fl :, the unrepabed. 
The coin of Atos (vol. IV. plate XXII. No. 1.) I read : Mahar*j6 r^edenfi 
maheto Ay6, You have yourself observed, that ^ di, is the correct reading, 
Mahato is sgain for inflllr, the great. The name of MaNAMnna would in Prakrit 
drop the r (in vwlpov), and this western dialect besides the a before d. I 

18G&) Pr<**1ing* qfth* Asiatic &e*%r. BZ$ 

ttmrcfora ss »p a a e, that the penultimate letter it in fact another d, tad that tho 
spoiling i* aaiaaefo'. Thii 4 recurs in the title for jnet t which may be damiko, 
•* vf*s*T v. *f*jssjr *o Pr^rit. 

* * The uncnrtailed form of k it, if I may be allowed to go on with my conjec- 
tures, "to, and not the figure, yon have adopted from die eoina of EvoaaTinas. 1 

appeal to thote of Antlalkidbs and to the titles, in which *"fo is immediately be- 
fore the final 6. The term for saviour, I am not so certain of ; it may be tatarO, 
that U the Prakrit *HTT^T or perhaps WT^TTT for the Santkrit ^nTT, **• 
rescuer. The native word for brother e/ tht king pussies mo very mach, and 
I am as yet quite at a loss. The carious coin of Aoatkoclkia presents another 
ihjacalty. S^Srpowos is really a Greek word found in late writers, as HiLiononus, 
nf for instance as epithet to {%hos * a zeal which emulates the gods.' It is 
generis communis and the genitive of the feminine like the masculine : there- 
fore I propose reading eEOTPOnOT, if I am not mistaken, the omicvon is still 
visible. Do not, 1 pray, take this correction unkindly, we have at Bonn no 
Bactrian coias, but plenty of Greek dictionaries. The reverse cannot have 
the name of the queen, on account of the termination in p, 6 and I believe 
yon are quite right, when you suppose the epithets to be (great) king and 
saviour. The name might by my slphabet be reed Mikoaido, in fact MiyMtrftnt 
may be a Greek word, though I cannot prove its real existence as a name. 

" It will please yon to hear, that your conjecture on rtwapiearev has also been 
proposed by a German translator of Strata, Mr. Gaoexuen, who, however, has 
not had the happy thought of. comparing the name with Surashtrm. Soma 
manuscripts leave out the rttr entirely, and this I should prefer reading t^*t« 
loftdtev Ka\ovfi4rriv *«1 rfc* 3ty«priftor /WtActar. My -conjecture Trigette is 
hardly tenable ; it must be some country on the coast* Ptolkmt's Syrastrone is 

the peninsula of Giffera/e, and the kingdom of Siesavis (^JTef 1a Sanskrit ?) 
must be placed near Baroda. Ptoliiit has a town, 8Mp*M on the Nerkudd/n^ 
where it is joined by the Mophis or Myites, at least according to his information. 
Here at all events we must seek for Siqeetis." 

A letter from Professor Sohuegbl of the same plaee, acknowledged the 

receipt of the 2nd and 3rd vols, of the Mahabharata, and of the Journal. 

Re hopes shortly to present a return in kind. The following extract 

alludes to a discussion which occupies the learned of Europe at present : 

11 J'ignore si le Journal Parisian, la Revue dee deux Mondee, vous pendent 
a Calcutta. Dans eette supposition lee deux autree pieces n 9 amrafent besoin 
4'aueune explication ulteiieure. Dans le second cabier dn mois d'Aoat 37 so 
trevfo no memoire de M. LarnoNKn, inacrit : Sur P origin* Qrecque dee 
Zodiaquee pritendut Bgyptiene. M. Lbteonks occupe le premier rsngparmi les 
Hellenistes et les antiquaires de la France actuelle ; j'entretiens avec lui dea 
relations fort amicaiea. 11 a era par erreur que j'adherais a son hypothese ; ce qui 
■'a force* dVntamer cette discussion. Les assertions de M. Lktkonnk vont 
phu loin que le titre de son Memoire n'indique : il vent que les douse constel- 
lations dn sodiaque, partout oh ellea se trouvent, auraient et$ empruntes aux 
Ones. J 'abandonne lea Egyptians a lour sort : Je penee q« 'lis, se tireront 
d'afaire. Mala quant aux Indians* je protests. Dans lea quatre distiquee 
Sanskrits de ma noon* vous trouveres une indication legere de mes principaux 
argUBaena, dont j'ai developpe* une partie settlement dans le journal orientaliete 
se M. Evtamk I' examinerai ensuite la nomenclature Indienne et vraiment 
snekane dans son rapport avec les sodiaquea sculptes. Je n'en eonnais que 
eaux qui ayeat dte* graves : 1' uu dans les Transactions Philosopbiques, de la 
•oe. Royale dee Sciences pour Pan 1772 (repdtd par Bailly), V autre dans les 
mfaoires de la Soo. Asiat. de Londres, vol. III. pi. 1. M. Lsteomks les 
rejetta comma modcrne*. Cola n'est peut-dtre pas bien s6r, an moins al'egard 
ee eelui du Cap Comorin ; mais soit I je le veux bien. C'eat an argument ea 
■» far ear* 

• We have not space to insert the Saaskiit verses*— En. 

IX.— M*t*orotogical IUgitUr. 

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sa= a e s i : 

8 3 S S S*S 




IWUMJWaMliMgllB gtggg 



g'tSsS^ssllag^its^iSlsSiglSaaS 1 5 1|«ttw 


*-<id ueJd*« J 


JH > *™^ Hi s '' g8> »*saa»8iea3gsa8a 8sass 


ip(«^il^9»mwmffi6H [I 

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No. 82.— October, 1838, 

I.—» Report of a visit made to the supposed Coal Field at Bidfeegurh 
(VifayagadhaJ. By Mr. Geo rob Osborne, Sub. Dep. Opium 
• Agents Benares division. 

The existence of coal fields in the perguna of Bidfeegurh, has from 
time to time been reported, by an individual of the name of Hyland, 
who, from self-interested motives, long refused to disclose the locality, 
but at length announced by letter to Capt Stewart, Fort Adjutant, 
at Chunar y his willingness to disclose the site of the mine, to any 
person that Government might be pleased to appoint for that purpose. 

3. On the occasion of the visit of the Right Honorable the Gover- 
nor General to Chunar, in November last, his Lordship was pleased to 
honor me with his commands to proceed to the Bidjeegurh' perguna^ 
to examine and report upon the nature and extent of Mr. Hyland's 

4. In obedience to these instructions, I accordingly left Chunar on 
Monday morning the 27th of November last, and arrived at Bidfeegurh 
on the 1st of December. 

5. In the 3rd para, of the letter to which reference has been al- 
ready made, Mr. Hyland states : " The place from which my speci- 
mens are supplied, is situated about 8 miles southeast of Bidfeegurh 
fort, and about half a mile east from an unfrequented pass called Umlah 
Ghat : it is there found in a stratum 3 feet thick, &c." 

6. In his depositions before Mr. Woodcock, dated 23rd August, 
1837, (vide page 33,) he further states : " I discovered good coal 3J 
miles southeast of the village ofKodie in the jungle, and I brought away 

5 H 

840 Supposed Coal FiM at BMfeegwk. [Oct. 

a handful : the vein of coal was 3 feet thick, 1 foot and \ from the 
face, and running horizontally." 

7. Accordingly, my lint attention waa directed to this locality, to 
which Mr. Hylawd undertook to conduct me. On the 2nd Decem- 
ber, therefore, in company with him I descended the Omlah Ghat. On 
the 3rd Mr. Hyland pointed out two spots, where, he then stated to 
me "he had been informed, that coal had been excavated, on some 
former occasion, but that he himself had never obtained ocular de- 
monstration of its presence." 

8. At the first of these two places, unpromising as it appeared, I coot* 
menced excavations, at a spot laid down from observed bearings. In the 
accompanying sketch it is marked f, and lies at the foot of a perpendicu- 
lar precipice, over which in the rains a torrent is precipitated, and which 
in the course of time, has worn away the rock, so as fully to develop 
the stratification. At the base of this fall, is seen a vein of what I con- 
sider to be hard flinty shale, which I find to possess a specific gravity 
of from 2.83 to 2.547, and of which a brief examination is given below. 

9. The width of this fall is about 100 feet, and its height about 80> 
of which 60 feet, or perhaps more, from the top, are strata of sand- 
stone ; then comes the vein of shale, running in nearly a horiaontal di- 
rection southeast by south, and varying in thickness from 12 to 14 feet : 
the exposed surface appears to be a hard shale or flinty slate. I penetrat* 
ed, for 8 or 10 feet below the mass, at right angles to its direction or 
strike, and arrived at a hard sandstone. I then sunk a vertical abaft 
but was stopped by a similar rock, about 3 feet below the surface* The 
opening of a small cave presenting itself on the left extremity, I had it 
enlarged, hoping by this means to penetrate to the rear of the vein, 
the cave was not more than 18 inches in height, and appeared to run 
nearly horizontally. I was in hopes that the north side of the cave 
would have afforded encouraging indications, but was disappointed, 
meeting only with the same indurated slate-stone. 

10. About 1 000 or 1200 yards southeast of this spot, appears another 
bed of shale, or rather perhaps another portion of the same bed, at the 
base of the rock forming the bank of the adjoining nullah at g ; a 
similar vein is also developed at h. 

11. The nullah at g runs through the formation, which appears 
at intervals on the abrupt face of the banks of the nullah on either 
side. About o the formation is exposed for about 14 feet in perpen- 
dicular height ; it is composed of thin alternate undulating strata of a 
flinty slate and a species of indurated day of about half an inch to S 
inches in thickness ; it is harder as it approaches die bottom of the 

teas.] 8*ppo$$d CW PiM at BidJHgurk. 841 

nullah, where it seems to paw into a hard bluish-black sandstone j it is 
there exceedingly hard, requiring several smart blows with the h «"!"nr 
before a fracture can be effected. The formation about the bed of the 
nullah is singular ; it is composed of a quartsoae rock, or a saccharoid 
quarts, in distinct granular concretions, emerging at angles varying 
from 13J* to 85°, but dipping south upon the northern side of the 
nullah* and dipping north, from the other side, at angles varying front 
3t£* to 46}*, 

12. The bed of the nullah is composed of rolled boulders of flinty 
elate, passing into a very hard sandstone. The strata of shale are near* 
ry horizontal, gently undulating, and as they disappear from one bank 
ef the nullah, they reappear at no great distance upon the opposite 
aide, thus alternately appearing and disappearing throughout the whole 
length of the nullah. The same general formataon holds good, wherever 
I have here examined* The vein appears as if crushed by (he vast 
super-imposed weight of sandstone, which here towers op to about 6 or 
700 feet. 

18. The inclined strata of quartaoae rock, as shewn above, in 
many cases, run obliquely across the bed of the nullah, presenting a 
semi-cylindrical appearance, and almost appear as if constructed for a 
centering, on which a tunnel was to be supported t the strata are con* 
centric, and from three to six inches in thickness,--*>the formation is 
hard, heavy, bluish-black, mixed with shades of red, and appears to be 
the connecting link between sandstone and flinty slate. 

14. All the specimens of shale obtained here, were anxiously 
assayed by the blow-pipe ; they are easily heated to redness, but do not 
appear to contain any combustible matter in their composition ; with 
alkalies, they fuse into a slightly green glass, denoting the presence pf 
siliceous matter, or oxide of iron. 

15. Mr. Hylahb next directed my attention to a spot marked a 
in the sketch. 

16. On commencing my examination here, I first proceeded to the 
point b, an absolute precipice, of about 120 feet in depth by about 150 
to 300 feet in breadth : over this in the rainy season, a torrent of some 
magnitude is precipitated. The nullahs b f and o are themselves 
mountain-torrents; they all however meet at n, and after a heavy and 
continued shower, must fall with grand effect into the chasm below. 

17. At this season of the year (December) the ohannel was nearly 
dry ; the stratification was consequently fully developed. Below the fall 
is a stratum of hard shaly matter, exactly resembling that at v. This 


842 Supposed Coal Futld at Bidpegvrh. [Oct. 

vein, also, is nearly horizontal, and to be penetrated only by great labour. 
Blasting might be had recourse to, but for the tottering and overhang- 
ing masses above. This operation however, would require much more 
time than was at my command. 

18. The bed of the nullah is composed of enormous masses, pre- 
cipitated in the course of ages, from the summits of the eminences on 
each side of the nullah. Some of the blocks contain possibly 1000 cubic 
feet or more, the interstices are filled with boulders to an unknown 
depth. The ridge b, a, c, runs southwest by west, the highest point 
being at c ; the strata are nearly horizontal, and dip to the northwest, 
at an angle varying from 3* to 13* ;-the point c I estimate at 400 
feet above the bed of the nullah, of which 60 or 70 feet from the 
top is an absolute precipice ; thence to the nullah the slope is at an 
angle of about 5°, and covered with jungle of the most dense descrip- 
tion. The width of the ridge from c to d probably exceeds 800 
yards. I followed the course of the nullah to r, where I found lime- 
stone dipping southwest at an angle of 14* 20*, and returned to camp 
by a difficult pass at d, through the thickest grass and bamboo jungle 
I ever beheld. A tiger sprung on one of my attendants near this 
spot, but the man was rescued. 

19. I next commenced a close examination of the point a, which, 
however unlike the description, is the spot to which Mr. Hylamd 
alludes in his deposition (page 87, Quest. 15) where, he says, when 
asked what obstacles he met with, they were " Large stones and earth 
which appeared to cover the spot. I did not dig and therefore cannot tell 
what quantity, as I did not see the size of the stones clearly." The 
first glance, was sufficient to convince me that no human agency 
had deposited the massive rocks, in the position I found them ; added 
to which bamboos, and varieties of forest trees, the growth of years, had 
firmly rooted themselves in the soil. A colony of wild bees had also 
established themselves immediately above the spot ; their dislodgetnent 
proved troublesome and caused some delay. 

20. On the 6th December, I ascended to the precipitous crag, 
about 150 feet or more above the bed of the nullah, and commenced 
a careful examination of this spot. I here found shale in veins of 
about a foot in thickness, alternating with sandstone. I penetrated 
some little way into the veins, but from their hardness and position, 
made but small progress ; the exposed part of the strata presenting the 
same vertical' plane, it was necessary to undermine the shale by remov* 
ing the stratum immediately below, and this, being a very hard sand* 
stone, was a matter of some difficulty. 

16380 Suppostd Coal Field at Bidjeegurh. 843 

21. In this vicinity, I observed two or three small- exudations of 
petroleum* This was so far encouraging, for Professor Jameson observes, 
" it generally flows from rocks of the coal formation, and usually 
from the immediate vicinity of beds of coal, &c." The surfaces of 
projecting rocks below the springs are slightly coated with it, where, 
from long exposure to the sun, it has become completely hard, but 
without losing its characteristic smell. 

22. On the 7th December, I continued the excavations on the face 
of the rock ; dug down deeper and laid bare the original formation. 
The whole of the space within the dotted line from a to b was now 
laid bare, exhibiting only alternate strata of sandstone and shale* Into 
one vein marked b, I penetrated as far as the workmen could well 
act; the roof of this vein was formed of a singular conglomerate of from 
three to six inches in thickness ; c is a vein of slate, which might 
answer* for roofing slate, as some of the lamina I broke out, were 
nearly two feet in length. 

23. Small plates of talc were separated from between the lamina 
of slate* and some few on being split presented an appearance, as if 
they had been covered with a coarse gold leaf. 

24. The space from a toe is what Mr. Hyland imagines has been 
artificially closed, and that it covered the entrance to a coal mine ; I 
had in consequence, every particle of soil (which in my opinion is the 
gradual accumulation of vegetable decomposition, mixed with earthy 
particles fallen from the summit), removed to a depth of ten feet or 
more, until I was stopped by the original sandstone rock at o. 

25. I consider it to be a mere waste of time and money, to dig 
deeper in that direction, and I am strengthened in this opinion from 
examination of the formation about the fall. At b, between three and 
400 yards north of the present excavations, and about 150 feet 
below there exists nothing but hard flinty slate alternating with sand- 

26* The veins of slate were traced along the surface of the rock 
for about 100, or even 150 feet, without the slightest difference in 
the general formation : several masses of a tubaceous limestone were 
excavated, containing imbedded fragments of slate, and (apparently) 
traces of bones. I also found the bones of a human being, about 3 
feet below the surface, but judging from their appearance they had lain 
there for a century. 

27. The above described excavations were made, entirely upon the 
statements of Mr. Hyland ; he has failed in pointing out a spot, even 
answering to the description given at pages 30 and 33 of his deposition* 

644 Supposed Coal Field at Bidfeegvrh. [Oct. 

It is not possible to precipitate a mass of rock from the summit, so u 
to remain on the spot marked «, at page 11 ; the ledge there is barely 
broad enough for two men to pass abreast— in many places not for one 
man to find sure footing. 

88. I have now carefully examined the locality pointed out by Mr. 
Hyland: (vide sketch.) The strata from a to I may be called a 
longitudinal section, laid bare to the fall at B ; it runs, doubtless under- 
ground to i ; is exposed on alternate sides of the nullah to g> rm» 
underground to r, where a transverse section is exposed : an obhqu* 
section is again seen at h. An imaginary horitontal section ef these 
parts, I estimate at about 600, or perhaps 700 feet below the summit 
of the circumjacent crags, l and m, &c* 

29. At x, page 4, is seen the mine of Kusis, (crude sulphate of 
iron,) containing about 39 per cent of the dry salt : (vide analysis, pegs 
41.) The vein follows the curve at the bottom of the precipice, about 
200 feet from the summit. 1 had not sufficient leisure to examine the 
extent of the mine, but from general description, I learn the mineral nay 
be obtained in almost any quantity. It appears in the state of a fine 
white efflorescence, commingled with the slaty matter of the matrix. 

80. Mr. Hyland having thus failed in pointing out a deposit of 
coal, or even the existence of the mineral, I did not consider myself 
justified in remaining longer, especially, as one out of my three weeks 
had thus expired, and so very unprofitably. I therefore left on the 
9th December, ascended the narrow and difficult pass at M, impracti* 
cable for beasts of burden, and reached Bidfeegurh in the evening. 
Mr. Hyland however determined to remain behind at the late scene of 
operations, with the view of regaining the entrance of some sup- 
posed hidden mine. Mr. H. has distinctly acknowledged to me, that 
he does not know whence the specimens of coal he exhibited were 
obtained ; he merely supposed them to have been dug out from the spot 
lately examined by me : there I have determined, it does not exist: hi 
has moreover confessed to me, on two several occasions, and in direct 
opposition to the 4th para, of his letter at page 31, that he had never 
seen coal excavated from the Ghaggir nudee. 

31. On Monday the 11th December, I marked out a spot in the 
Samdha nullah, below the, now deserted, fortress of Bidfeegurh^ erected 
a bund, drained the enclosure and proceeded to denude a portion of 
the bank, and expose the formation of " bituminous marie slate,* which 
I find abounds in all parts of the valley of the Ghaggir and Samdka, 
and of which, my present locality was selected as a fair example of the 

xi r/f rv xlv/. 

<f*rf* '/f *ft ft 


1*88.] 8uppo$*d Coal Field at Bidjeegurh. 64ft 

82. I here prosecuted my researches until the evening of the 15th. 
I penetrated to some depth below the bed of the nullah, and came to 
what I am inclined to consider a primitive rock, without meeting with 
the slightest indication of coal. The following sketch shews the result 
of my labours. The dotted line a, 6, is the outline of the face of the 
nullah ; the strong line a c b, is the sectional line of the part removed, 
exposing the strata as they occur. 

83. The rock which I found protruding at b, was so excessively 
hard, that fragments were with great difficulty excavated ; the tools 
from the Ckunar magazine were broken ; the common native imple- 
ments were fractured at once ; the rock exhibits numerous threads of 
iron, a specimen marked, I have the honor to forward. By analysis 
I find it contains about 85 per cent, of iron (vide page 44) ; the want, 
however of a platinum crucible, alone, prevented my attempting a more 
decisive analysis. 

84. The recent fracture of the massive slate had a greenish-black 
appearance ; it was slaty, splintering with a glistening lustre ; when the 
slate was drier, it was more of an Indigo-black. The upper surface of 
the strata at c, was perfectly smooth, the line of separation between 
that and the bituminous marie slate beautifully distinct : the strata 
run northwest, dipping in that direction at 1° 40'. 

85. I had not leisure to ascertain the depth to which this interest* 
ing formation descended : the large metalliferous mass before mentioned 
was enclosed, or enveloped, in the strata, the form very irregular, and 
the cavities formed by its protuberancies were filled up with smaller 
slaty fragments, some in a pulverized state, united into a tolerably 
compact mass by water— which arose almost faster than it could be 
baled out. 

86. The bituminous marie slate, super-imposed upon the massive 
slate, follows the same order of formation ; the divisions of the strata 
are not at right angles with the plane of the horizon, but recline at 
an angle of 20£* ; they are separable with the greatest ease, and with 
care might be taken up in layers ; they all dip to the northwest at an 
angle of 2£° : these seams are crossed by others at an angle of 37£ § . 

37. This bituminous marie slate is to be seen, cropping out from 
the banks, in a very great number of places along the Samdha aud 
Ghaggir nullahs, but not a vestige of coal. My own observations* 
therefore, coupled with the corroborative statements of many residents 
of this neighbourhood, lead me to the conclusion, that coal has never 
Jrf been found in the bed of the Ghaggir, op of its tributary rivulets. 
I, however, began to trace the channel towards its confluence with the 

846 Supposed Coat Field at Bidjeegurh. [Oct. 

Soane, and the annexed is a general section of the hills of my then 
locality ; the heights are merely estimated, not having an opportunity 
of measuring them ; the scenery of the back-ground is also sketched is, 
•hewing the position of the fortress of Bidjeegurh. 

88. At a is a section of the Ghaggir ; there it is deep, its vitas 
being stopped by a solid bund of masonry, on which is erected a band- 
some bridge of ten arches, now in good repair. By a Hindee inscrip- 
tion it appears to have been constructed in 1829 Sumbut, (1771 A. D.) 
by Bulwdnt Singh Deo, The Ghaggir, in its course to o, is precipi- 
tated over two falls, the last of which is of some magnitude ; the point I 
is at the junction of the Samdha and Ghaggir nullahs, where the strata 
of sandstone and shale, are confusedly and violently contorted. 

39. On Monday the 18th December, 1 reached the Soane by a 
pass, known as the Ek Poway Ghat. On the route I passed over 
an extensive formation of what, from its geological position, I consider 
to be mountain limestone. It is of various colors and the fighter 
description, will, as 1 have already ascertained, answer for the purposes 
of lithography*. 

40. Other varieties become black on exposure to the atmosphere) 
the specimen, marked D, appears capable of receiving a good polish; 
in this case, it will answer all the purposes— in met, it is a black marble. 
I had not leisure to ascertain the extent of this interesting formation ; 
from native report however it is by no means limited ; its general dip 
is north, and northwest, and it is well developed in the bed and banks of 
the nullah near Markoundeh. 

41. About a mile south of this village it is covered by soil, or only 
occasionally seen ; it is seen again on the banks of the Soane, and there 
reposing, upon Grey wacke : this formation I traced for 3 miles along 
the banks of the river, east of my encampment near the confluence of 
the Ghaggir with the Soane. 

42. On the right bank of this river, 1 also found limestone ia 
regular strata protruding from the banks, and whilst examining this 
formation, I accidentally picked up a single specimen of a bituminous 

43. Not to enter into a minute detail of my labours, it will, I trust, 
suffice, to say, that for four days, I narrowly scrutinised the banks of the 
Soane, the bed and banks of the Rehr nullah for about 3 miles, the 
Bijul for about 10 miles, and the Nowah nudee, for about 3 miles: 
from the last three, I did not obtain a single specimen of coal, whilst 
from the bed of the Soane I collected about 30 or 40 specimens of 

* See ipecimen C. 

1888.] Supposed Coed Field at Bidjeegurh. 847 

various sixes, the aggregate weight of which did not exceed one pound: 
this I considered as conclusive evidence of the specimens having been 
washed down, only by the waters of the Soane. 

44. Nearly a month had now elapsed : I was in consequence, reluc- 
tantly compelled to return to Chunar, with the intention of applying to 
the Benares opium agent, for extension of leave for another fortnight, 
in order to prosecute the clue I had just obtained. Before however 
leaving this part of the country, I caused to be notified to all classes 
of inhabitants the object of my search, offering at the same time a re* 
ward of Rs. 200 to any individual who would engage to point out a 
coal deposit in the perguna, and had the satisfaction of seeing them 
readily interest themselves in the search. I then returned to Chunar 
on Friday the 29th December, 1887. 

45. As already stated in the 7th para, of my letter, I readily ob- 
tained an extension of leave for a fortnight, and arrived at the Soane, 
as stated in the 8th and 9 paragraphs, on the 29th January, 1888. 

46. I commenced a minute search along the bed of the Soane, and 
also upon its banks, from the former I collected a number of small 
specimens of coal, all however, much to my mortification bearing evi- 
dent traces of having been washed from a considerable distance. I 
continued to progress westerly, and passed over a second formation of 
black mountain limestone, dipping westerly. This I traced for some 
distance up the Chutwar nullah, without meeting any encouraging 
indication : on the contrary, I found the primitive clay slate protruding 
on the highest parts of the adjacent hills : in other parts I found it 
alternating with limestone. 

47. The nature of my search had by this time become familiar 
with the natives of the country ; the offer of a pecuniary reward had the 
effect of inducing them to exert themselves in the search : they all 
agreed in the opinion, that the specimens I had obtained were washed 
from a deposit, situated near the source of the Soane; this would bring 
the locality in about the same parallel of latitude with the coal fields of 
Pekmaw and Sirgmja, as described by Captains Franklin and Sage, 
in the " Gleanings of Science* 9 for July 1880— consequently, I pre- 
sume that, were the fact of a coal deposit established in that locality, 
the same causes that have prevented the Palamow mines from being 
worked, would also operate here, and on account of its distance 
from the Ganges at Chunar and Mirxapore, in a still greater degree, 
so as utterly to preclude all idea of the same being brought to advan- 
tageous account. 



848 ' Report on specimens of Coal. [Oct, 

48. The specimens of coal, which I collected during my last search, 
amount in the aggregate to about 16 pounds ; they were found lying 
on the sands of the Soane, between Silpee and Burdee, a distance of 
more than 30 miles ; the fragments vary in weight, from a few grains to 
pieces of three or four ounces, and they all present the appearance of 
Jiaviug been washed from a distance : those marked E, were collected 
in my last examination. 

49. My time having now once more expired, I was most reluc- 
tantly compelled to relinquish all further inquiry ; before, however, 
returning to Chunar, I dispatched by a sure conveyance, copies of the 
offer of reward to Burdee, and the principal villages in that direction 
on the Soane / and if a coal formation does exist in any part of the 
country thus lately examined, I feel assured that it will not be long 
before its discovery is reported to the authorities at Mirzapore. 

50. In conclusion, I beg leave to apologize for all defects which 
on perusal may be found in the preceding report : the attempts at geo- 
logical inferences, are given with the utmost possible deference. In 
this branch of science I have had but little experience—in fact it is 
with much hesitation I have ventured at all on the subject. On 
second thoughts, however, I deemed it best, even at the risk of error, 
to give the facts just as they were impressed on my mind, and in so 
doing I trust I may not have materially erred. My important opium 
duties have left me but little leisure, even supposing I possessed the 
ability — to prepare an elaborate report : the foregoing is consequently 
written in great haste, and hence I more readily venture to hope, that 
all imperfections may meet with the most indulgent consideration. 

II. — Report on ten specimens of Coal from Captain Burhis. 

Although on a general inspection of the specimens contained is 
Captain Bdbnbs's despatch, some disappointment is felt at not finding 
any, which may be at once pronounced to be ordinary working coal, 
such as occurs in abundance in England, and is obtained in Burdwa*, 
Assam, and other parts of India, still there is enough among them to 
encourage hopes, of finding coal in profitable beds in the vicinity of 
the Indus, when more carefully explored. 

Four of the specimens are in fact of the very purest form of mineral 
coal, — that in which all vegetable appearance is lost, and a semi-crys- 
talline homogeneous structure supervenes, the result apparently of 
fusion under heavy pressure and confinement. 

1838.] Report on specimens ofCoaL 849 

This jet, or pitch coal, were it found in sufficient quantities, would 
not only answer well as a fuel, but would be superior to all other 
coals for the particular object of getting up steam, on account of the 
large proportion of inflammable gas it disengages under combustion. } 

Of this description are Nos. 1, 2 and 3 from the neighbourhood of 
Kalabaghy and No. 10 from the northwest of Dera Ismael Khan. 
Captain Burkks says that the former " was found in abundance"— 
and that the latter " should it prove a good coal, will be invaluable, — 
being in the neighbourhood of the Indus, and in a country where the 
poverty of the people will make them rejoice to discover any means of 
improving their condition/* 

Of the excellence of the coal there can be no doubt ; there is I 
fear less certainty of its abundance. It occurs in very thin seams, 
which will not pay for the working if they lie in a hard rock, but if 
seams even of a few feet thickness are met with, Captain Burnes's 
anticipations will be amply fulfilled. The pitch coal of Mergui which 
closely assimilates in chemical composition with the Indus jet, is stated 
by Dr. Hblfer to lie in a bed six feet thick, whereas the other is 
barely an inch thick, and the veins, and natural cleavages, are every 
where filled up with calcareous spar. 

No. 5, the bituminous shale of Cohdty was examined by me in 1838 ; 
it is not at all adapted for burning in steamers, though, from the quan- 
tity of gaseous matter expelled, it might be turned to account, in 
default of better fuel, on shore. The same remark will apply with 
more force to No. 7, a bituminous limestone, in which the slaty struc- 
ture is not perceptible. 

The existence of large rocky formations, so strongly impregnated 
with naphtha and bitumen, is indeed evidence of the proximity of coal 
beds, from which, by the action of volcanic heat, we may suppose the 
volatile matter to be forced into the porous superincumbent strata. In' 
Assam, where so many beds of rich lignite and pitch coal, not differing 
in composition from the jet of Kalabaghy have been lately found, springs 
of naphtha are common, and were known long previous to the dis- 
covery of the coal. 

To a similar origin may be traced the bituminous exudations from 
rocks in the Punjab and Cabul, of which we have examples in 
No. 6 and No. 8. The former of these may be called a bituminous 
brine, for it contains a large proportion of common salt, attributable 
doubtless to the rock-salt deposits of the same range of hills. 

Another bituminous exudation from near Ghazni, given to me by 
5o2 • ' 

850 Report on specimens of Coal. [Oct. 

Shxkh Kkuaiiat Ali, and called nwmta, was (band by Mr; Pin- 
dikotom to contain nitrons salts, sulphur, and bitumen. 

Of a similar nature may be the combustible No. 8, from the north 
of Cabul, but I have as yet only examined it as a combustible. 

I now proceed to the detailed examination of each specimen, adding, 
for convenience, the remarks of Captain Bubkes, as to their locality. 
I have also placed at the foot of the list the muster lately received 
from Captain Wade, Political Agent at Loodiena. I have deposited 
a small fragment of each kind, in sealed bottles, in the Asiatic Society! 
museum, for presentation. 

J. Prinsbp, Atsay Matter. 

Specimen I. — " From Shakandam near Kalabagh, about 15 mflei 
from the Indus found in abundance half way up a hill two miles aorta 
of the village." 

A fine jet or pitch coal : of a' glossy velvet black color; does not 
soil ; may be cut and worked ; fracture conchoids! and vitreous:— bat s 
slight asphaltic smell. The fragments coated with an earthy matter 
easily washed off. Specific gravity 1.166 ; burns with rich flame sad 
copious scintillations. ' Composition as a fuel- 
Volatile matter, 50.9 

Carbon or coke, 47.5 

Earthy residue, 1.6 


Specimen 2. — " From another locality of the Shakandara deposit, 
at the base of the hill among sandstone/' 

This is precisely the same jet as above described, but many of the 
small fragments have the sandy matrix adhering, hence on an avenge 
specimen uneleaned the result was: specific gravity 1.454. 

Composition — Volatile matter, 84.3 

Carbon, 18.7 

Earthy matter, 47.0 


Specimen 8.—" Coal of Kalabagh, found three miles south of 
Shakandara, and nearer Kalabagh, in a fissure of the rock, to be seen 
in three different places off the high road."— B. 

This is more of a coal (or rather lignite) than either of the pre- 
ceding. It shews the woody fibre, and the alternation of glisteninf 

1888.] Report on epeeknem of CoaL 851 

bituminous, with doll carbonaceous seams. It bums with much scin- 
1, and poor flame:— specific gravity 1.470 to 1.556 ? 

Composition — Volatile matter, 49.8 

(of which water 7.6) 

Carbon, 47.6 

Earthy residue, farraginous, 9.6 


Specimen 4. — " Coal of Mukud. The locality of this specimen is 
not well authenticated. The three preceding were dug out, but this 
was brought in, as was said, from Mukud." 

Highly vitreous jet, of a more resplendent velvet gloss than the 
foregoing. Seam of carbonate of lime adhering to one corner : burns 
with richer flame, and slight sparkling ; — water given off on sand bath 
only 2.7 per cent.: — specific gravity 1.122, being the lightest of the 
series, and approaching closely to pure asphaltum, but it does not fuse, 
when heated, before ignition, nor is it readily, if at all, soluble in 
naphtha, even when boiling. 

Composition — Volatile matter, 63 .6 

Carbon, 32.8 

Earthy matter, ferruginous, 3.6 


Specimen 5.—" Kohdt coal, similar to that sent down in 1833; 
locality Lachee> Kurpa, Jutta and lemael Khul."— B. 

Dull earthy bituminous shale, bunts with good flame, and leaves 
sissy ash. Specific gravity 1.619. The specimen analysed in 1833 
(see Journ. As. Soc. vol. II.) had a somewhat higher weight, 1.670. 
I place the two results side by side* 

1833 Specimen. 8838 Specimen. 

Volatile matter, 37.0 3.04 

Carbon, 6.2 14.9 

Earthy matter, 56.8 54.7 

100.0 100.0 

Specimen 6.—" Coal ef Soerkh-tby 15 miles S. S. E. of the city of 
Kabul, near Moosye. It is called i Khur t by the learned: there are 
tvfo kinds as may be seen by the specimens. There are copper mines 
near it."— B. 

852 Report on specimens of Coal. [Oct. 

- This is a curious substance — a saline earth resembling wackenin 
appearance, strongly impregnated with bitumen, or mineral oil; of a 
strong smell, saline taste* and deliquescent from the salt it contains 
— whence probably its name of * khur (kshara salt J. It has i spe- 
cific gravity 1.851— and burns with a good flame. 
Composition (in the dry way)— 

Volatile matter, 27.3 

Carbon, 16.9 

Earthy matter, partly calcareous, and salt, 55.8 

(I have not yet analyzed this as to its saline contents.) 
Specimen 7. — " Coal from Nour> 10 miles north of the ancient city 
of Ghazni. The specific gravity is higher than that of all the 
foregoing. " — B . 

This is a bituminous limestone, smelling of naphtha when rubbed or 
freshly broken — leaves a mark on paper, and burns with a poor flame, 
when well heated. Specific gravity 2.056. Analysed in the ordinaray 
manner it gives off- 
Volatile matter 12.9 

Carbon, 32.2 

Earthy matter chiefly cal- 
careous, 54.9 

As, in driving off the volatile matter, or incinerating the carbona- 
ceous, it is evident that some, if not all, of the carbonic acid would be 
disengaged from the lime, I repeated the trial, but with results nearly 
the same. The earthy residue 54.9 digested in weak nitric acid, left 
but 1 .5 undissolved : the 53.4— (or in the second experiment 50.5) of 
lime, would require 41 .0 or 39.0 of carbonic acid for its neutralisation, 
or more than the carbon and bitumen together ! We can only suppose 
therefore, that the presence of the bitumen had prevented the absorp- 
tion of carbonic acid, or supplied its place — a fact it will be worth 
while to ascertain, when I can get another, and a larger specimen. 

Specimen 8. — " From Nujrow to the north of Kabul. This is a 
combustible, but not coal, though it may be found to indicate it*" — B. 

This substance resembles No. 6 in some respects, but it is softer, 
has a more disagreeable smell, and does not appear to contain salt ; it is 
adhesive, yields to the nail, of dull earthy brown color, specific 
gravity 2 031 ; it burns with a clear flame not very bright. 

1838.] Report on specimens of Coal. 853 

Composition — Volatile matter, 26.1 

Carbon, 10.5 

Earthy matter, principally 

silicious, - 63.4 


A further supply of this curious matter for a more rigid examination, 
and information as to, manner in which it occurs, would he desirable. 

Specimen 9. — " Coal of Jamoo in the Panjdb : this was brought to 
roe from Umritsir, and if it proves good, the locality of it, as being close 
to the Chendby will be nearly as valuable, as if found on the Indus." — B. 
The specimen of this coal is so minute, that I can hardly put confi- 
dence in the trial made on it in my laboratory. It would appear to 
be a real anthracite, having the metallic lustre, and marking paper 
something like graphite ; texture fibrous ; smooth : burns with a trifling 
flame. Specific gravity 1.650. 

Composition — Volatile matter, 8.8 

Carbon, 57.2 

Ferruginous earth, 34.0 


This coal would be quite unfit for steam purposes, but if there be beds 
of anthracite on the Chendb, this material may be turned to very good 
account in the smelting of iron, now that the application of the hot 
blast has been introduced. It seems that one part of the anthracite 
coal of Wales produces four times the effect of the best coal 
formerly used. 

Specimen 10. — (Forwarded 8th March.) 

" The locality of this deposit is between Tak and Kaneegorum, 
northwest of Dera Ismael Khan in the country of the Masood 
Waztrts. It is found one and a half coss east of the small village of 
JLuogarkhyl under the Mulik Buda. The seam has been laid bare 
by a water-course, and may be traced up hill, it is said, for 100 guj 
(112 yards) — dividing, as it ascends, into two parts, and having stones 
impregnated with iron on both sides. The exposed part of the vein 
is narrow."— B. 

This is the most promising of all the specimens : — in quality it 
agrees with Nos. 1, 2 and 3, being a rich jet, or pitch coal. The 
division of the fragments, is generally rhomboidal, and a thin coating 
of crystalline veins, which pervade the crevices, conceals the splendour 

654 Report on tpedmmu of Comi. [Oct. 

of the polish, but it is developed by a little add, or washing. Some frag- 
ments have a flat striated structure like lignite ; these are less bright 
in color, and heavier; they bum with copious flame, and some 
emission of sparks. The water given out on the sandheat, is 3.5 in 
the first and 5.4 in the second sort. 

Specific gravity No. 1, of No. 2 

1.227 1.481 

Composition — yolatile matter, 49.1 48.6 

Carbon, 48.5 45.3 

Earthy matter, ferruginous,.. 2.4 6.1 

100.0 100.0 

Specimen 11—- Stated in the letter accompanying it to have been 
" found in the Mandi hills north of the Sutlej, by Captain Wads, Poli- 
tical Agent at Looditma" 

The tin box, on arrival, was found to contain fragments of coal, tad 
some large nodules of iron pyrites, the hardness of which had shatter- 
ed most of the coal to atoms on its way down. Some pieces, however, 
were picked out, which had a very promising appearance, more resem- 
bling the Burdwon coal than any of the above. Some pieces, how- 
ever, were attached to black silicified, or fossil, wood, which at first 
sight might be mistaken for excellent coal. It had a sulphurous smell 
from the pyrites, and from the analysis I fear it is much adulterated 
with this mineral. From its aqueous contents, 7.8 per cent., it scin- 
tillates a good deal in burning, and the flame is peculiarly coloured 
from the presence of metals. 

The specific gravity is 1.580 and the composition of a selected piece. 

Volatile matter, 48.1 

Carbon, 39.3 

Ferruginous residue from the 
pyrites? 12.6 


More information will be desirable regarding this Sutlej coal, which 
promises to be a valuable addition to our now extended catalogue ef 
Indian coal deposits: but its locality at Mandi, is too far from the 
limits of navigation, to allow of its being brought practically into use. 

J. Pbjnsep, A$*ay Mestmr. 

1838.] Animal productions of Tenauerim Provinces. 855 

III. — Note on the Animal productions of the Tenasserim Provinces / 
read at the meeting of the \Oth October, 1838. By J. W. Hklfer, 
Esq. M. D. 

Eighteen months have elapsed, since I last had the honor to ad- 
dress personally the Society. Since that time, I have wandered over 
many hundreds of miles, never trodden by Europeans, in countries left 
to the unbounded operations of nature, in a latitude, which produces all 
that is created, and, of the vegetable world, mostly in perfection and 
exuberance, and in tracts, where, in the recesses of the interior wilds, 
many productions await yet the ardour of naturalists, to bring them 
forth to everlasting knowledge. 

Having to-day the honor to submit the ornithological part of my 
collections to the Society's inspection, I avail myself of the opportu- 
nity, to take a cursory view of the animal productions of the Tenasserim 
Provinces ; and as man occupies the highest rank in that series, I 
may be allowed to begin with the different races inhabiting these regions 
— speaking -of man however, only as a naturalist, who describes the 
habits and manners of the human species, and considering the varieties 
of it in the different nations and tribes, and the striking peculiarities 
that are found, with reference to the geographical distribution of each. 

The inhabitants may be subdivided into the Burmese, the Siamese, 
and the Kareans. All three belong, generally speaking, to the Mongo- 
lian race, but are so changed, and specifically distinguished, that they 
form separate races. 

The Siamese approach nearest to the Chinese, possessing a flat 
forehead, a small nose, prominent cheek-bones, black hair, very 
thin beards, small oblique eyes, thick lips, and a colour more or less 
yellow. The Burmese are half Malays half Chinese ; the Kareans half 
Malays half Caucasian, indeed the features of the latter approach so 
much the Caucasian form, that many of them have even aquiline noses, 
a high forehead, and the European facial angle. Consequently the idea, 
latterly followed up by the American Baptist Missionaries with great 
zeal, sometimes with ridiculous obstinacy, namely, that they are the 
true lost tribes of the Jews, merits, as far as regards their physiogno- 
my at least, an excuse. 

The Kareans are in civilisation the lowest of the inhabitants, and 

exhibit an anomaly, which is perhaps no where else found. They are 

an agricultural people without any fixed habitations, but migrating 

every second or third year ; and so great is their innate love of the 

5 p 

856 Note vn the Animal productions [Oct; 

primitive forests, that they hate their own industry, are disgusted 
with cleared land, pity men who are surrounded by smiling and well 
dressed cultivation, can seldom be induced to visit towns on the sea coast, 
and return invariably from thence, as soon as possible, to their secluded 
mountain valleys, leading the life of hermits, content with the almost 
spontaneously growing productions of nature, despising the possession 
of money, because not desirous to exchange their own productions, and, 
in consequence, not desirous to add to what we call comforts. 

The Kareans seem to be the aborigines of the country, or the remains 
of a once numerous people, which has been again reduced to slavery 
by subsequent conquerors. They are scattered over a great extent of 
the country, from the 23rd degree of latitude to the 11th, and though 
conquered many centuries ago, have preserved their language and 
their peculiarities; for they never have mixed with foreigners, but 
avoid as much as possible all contact with them, prohibiting e?eo 
connexions with distant tribes of their own, but intermarrying in their 
own families, so much so, that matrimonial alliances between brother 
and sister, or father and daughter, are not uncommon to this day. And 
this may be the reason that they are a subdued, timid, effeminate, 
diminishing race ; so low in the scale of nations, that they have bo 
written language, no historical, but only religious and poetical tradi- 
tions, not even the presentiment of a future state ; but live, without 
erecting their head to their Creator, without aspiring to a continuation 
of their existence. 

The second race is the Siamese. 

This nation were the former conquerors of the Tenasserim Provinces, 
but were driven out of the country by Alompra in the middle of last 
century. They are the deadly enemies of the Burmese, formerly 
living with them in constant feuds, but, since the British occupation, 
the constantly nourished animosities have ceased, and they have 
begun to settle in the British territories, and to live peaceably with the 
Burmese. They are an enterprising industrious race, and possess a 
great deal of the ingenuity and shrewdness, so peculiar to the Chinese 
and their descendants. 

Their physical development is not stinted, but they are muscu- 
lar, hardy, and persevering, and are therefore the huntsmen, and 
the only people who have a knowledge of the vast wilds between Ziwt- 
may and Mergui, going after elephants, rhinoceros, gold-dust and 
precious stones. They have much of the enterprising spirit of the 
undaunted adventurer, and are the most capable of improvement. 

They are darker than the Burmese, and approach more than the 

1838.] of the Tenasserim Provinces. 857 

latter to that prototype, established by Gm el in under the denomination 
of Homo-Juscu*. 

The Burmese, the third race, and the lords of the land and 9oil before 
they were deprived of it, are, comparing their faults and good qualities 
impartially, an amiable well-behaved race ; naturally indolent, self- con- 
ceited, and for centuries stationary, but sufficiently civilised to throw off 
the imputation of being barbarians. 

I adhere to the opinion, (consistent with the Mosaic tradition,) that 
the human species descended from one pair originally ; that, in the 
course of ages, certain distant portions of the globe were first peopled, 
and that from these, as from many distinct nuclei, mankind dispersed 

So I think, and history seems to confirm the hypothesis, that from 
Java, Sumatra, or Borneo, issued the Malayan race ; that the Mon- 
gols peopling China descended from the high lands of Kobi, and that 
the Indians, originally bred in the Caucasus and its continuations, 
extended from west to east : and I continue to say, that these three 
original races, meeting in their courses from south, north and west, 
in that part of the globe, now called Indo- China, gave birth to the 
nations now inhabiting these regions — that therefore the Burmese 
are a comparatively recent variety of the human species, the result 
of Malayan, Chinese and Hindu mixture. 

It is here the place to mention that problematical race, which is 
reported to live in the recesses of the mountain ranges, which, as a 
spur or a continuation of the great Himalaya Alps, run towards the 
peninsula of Malacca. 

I had never the opportunity to ascertain, if this reported race, of the 
existence of which all the inhabitants in the interior seem to be 
aware, is one of the numerous varieties of the human species, or be* 
longs to the Quadrumana. 

If we consider, that close by, on the Andaman*, there exists a variety 
of the human species, which justly may be regarded as the lowest in the 
scale of intellectual beings ; and when we are told, that in the south of 
the peninsula at Queda, lives a similar race of beings, belonging to the 
Ethiopical type, not much superior in intellect to some of the apes, we 
might be warranted in concluding, that remains of such a race may 
yet be found in those vast mountainous tracts, which never have been 
penetrated by Europeans. 

However, the collected, and generally pretty well agreeing, descrip- 
tions of the natives cover an extent of five degrees : let me indulge 
in the conjecture, that these pretended human beings are nothing else 
5 f 2 

858 Note on the Animal productions [Oct. 

than the gigantic orang-outang of Sumatra, or a closely allied species, 
which has hitherto successfully escaped European detection, and tnH 
enjoys the daily diminishing privilege in natural history— to be un- 
known. In fact since the gigantic animal, whose remains ornament only 
this museum, was by chance discovered, all vestige of its existence disap- 
peared for many years, until recently Major Gregory brought two 
skulls of the same species from Sumatra, which clearly demonstrate, 
that the tales, hitherto believed fabulous, of large human skulls with 
tiger-teeth, have not been altogether unfounded, not as the relics of a 
rational being, but as the uniting link between man and beast. 

Coming now to the Mammalia, we find this part of Asia participat- 
ing in the variety of species, which distinguishes one side of that con- 
tinent, and in the magnitude of those on the other side. It exhibits 
nevertheless the distinguishing particulars, which separate all Alia 
from New Holland, and from the islands of the Pacific Ocean. 

In general it may be observed, that the Tenasserim Provinces from 
a combining line between Hindostan, Indo-China, and the Malayan 
countries, possessing species peculiar to each of the three division* 
with this distinction, that the number of species in common with Bengal 
and other parts of Hindostan, is comparatively smaller ; that province 
Amherst, and Ye possess many species, peculiar to the countries east 
of the Burhampootur, and even several of Bootan and Nepa% and 
that the southern provinces embrace many species, which have been 
hitherto exclusively found onlj in the Malayan Archipelago. 

The Quadrutnana being every where found within narrower limits, 
do not present a great variety ; some of the species are strictly limit- 
ed to certain districts. 

The Simia syndactyla has been found in the southern parts, and can 
be enumerated as an exception to the general rule ; for this animal 
covers a wide range of congenial country, from Java and Sumatra* 
to the 15th degree of north latitude. 

A Hytobates, though the most common species in the interior, howl- 
ing most pitiably in the solitary forests, seems to have hitherto 
escaped the observation of naturalists. 

The Symenopithecus Maurus is a very wild inhabitant of the 
loftiest trees, and considered the best food by the Kareans, by whom it 
is shot with poisoned arrows. 

The Cercopithecus Cynosurus inhabits chiefly the banks of rivers, 
and the mangrove forests, being chiefly fond of shellfish. 

Another species of Cercopithecus belongs to the rarest of this genus 
and is found chiefly in the northern parts, upon isolated limestone rocks* 

1838.] of the Tenasteritn Provinces. 85* 

The Cheiroptera present a great variety ; and several, I imagine, not 
yet described species are to be met with, chiefly of the genus 
IVjrctmomttt, Pkyllostomvs and Pteropus. Amongst the rarer species 
Vesper tilio Temmincku and Pterepus Javanicu* must be enumerated. 

The Camwora present a great number of species. To maintain the 
equilibrium in nature, it is also necessary, that where so many species 
are procreated unmolested by man, the number of rapacious animals 
must increase. 

Of the Plantigrade the Ursus Malayanus seems to occupy all 
the mountain parts, as high up as the 1 3th degree of latitude- 
It must be observed that the genus Cpnis has, so far as I know, no 
representative in the countries, tr&as-Burhampootur ; this genus, which 
possesses in Hindostan several interesting and particular species, seems 
to become obsolete, even the common jackal does not prosper in Indo* 
China, and not one specimen is to be found in Tenasserim. Yet there 
are several species of Viverra, and one Herpestes. 

In the same ratio as the number of species of Cants diminishes, 
the number of the species of. the genus Felts increases. 

The royal tiger is to be found in great numbers, and is very strong 
and large; however, its nature is very different from what it is in 
Bengal; for scarcely an example is known of its attacking men 
during the day time, and the carelessness, and even contempt, with 
which the natives treat this formidable animal, is truly astonishing. 

At Tavoy the black tiger, the Felts Nelao, is not uncommon, and a 
specimen was caught last year, but unfortunately on its transport to 
Maulmain, it broke through the bamboo cage, and escaped. 

I pass quickly over the Marsupialia, and the greatest part of the 
Rodentia in this cursory sketch ; the genus Sciurus presents a con- 
siderable number of species, and of Pteromys, 1 found a large, and 
probably nndescribed species. 

Of the Edentata, the little Bradypus has been caught, and so also- 
the Manis Crassicaudata. 

Coming to the Pachydermata, I can not omit to mention the number 
of elephants, which wander in herds of 10 to SO, through the un- 
inhabited tracts, having the wide extent of primitive forests, from the 
bay of Bengal to the Chinese seas, open to their constant peregri- 
nations, descending during the monsoon into the plains, and returning 
into the mountains during the hot weather. 

The hog is very common, and the Sue Barbyrussa not very rare* 

The rhinoceros is a common animal throughout the provinces, and 
perhaps more numerous than the elephant, though its less gregarious 

860 Note on the Animal production [Oct. 

manners, and its wilder character, do not admit an easy approach to 

The Tenasserim Provinces seem to be a congenial place for this 
genus, for I dare to pronounce almost positively, that the three known 
Asiatic species, occur within their range. The Rhinoceros Indicus 
being found in the nothern parts of the provinces, in that high range 
bordering on Zimmay called " the elephant tail mountain ;" the R. 
Sondaicus of Baron Cuvier, on the contrary, occupies the southern- 
most parts; while the JR. bicomis Sumatrensis, or the douUe- 
horned species, is to be found throughout the extent of the territories 
from the 17° to 10° of latitude. 

In character the R. Sondaicus seems to be the mildest, and can be 
easily domesticated ; the powerful Indian rhinoceros is the shyest, and 
the double-horned the wildest. 

I have had the opportunity to ascertain positively the existence of the 
Tapirus Malay anus within the British boundaries, in latitude IN 87* 
in province Mergui, though I have not been so fortunate as to obtain a 
specimen of it. It is well known to the natives who call it the great pig. 

Finally coming to the Rttminantia, as may be expected, the number 
of Cermdm is considerable. 

Rvsa Hippelaphvs, Elaphus Wallichii, Cuv. C. AristoteUs, C. Axis % 
and C. MuntjtxCy besides two other species have been seen ; but there 
is as yet no antelope known. 

Of the ox kind, the Bnbalus, Arnee and Domesticus are both in 
a wild state ; and of the Bisons, the great Gaurus rather rare, but 
Bison Guodus very common : besides another small kind of cow, called 
by the Burmese Fhain, of which I saw only foot prints, but never 
the living animal ; it remains therefore undecided, to what species it 
must be referred. 

Of birds I have made a collection of 250 species, and 600 specimens, 
which I herewith place at the disposal of Government, presenting it 
to-day to the inspection of the Society, and I only regret that econo- 
mical reasons compelled me to have the birds prepared by the rude 
hands of common Burmah coolies, previously, a short time instructed by 
me ; and many, otherwise greatly valuable specimens, are therefore 
more or less defective. 

The species inhabiting the provinces are highly interesting to obser- 
vers of the geographical distribution of the feathered tribe : for they, 
more than the Mammatia y of which the species occupy wider geogra- 
phical ranges, prove the intimate connexion and resemblance of the 
lower portions of the provinces with the Malayan archipelago. 

1836.3 °f the Tenasserim Province*. 861 

More than 60 species found in the southern hemisphere are in- 
digenous, and amongst these is a considerable number of those first 
described by Raffles and Hobsfiild in their accounts of Suma- 
tra and Java. 

Amongst these are to be enumerated Falco Limetus, H. St. Pagr- 

darum, Tem. Strut Castaroptera> H. Muscisapa Banyamas and Hu 
rundinacea, Jdra Scapularis, Edolius, Puella Crypsirena, Temma 
Vicky Brachyptorix montan, H. Prinia familiarise Dacelo pulchella 
Eurylaimus, Javanensis, Eurylaimus tunatus, Gould. Cuculus Xan* 
thorhynchus, Parra supercMosa, &c 

I shall confine the rest of my ornithological observations to very few 

The Accipitres are numerous, but as they mostly frequent the gloomy 
forests, and scarcely accessible cliffs of the mountains, the species are 
seldom visible, except when soaring high in the heavens, or gliding 
swiftly over the tops of the lofty trees ; many therefore have escaped my 
observation The number ofFalconida I collected is 10 ; of Strigidm 

The Passeres furnish of course that variety, which is to be expected 
from the great number of species in this order. 

The Hirundinacea contain the H. tsculenta, &c, the nests of which 
exported into China yield a considerable revenue annually to govern- 

The family of Sylviada contains a considerable number of Taredes ; 
seven species of Pastor or Acridotheres y eight Muscicupdus and several 

The family of Fringillidce boasts of seven species of Loxia. 

The Corvidm possess the beautiful Cypsinina Temmia Veils. 

It is remarkable that the common crow of Calcutta, the Corv* 
Doricus never occurs in the provinces, its place is supplied by the 
Corvus Corona, which is equally numerous and impudent. 

The Certhia possesses a variety of CinnyiHs and Nectarinia yielding 
in splendid plumage, and diminutive size, little to the American: 
Trochili. The beautiful Dicttum inver forms a connecting link with 
the Meropida, which are the glory of the east in richness of plumage, 
and four species of Merops rival in colors the species of Java and New 

Halcyon and Alcedo of the nine species that exist, amongst which the 
Halcyon Gurial, an Indian species, takes the lead in size and noise. 

The family of Buceros contains four representatives, amongst 
which the small Buceros Malabaricus of Lath, is the most commoiu 

862 Animal productions of Tenasserim Provinces. [Oct, 

The Indian Homrai is equally an inhabitant of Tenasserim, besides 
two or three beautiful species, which I do not find any where described. 

Of the order Scansores, the Picus, or wood-peckers are numerous 
and beautiful, and I found nine different species. Picus Bengaknns 
showing the affinity with India, and the closely allied Picus Tiga of 
Horsfield with Java, 

The Cuculida are numerous. Of Phoenicophceus, there are three 
species of small Cerulis ; the Centrophus Castaropterus is one of 
the commonest inhabitants near human abode. 

The genus Bucco contains five species, of which two appear to be new* 

The Psittaeida have five representatives, amongst which the small 
Portrams preporsUis is the great destroyer of duria blossoms. 

The next order are the Gallinanat. 

The family of Colunibida possess, as far as I am aware, seven species, 
of which four belong to the genus Vinago. 

The splendid GeophUus Nicobarensis is an ornament of the Islands 
constituting the Mergui archipelago. 

The Tetraonida possess few representatives, the whole country betas; 
an uninterrupted forest, and these animals liking bare rocky grounds, 
pasturage fields, and meadows. Only one species of Perdrix, and two 
species of Coturnix have been observed by me. 

The Phasianida possess the Ph. Gallus, or the father of our domes- 
tic fowl, in great abundance in the jungles ; and the breed, amongst the 
natives, is commonly kept up by supplies of eggs from the forests. 

Of the Pavonida, the Indian peacock is in great abundance in the 
interior near mountain torrents. 

The GralUs. — Of the Charadriada> three species of Charadri 
amongst which, the Indian Ch. ventralis ! of Genl. HARDWiC&B,and 
the Gloriola or Entalis of Lbach. 

The family of Ardeada, possesses many representatives. The Ciconia 
Argala, or the common Calcutta adjutant, is never seen on that coast, 
and the existence of a substitute in the C. capillata of Tem mince, or 
the adjutant without pouch, reminds us again, that the provinces ap- 
proach more to Java than to Hindostan. 

The genera Grits and Ardea> possess 1 1 species of which the Ardt* 
Malaucersis of Gmblin is the most common. 

The family of Fringellida have a due number of species, Numenitu, 
Scolopax, Totanus, Rkynchus, Limosa, Tringa and Hemantopus are 
found, and have their residence chiefly near the mouths of the numer- 
ous rivers, descending from the mountains, as far as they are exposed 
to the influence of the tides. 

1638.] On a new sped** of Pheasant from Tibet. 868 

Of the UallidcB I can only enumerate the Parr a Superciliosa, and 
two species of Ortesgometra. 

Finally ending with the Palmiperm, we have one species of Pelicanu* 
so widely spread over the east, and four species of Carbo, Nvhich have 
taken up their residence upon the great rivers. 

To render the enumeration complete, I have only to mention four 
species of Sterna, and of the Anatinm, the Aneer Girra of India, the 
Mareca Awsuree and another unknown species. 

Having thus completed the enumeration of observed animals I have 
only to add, as may well be imagined, that the occupation of the pro* 
vinoes by the British, has opened a wide field to the naturalist and phi- 
losopher. What I have done has been only to remove the upper veil, 
which densely covers this much promising land ; but the result of my 
limited researches will, I trust, demonstrate that success and a rich 
harvest must await every one who investigates the country with leisure, 
can gusto et amove, confining himself to certain definite branches ; and 
I will only add that I shall be most happy to submit to the Society 
further additions and more information, which, I hope, I shall be able 
to gather in future. 

IV. — On a new species of Pheasant from Tibet. By B. H. Hodg- 
son, Esq. 

The soological region comprising Tibet, with the lofty mountains 
which bound it towards India and China, is chiefly distinguished in 
the bird department, by the number of its pheasants, (PhasianidtB,) 
hardly any two of which agree in form and external organisation. 
This rich variety of structure, whilst it mocks all past attempts at 
systematic arrangement, seems to indicate, that we yet possess, in this 
family, but the fragment of the complete circle, (termed Phasianidm 
by Vigors and Pavonida by Swainson,) though the riches of recent 
discovery, may induce us to hope, that the deficient forms are not 
extinct, but only unknown. 

Be that as it may, there is at least no doubt, that in the present state 
of the scientific classification of this family of the Rasores, an insulated 
observer cannot well hope to class newly discovered species satisfac- 
torily; and I shall therefore at once proceed to the summary descrip- 
tion of what I believe to be such, without any present attempt to 
decide, whether my bird be an aberrant species, or a new type in th e 

5 Q 

864 On a new ipso** of Pheasant Jr am Tibek [Oct. 

PJumanufat vel Pavonid*. 

Genus — new? Crossoptilon*, nob. Type Phasianus Crossoptikn, 
nob. Hab. Tibet. 

I possess but one specimen of this large and striking bird. It is a 
mature male, and was brought recently to Cathmandu by the Nipalese 
envoy to Pekin, who has just returned here. The length, from the 
tip of the bill to the tip of the tail, is from 38 to 40 inches, of which 
the bill is IS and the tail 19 to 20 inches. 

A closed wing measures 12£ inches ; the tarsus 4£, and the central 
toe 2 J. The bill has the same length, whether taken from the gape or 
from the front, and is three-eighths of an inch shorter than the bead, 
the latter being two inches complete. The bill is very strong, with the 
general characters of that of Lophophorus, the tomial edge of the 
upper mandible being even more scarped, and furnished with a small 
tooth-like festoon. Its base is nude. The head and throat are clad in 
feathers and simple. But the entire cheeks, from nostril to occiput, 
are void of plumes, being occupied by the typical red and papillated 
skin of the pheasant tribe, and in all that extent of development, which 
more especially characterises the Indian K ditches (Leueom&Umm), 
and the painted and Amherstian species of China. Like the true 
pheasant (Colchicus J, our bird has no crest of any kind, though the 
feathers occupying the top of the head are of a peculiar kind, being 
short, velvety, thickset, erect, with their slightly discomposed and 
square points recurved a little to the front. 

The wings have no peculiarity. They are short, stiff, bowed and 
rounded, as usual the sixth feather being the longest. The very 
ample tail is most remarkable for the breadth of the plumes. Its 
length it moderate, nor is there any of the extra elongation and nar- 
rowing of the central feathers, which characterise the tropical pheasants. 
There are 18 caudal plumes regularly and considerably gradated 
throughout, and the general form of the tail is broadly convex, without 
any symptom of the Galline compression and curve. The legs and feet 
are well adapted for rapid movement on the ground, and have a form 
and proportion, very similar to those of Z*eucomelanus, and Satyr**. 
The tarsi are nude, and biscaled before and behind: but the hinder 
scales are smaller than the fore ones. The sides of the tarsi are 
papilio-reticulate. The spur is Bharp and curved. The lateral toes 
are equal ; the central long ? and the hind short and raised, as usuaL 
The nails are long and possess but little curve. It remains only to 
notice the plumage of the bird, which constitutes indeed its most 

* xpoccos a fringe 5 ttiAov a feather. 

vbi vri. n xlvi 



1888.] Not** of a Journey to Girndr. SS6 

remarkable feature. The plumage, then, upon the whole body is very 
ample, but not at all pointed, unglossed and wholly dishevelled, so as 
to remind one of the Struthious family. This peculiarity has suggest* 
ed the name I have applied to the bird — a name which, for the 
present, may be considered specific, but liable to promotion to generic 
or subgeneric rank, if the form be proved to be typical, and not merely 

At present I incline to consider it in the former light, and to assign 
the type a place between Phaeianue and Euplocomus> vel Nycthe* 
merus — a type which, by the bye, I characterised 1 1 years ago in the 
Oriental Quarterly* under the style of Gallophasie, assigning the 
KdHcK of Kirkpatrick's Nepal as the icon. The oblique compres- 
sion and curve of the tail constitute the principal character of that type, 
(GaUophaeis, vel EuplocomusJ and as it is a character sure to be 
lost in the dry skin, I am not entirely certain, that onr present subject 
may not possess it in the living state. If so, this bird will be a 
GoJlophaeie 9 vel Euplocomue — but if not, a neighbouring type allied 
to the true pheasant by the absence of crest, and distinguished amongst 
all its congeners by its ample fringe-like plumage, the dishevelled 
quality of which is communicated even to the central tail feathers, the 
very broad and equal webs of which are quite separated, and curve 
outwards towards the sides, besides being adorned by a fine gloss. 

The general color of our bird is bluish hoary, paler, and tinted 
yellow on the lower surface : crown of the head black and velvety : 
great alar and caudal plumes dusky or black, more or less glossed with 
changeable blue, especially the tail feathers: legs and cheek-piece, 
intense sanguine : bill dull ochreous red ; iris brown. 

Nepal, September, 1838. 

V<— Notes of a journey to Girndr in the Province of Kattywdr 9 for 
the purpose of copying the ancient inscriptions upon the rock near 
that place* — Undertaken by order of the Bombay Government. 

May lOfA, 1838. — Landed at the small port of Verawulon the wes-% 
tarn coast, and nearly at the southern extremity of Kattywdr. This 
place is only 40 miles from Junagarh, and in the immediate vicinity of 
the ancient city of Pattan, and of the celebrated Somndth. Owing to the 
lateness of the season, and the imperative necessity which existed for my 
proceeding to the scene of my labours with the least possible delay, my 
time was not at my own disposal; still I lost none in paying even a 

866 Notes of a journey to Girndr. [Oct. 

hurried visit to these interesting" places. Old Pattan is built upon a 
projection of the main land, forming the southern point of the small 
port and bay of VerawuL The road from the latter to the ancient city, 
lies immediately on the shore of this bay, and for a distance of about a 
mile from the walls, on the western side, passes through an extensive 
Muhamroadan burying ground : amongst the tombs are some rich and 
picturesque ruins. The surrounding country, known as the Son A 
division of Ratty war f subject to the nawab of Junagarh> is exceeding- 
ly rich, thickly wooded, and in high cultivation. The walls of Pattmh 
in the form of an irregular square, enclose a space somewhat less than 
two miles in circumference , with two gates and numerous sqoare 
towers. The western frout is washed by the sea ; a ditch encompasses 
the other three sides. These fortifications, which are high and com* 
posed of uncemented square stones, are of unusual solidity, and the 
old city, with its massive walls and double gates, must formerly have 
been a place of considerable strength. The population of Pattan is at 
present completely Muhammadan, and the place is under the manage- 
ment of an Arab jemadar, ,a deputy of H. H. the nawab of Junegerk, 
To the kindness of Stud Abdoollah, I am indebted for a most hospi- 
table reception, and for every assistance which he could render, or I 
could require. It is evident that the Muhammadan conquerors of Patta*, 
in rebuilding the place, and substituting a population of their own creed 
for that of the Hindus, have at the same time laboured to eradicate 
all traces of the religion of the latter from this city, but the visitor 
cannot iail to observe the essentially Hindu character of the whole 
place. The mosques, which are very numerous, appear to have been 
erected from the ruins of the Hindu temples, whilst the houses, in the 
ornaments, sculptures, &c, bear about them evidence of their material 
having frequently been derived from similar sources. The style of 
building in the gates and walls, the latter adorned at every corner with 
sculptures of Hindu divinities, proclaim at once to whom Pattan was 
originally indebted for the magnificence, still traceable through all the 
innovations of its conquerors. This city, as connected with the Som- 
ndth temple, and the invasion of Saraustra by Mahmu'd, is one of con- 
siderable interest ; and, as the former capital of an extensive country, 
deserves some inquiry into its early history, but of it, or its rulers, the 
Persian historiansf do not, that I can learn, give any account. 

Quitting these subjects, however, I must proceed to describe the 
renowned Somndth temple, the monument of Mahmitd's intolerance, 
and one of the most interesting relics in the Saraustra peninsular. 

• One mile 6 furlongs, 36 square and a round towers ; walls 9 feet thick, 
t Mir at i Ahmadi, Mi rat i Iskukduri,* 

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1838.] Notts of a journey to Girndr. 867 

This celebrated shrine occupies an elevated site in the south-western 
corner of the city, overlooking the sea, and close to the walls. In its 
present mutilated state, I find it very difficult to convey any very dis- 
tinct or correct idea of the Somndth ; for although its original design 
and gorgeous style of architecture, may still be traced in the complete 
ruin it presents, its general effect is likely to be better understood 
from an effect of the pencil, than the pen. (See Plates, Nos. XL VI. 
and XLV1L) 

This temple consists of one large hall in an oblong form, from one 
end of which proceeds a small square chamber or sanctum. The centre 
of the hall is occupied by a noble dome, over an octagon of eight arches. 
The remainder of the roof terraced, and supported by numerous pillars. 
There are three entrances; the sides of the building face to the 
cardinal points, and the principal entrance is on the eastern side. These 
doorways are unusually high and wide, in the Egyptian style, decreas- 
ing towards the top ; they add much to the effect of the building. 
Internally the whole presents a scene of complete destruction, the pave- 
ment is every where covered with heaps of stones, and rubbish, the 
facings of the walls, capitols of the pillars, in short, every portion pos- 
sessing any thing approaching to ornament, having been removed or 
defaced by the " destroyer*." On a pillar, beyond the centre arch, and 
leading to the sanctum, is an inscription, which, anxious as I was to learn 
any thing connected with the temple, much excited my curiosity. Oa 
translation however, it proved to be merely a record of a certain sildt, 
or mason, who visited the place some 300 years since. I learnt to my 
inexpressible regret, that an ancient tablet, whose unoccupied niche 
was pointed out to me, had been removed from the Somndth some few 
years since, by a European visitor. I need hardly quote Col. Tod's 
remark on this mistaken, and I fear too frequent, practice ; but if what 
he says be applicable to the mere architectural ornaments of a building, 
how much more so to engraven records, similar to that which is here 

Externally, the whole of the building is most elaborately carved and 
ornamented, with figures single, and in groups of various dimensions ; 
many of these appear to have been of some size, but so laboriously was 
the work of mutilation carried on here, that of the larger figures scarce- 
ly a trunk has been left, whilst few, even of the most minute, remain 
uninjured. The front entrance is ornamented with a portico, and sur- 
rounded by two slender minarets, ornaments so much in the Muhara- 
madan style, that I doubt if they belonged to the original buildingf. 

* So Mahmu'd entitled himself. See Fsrishtah. 

f 1 thins it not at all improbable, that these minarets, the dome, and arches la 


Natu of m journey *° 


The two ride entrance*, which are at some height from the grouted, 
gained by flights of steps : of these latter the remains only are to ho 
traced. The whole space, for a considerable distance around the templet 
is occupied by portions of pillars, stones, and fragments of the original 
•uildtng. Such is a brief sketch of the present appearance of the 
renowned Somndth, which notwithstanding MahmuVs intolerant spofcV 
ation, must still prove an object of great interest to the lover of Indian. 
antiquities*. 1 must not omit to mention, as a proof of the wonderM. 
solidity of this structure, that within a few years its roof was used an a 
battery for some heavy pieces of ordnance* with which the neighbonriqa*? 
port of Verawul, was defended from the pirates who formerly infoottf. 
this coast. 

Without pretending to an accurate knowledge of the peculiar lea* 
tores, distinguishing the Buddhistica! and Jain from Hindu sanctaariea} 
my impression, -founded simply upon observation, is, that the Somndth 
was originally a Buddhist templef , afterwards appropriated to the 
worship of Siva ; and probably thus found by Mahmu'd, at the period 
of its capture. In confirmation of the Linga having at some period, 
received adoration here, I observed two Nandis outside amongst the 
ruins : but in its style of architecture and ornament, (particularly the 
male and female figures,) it is in vain to look for any Hindu features, 
whilst in all points it agrees most accurately with the Buddhistica!. 
As Dr. Wilson has visited the Somndth, his learning and research in 
these matters will enable him, if necessary, to judge of the correctnesi 
or otherwise of the above remark, which I make with all deference* 
The modern Somndth, erected by the famous Ahlya Bhak, is in An 
immediate vicinity of the ancient one, but I had not time to inspect U^ 
as my good friend the jemadar had promised to shew me some 
curiosities outside the city. On passing through the gate to the east* 
ward, my attention was directed to a stone tablet, about two feet square, 
in the wall to the right. It contained a closely written inscription a 
the Deva Nagri character, and in the Sanskrit language; leaving 
my pandit to copy this J, I proceeded on my way. 

the interior of the building, may have been added to It after ite capture. la the fit* 
sent appearance of the Somndth, it differs widely from Fbkisutah's description, and 
these peculiar features, are completely Muhammadan. As Bin Cassim when he 
conquered Sindh, is said to have turned the temples of the idolaters, into places of 
prayer for the true believers ; so the conqueror of Patian may have shewn his detet-' 
tation of the idolatry of the Somndth, by attempting to obliterate -all traces of the 
original character of the building. 

• Dimensions of the Somndth temple. Extreme length inside not including the 
small chamber or sanctum, 96 feet ; extreme width, 68 feet : extreme height, 28& lost. 

t The Somndth is known to the Jains under the title of Ckandar Prabas. 

J This has been forwarded to Calcutta for interpretation. 

1838.] Not** ofajowmty to QWndr. 869 

The neighbourhood of Pattan is esteemed especially sacred by 
Hindus, as the scene of Krishna's death and apotheosis. After the 
erection of the great temple at Dwarka, it is related that he came to this 
part of the Saraustra, where, according to the fable, he lost his life from 
the arrow of his brother Vali. A small river, known to Hindu devo- 
tees as the Raunakahiy empties itself into the sea, at the distance of 
about a mile to the eastward of Pattan. At a particular spot on this 
river, sacred as that of Krishwa's death, are a ghat and a few 
temples. Pilgrims after a visit to Dwarka, come to this stream, 
where they bathe, and shave the hair from the head and face, in 
token of mournings They then proceed to Prach** where are soma 
temples (about eight miles np this river) : a visit to these concludes 
a pilgrimage to Dwarkanath. In the neighbourhood of the ghftt 
above mentioned, and interspersed through a space of three or four 
hundred yards in extent, are some excavations, which have all the 
appearance of Buddhist vihara*. They consist of a long low and 
narrow entrance, from which a short flight of steps descends to a 
small apartment; from this proceeds a gallery leading to another 
chamber ; a succession of three or four chambers and galleries closes 
the excavation. There are several of these caves, differing little from 
each other, except that in one or two the galleries continually descend, 
instead of being on the same level ; the last chamber is consequently. 
at a great depth from the entrance. They are ail so low and narrow, as 
to be traversed only in a stooping posture, and in none could I discover 
the slightest trace of either ornament or idol. The attendant Brah- 
ttans at the ghat appear to attach some sanctity to these excavations* 
and have kept many of them in good repair, with a facing of chunam. 
Confirmatory of my opinion, that these were originally vi haras, belong- 
ing to some Buddhist establishment in the vicinity, I was fortunate 
enough to discover near one of them a figure of Bu'dh. The face and 
arms are destroyed, but the sitting posture, crossed legs, and remains of 
pendants from the ears upon the shoulder, at once decide its character, 
I subjoin a sketch of this statue*. It is small, the figure, together with 
a pedestal on whioh it is sitting, being only four feet high. The pedes-- 
tal is ornamented with female figures, and the figure itself is support- 
ed bj a slender pillar, which is broken off just above the head. The 
whole is framed from one block of a hard description of red stone. There 
are in the disfigured appearance of this statue, undoubted marks of its 
antiquity. I questioned the Brahmans on the spot, concerning it and 

* The sketch so exactly corresponds with other statues of Badh, that it has sot 
tea deemed necessary to hart it engraved* 

870 Notes of a journey to Gimdr. [Oct. 

the viharat, but they were quite at a loss to account for either; my 
aversion on principle to remove such relics, alone prevented me from 
making a prize of this, which unless I have overrated its value, would 
doubtless form an interesting addition to one of our museums. Stall, 
neglected and unknown where it now is, its presence may prove of great 
use to some future, and more capable, inquirer into the antiquities of 
this part of India, which has been designated by Colonel Ton, as u the 
cradle of Jain and Buddhist worship." After visiting all the viharas, 
and a very pretty though modern Jain temple in their vicinity, I re- 
turned to Pattern, where the remainder of the day was occupied in 
taking hurried sketches of the Somndth. I made every inquiry of the 
few Brahmans to be found in the scanty Hindu population of Pattern, 
for traditions, &c respecting the temple or city, but I learnt that the 
only one, whose choprae could furnish me with any information on the 
subject, was absent. For coins I sought in vain, my good friend the 
jemadar, however, having promised to forward me all that the city can 
furnish, as well as to procure me some traditions*, I took leave of him 
with many acknowledgments of the attention he had shown me. I 
regretted exceedingly, that time did not admit of my making a longer 
stay at Pattern, as well as of my proceeding to the ruins of Mundort, 
Prachee 9 and other interesting places in the neighbourhood. I doubt 
not they would have well repaid me the trouble of a visit. 

May 1 6th. — Reached Junagarh. The whole country passed through 
from Verawal to the capital, is not only the richest, and most produc- 
tive in Kattywar, but may vie in fertility with any part of Guserat. 
A black soil is watered by numerous streams, whence irrigation is easily 
carried on, the water being sufficiently near the surface to admit of its 
being raised by the Persian wheel. This division of the province, con- 
sequently suffers comparatively little from the droughts, which too fre- 
quently cause devastation and famine in other parts of Kattywar ; from 
the continued and abundant supply of water, from these rivulets, the want 
of rain is not so severely felt as elsewhere. The crops are chiefly sugar- 
cane, wheat, and jowaree, the mango tree flourishes in great luxuriance, 
and the fruit is excellent. Indeed a stranger would form a most erro- 
neous opinion of the whole province, were he to judge of it in passing 
through the territories of H. H. the nawab of Junagarh : for the arid 
and extensive plains, whicif form the leading features of the Kattywar 
country, are strikingly contrasted with this highly favored division, 
abounding in hill and dale, wood and water. From the indolence of its 
ruler however, this fair possession is sadly mismanaged. 

• These I received whilst at Junagarh and forwarded to Mr, FftXNBBF, who will 
be able to determine their claims to notice. 

188ft.] Note* of a journey to Girntr. 871 

The approach to Junagarh from the southwest is very picturesque, 
the road for some miles passing through rich topes of mango, tama- 
rind, and oilier trees : near the city are some gardens in high cultivation* 
The range, known as the Junagarh hills, appears from this direction to 
ran nearly north and west, occupying an extreme extent of about twelve 
miles. The hills are all of granite formation, but richly clothed with 
jungle, extending to some miles around their base* The highest point 
b the summit of the Gimdr, situated in the rear of the principal range, 
to which it is connected by two shoulders or spurs, running westerly, 
and southerly, from about halfway up the summit. A large opening in 
nearly the centre of the front range, forms a beautiful valley and road 
to the sacred mount, which, with its bold granite bluffs, and tapering 
peaks half hidden in mist and clouds, is a noble feature in the 

The city of Junagarh is situated at the entrance of the valley just 
mentioned, with its low walls nearly hidden by the jungle around ; the 
only conspicuous object is the old Rajput citadel, or as it is called from 
its elevated situation, the Uparkdt, a very fine piece of fortification, 
situated within, and on the eastern side of the modern city. The 
straggling walls of Junagarh, occupy an immense area, not more than 
half of which is inhabited ; the whole of the eastern portion, is an un- 
occupied space. The population may be estimated at about 20,000, the 
majority Hindu ; the streets are narrow and dirty, houses badly built, 
with nothing about the place approaching to that bustle, and air of pros- 
perity, which might reasonably be looked for in the capital of a rich terri- 
tory. Situated in the centre of one of the bazars, is the nawab s palace, 
an insignificant building ; indeed, with the exception of a few mosques 
and tombs, none of the modern buildings deserve notice. A very con- 
venient hav&ee has been appropriated by H. H. the nawab, for the 
accommodation of officers visiting Junagarh. I was thus fortunate in 
escaping the inconvenience incidental to tents, at a season of the year, 
when any unnecessary exposure to the intense heat at this place, would 
perhaps have defeated my object. I had also reason to congratulate 
myself on meeting Captain Lang at Junagarh. Through his exertions, 
the inscriptions at Gimar were first copied, and to the kind assistance 
which he on all occasions rendered me, whilst occupied in my work, I 
feel mainly indebted for any success with which my own exertions have 
been attended. 

Immediately on my arrival, I accompanied Captain Lang to look at 
the inscriptions. The celebrated rock, on which they are engraved, is 
distant about half a mile to the eastward of the city, a few yards to the 

872 NoUt of a journey to Girn&r. [Oct* 

right of the Girndr road. It is one of a group of several large granite 
blocks, and appears to have been chosen for its peculiar form, which 
approaches to that of a flattened cone. The inscriptions occupy three 
sides of the rock, that to the eastward being the most ancient ; whilst 
those on the western and northern faces, are in a more modern charac- 
ter. The ancient characters, recording the edicts of A son a, are deeply 
cut, and, except where a portion of the stone has been removed by vio- 
lence, are very perfect. The same remark will also apply to that on the 
upper western side, but the large inscription on the northern face next to 
the road, is greatly defaced. The rock here has been much weather- 
worn, and the characters appear to have been originally faintly cut. A 
substantial causeway commences immediately opposite the rock, and cros- 
sing the ravine at the bottom of the valley, with a neat bridge, terminates 
near some Hindu temples, and a small but sacred reservoir, called the 
Damodar Kiind*. This improvement on the high road to Girndr, n 
the gift of one of the wealthiest of the Soondajee family, and is a nook 
work. The large portion of the rock, removed from the eastern face, 
has evidently been the effect of blasting, the materials being in all pro* 
bability appropriated to the pavement of the causeway. 

The survey of my work concluded, preparations were made without 
loss of time for commencing the copies and facsimiles. Without detail- 
ing the result of each day's proceedings whilst occupied in the work, I 
subjoin a somewhat more detailed account of the inscriptions them- 
selves, with the methods pursued to ensure the necessary correctness 
in their transcription* The most interesting character is the ancient 
one, recording the edicts of king Asoka, and situated as before men- 
tioned, on the eastern face : the letters are each 1 J inches, uniform ia 
size, and very clearly and deeply cut. (No. 4.) This inscription con- 
sists of two grand divisions, the edicts being again sub-divided by a 
longitudinal line between each edict ; one line from the summit of the 
rock to about midway down its face, forms the two great divisions. 
The space occupied by this inscription is 9 square yardsf . Pursuing 
Capt. Lang's as my first plan, the letters were carefully filled up with 
a red pigment, (vermilion and oil,) every attention being paid to the 
inflections, and other minute though important points. A thin and 
perfectly transparent cloth, was then tightly glued over the whole of one 
division, and the letters as seen plainly through the cloth, traced upon it 
in black : in this way all the edicts were transcribed, and the cloth being 

* Distance of this causeway 700 yards. 

f The rock on the eastern side which is the highest, is 13 feet in perpendicular 
height, and 74 feet in circumference at the base. 

1638.] Notes of a journey to Girndr. 873 

removed, the copy was carefully revised letter by letter with the origi- 
nal. The very smooth and convex surface of the rock on this face, 
was highly favorable to this method, but it is tedious, and occupied in 
the old character alone, 10 days of incessant labour. In the next place 
a correct copy was taken by hand : this proved very useful, as tending to 
the discovery of any errors, when compared with the copy on the cloth* 
Thirdly and lastly, the plan, so highly recommended by M. Jacquet, 
was resorted to, which, when the surface of the rock will admit of it, 
and the characters are pretty deeply cut and distinct, is unquestionably 
the most rapid and satisfactory of all the methods yet brought to my 
notice. The edicts by this method were taken off separately on paper : 
and, although my first trial, I have reason to think that the facsimiles 
themselves will show that the result was satisfactory. The inscription 
on the western side, begins at the summit of the rock, where it is sepa- 
rated only .by a small space from the first edict in the old character, 
and occupies a space of about fifty-six square feet. The shape of the 
rock is here very irregular, but the character is carved through all the 
undulations, and in one place several lines are continued over a sharp 
angle. From the very centre of this inscription, the surface of the rock, 
in one or two formidable pieces, has been removed, thereby occasioning 
some very serious hiatuses ; but the lines appear to be individually 
terminal, and the letters generally clear and well carved. With this 
character, I pursued only the plan of filling in, and tracing upon cloth, 
afterwards carefully revising the work, so as to enable me to be satisfied 
with its correctness. The last inscription on the northern side, is the 
most faulty of the three ; the letters appear originally to have been very 
faintly cut, are small, and not uniform in size. The surface of the rock 
is very irregular, with large fissures, the whole much weather-worn, and 
mutilated. (No. 5.) No pains were spared to transcribe it on the cloth, 
and I can only trust, that it will be found as perfect, as under circumstan- 
ces it could be made. M. Jacquet's plan could not have been applied 
with any advantage to either of these two inscriptions, in the first owing 
to the undulatory form of the rock, and in the second from the faint- 
ness of the character ; copies by hand would have occupied immense 
time in this peculiar character ; and the very imperfect state of the 
northern inscription, would have differed in nothing from the cloth. Some 
few large and curious tablets occupy the front of a small piece of rock, 
near the eastern face of the larger one ; there are no other ancient 
inscriptions at the foot of Ghtiar, or in the neighbourhood of Junagarh. 
I need not observe, that it became an object of primary interest with 
Captain La no and myself, to find some clue to the discovery of the 

674 Note* of a journey to GirnJr. [Oct. 

missing portion of the rook on the eastern side, as the highly impor- 
tant 18th edict, containing the names of Ptolemy, fte., had principally 
suffered from the mutilation. All our inquiries tended to the conclu- 
sion, that the rock had been blasted* to furnish materials for the neigh- 
bouring causeway : to remove any sufficiently extensive part of the 
pavement of this, would have been attended with an expense, which I 
did not feel myself authorised in incurring without authority, but the 
whole of the soil at the base of the rock, particularly on the eastern 
side, was turned up to a considerable distance, and as deep as could be 
gone. In this way numerous small fragments of the original rock were 
found, confirming our surmises, as to the purpose to which the other 
portions had been applied* : from these fragments only two had the ale* 
and one a portion of a letter in the modern character upon them. 

For any farther information respecting this noted rock and monu- 
ment of antiquity, I must refer to my plans, and rough sketches which 
accompany these notes ; but I cannot help expressing, at the terminatiew 
of my work upon it, how much I owe to the politeness of H. H. the 
nawftb, whose hospitality and kindness, during my stay at Jvnagsrk, 
were unbounded ; by his direction, an awning was spread over the stone, 
and an Arab guard was furnished me ; in short that assistance was af- 
forded, without which, it is doubtful if I could have proceeded. 

Within the walls of Junagarh, the Uparkdt and some excavations 
at its base, are the only objects of any interest. The old citadel is 
built upon an elevation of the limestone, which appears to cap over the 
granite at the base of the hills ; and on which the city of Junogerk m 
situated. This is quarried in all directions in the eastern, or unoc- 
cupied part of the city, and is so soft as to be easily cut with a hatchet 
It hardens however on exposure, and is invariably used as a building 
material. The Uparkdt is a noble specimen of eastern fortification, 
its walls being unusually high, with immense bastions. The materials for 
these have been taken from a wide and deep ditch, which has been scarp- 
ed all round it. There is only one gateway and narrow entrance from 
the westward, guarded by a few sebundees of the nawib, who, as a 
matter of form, still keeps the keys of this stronghold. With the 
exception of a very handsome musjid, which occupies the highest 
part of the interior, the whole is a mass of ruins, overgrown with 
a thick jungle of the custard-apple tree : the musjid has suffered much 

• We are indebted to H. H. the present nawab of Jutfrnrh, for the preatnttiM 
of the inscriptions from total destruction, as he interfered to prevent the fertktr 
mutilation of the atone. The popular belief in the spot is, that the unknown charac- 
ters refer to immense treasures, buried in the neighbourhood of, or under the rock. 

,.-. ^v. 

■'" , VfiVW/] 

188S.) Notts of a journey to Gimdr. 875 

from the earthquake of A. D. 1819, bat is still a very magnificent build- 
ing ; its roof affords some fine views : the most splendid is that of the 
" Mighty Girnar" as seen through the opening in the hills, with the 
causeway and bridge crossing the ravine in the foreground. In the rear 
of the musjid is a very curious piece of ordnance, with an Arabic in* 
scription ; its material appears to be a composition something like bell- 
metal ; its length is 17 J feet ; circumference at the breech 5 feet, this 
latter quite flat ; bore capable of carrying a 121b. ball. The following is 
a translation of the inscription on this gun : " Sultan Suleaman Bin 
SuLWf Khan ordered the manufacture of this gun, in the year of the 
H.* 937, to the intent, that it should be employed in the destruction of 
the infidels of Hind. Maker of the gun, Mahomed Bin Humzal of 
Misar." In another part of the fort is a piece of the same description 
as the above ; but smaller in size. There are also some curious specie 
mens of iron guns : so rude is their construction, that firing them 
must have been attended with no little danger to the artillery men : 
they are evidently first efforts in the art of casting. The greatest 
curiosities in the fort however are two wells, or more correctly, to 
designate them according to their construction, a bouree, and a well or 
kooa : the dimensions of these places which I subjoin, will shew the 
immense scale on which they are constructed*. The well is square, 
and lined with masonry for a few feet from the top. An excavation 
has been made at the distance of about one- third of its depth, where is a 
bathing place and entrance to a gallery, which descends by steps to the 
bottom, the light being admitted "by large square holes or windows open- 
ing into the well. The softness of the stone offers every facility for such 
a work, and I observed that the strata here dip at an angle of about 
80°, with a strike to the north. Owing to the great elevation of the 
interior of the Uparkot y water could not be found but at an immense 
depth. The bouree is nearly circular, and occupies the whole of a large 
bastion to the eastward. Its interior is lined with solid masonry, and 
the descent is by a fine flight of steps ; these, with a portion of the walls, 
and the whole of the entrance to the west, are all the remains now 
traceable of the Rajput possessors of this place, the last of whom, raja 
Mundali k, descended from a line of princes, who it is stated ruled 
iiere for 19 centuries, gave up the fort and his throne to Ma h mud 
Bigabraha, H. 877, A. D. 1472f . I was fortunate in discovering a 

* Depth of well, ISO feet, 87 feet square. Ditto of Bour$e t 96 ditto. Circum- 
ference ditto, 74 ditto. Length of descent to ditto, MO ditto . 

t For a detailed acconnt of the capture of tbia place, conversion of the raja to the 
Mnh ammad a n religioa, etc., tee the Mirat % Iikunfai ; the following extract from 

876 Notes of a journey to Girndr. £Oct. 

tablet in the wall, in the interior of the fort, which contains an edict by 
this raja Munoalik, dated S. 1507, A. D. 1451. It reminded me 
much of the noted ones by king Asoka, since it contains an order that 
every I lth day shall be considered sacred, coupled with injunctions 
against the destruction of animal life. 

The excavations, of which there are several at the base of the Uparkot, 
are made in the face of the same soft stone, and consist in some of 
three or four low apartments ; in others there are as many as six, with 
a large or principal one in the centre. These apartments are small, flat- 
roofed, and supported by square pillars without ornament; the en- 
trances to many are through small and low door-ways, but the greater 
number are quite open. These places are said by some to have been 
the haunts of a tribe of robbers called Kaphrias, and it is a cu- 
rious coincidence, that on inquiry respecting some similar excavations 
in a sandstone hill, which I observed near Lukput at the western 
extremity of Cutch, I was told exactly the same story. In the neigh- 
bourhood of Buddhist records, any thing approaching to a mhara* 
becomes of great interest ; but I fear the very soft nature of the stone 
from which these are excavated, will not allow of their being considered 
of any great antiquity. I may however be mistaken in this, and per- 
haps my sketches of one or two of these caves* may assist in 
determining, how far they are worthy of being considered ancient. In 
one was the following inscription, " Shaikh Ali, the servant of the 
servant of God ; took up his abode in this place, in the year H. 940." 

I procured some few coins at Junagarh ; one belonging to the 
Saraushtra dynasties ; the others, the small, and generally illegible, cop- 
that work, which I procured at Jumagarh, is a description of the Gtmar and Up*rk*t ; 
this latter is the ancient Jwagurh, the modern city was styled Mu*t<tfab*d ; but the 
whole is now only known by the ancient title. — "The Qirnar on three aides is en* 
compassed by hills, those on the northern side are the nearest, those to the south 
the most distant. The extent of these hills from N. to 8. is I? kos, the whole 
covered with thick jangle, in which are many caverns inhabited by birds and beasts, 
and a race of infidels called Khants : these castes when pursued by troops lee to the 
fastnesses of the jungle. There are numerous extraordinary trees growing here 
whose names are unknown, bat besides these are many fruit trees, as the jamba, 
tamarind, mango, kirnee, and awleh. From the foot of the hill of Girndr towards 
the west, at the distance of three or four bow shots, is a rocky eminence, on which 
is built the fort of Junagarh, whose walls are very strong ; there are two wells and 
two bouries : the former are known by the names of Sri and Cfttri. The king of 
this place was raja Mundalik, mentioned in Indian histories, whose family ruled 
here for 19 centuries. 

• The sketches sent by Lt. Pobtanb appear to establish his theory, that the caves 
were heretofore viharat of a Buddhist monastics! establishment : but they exhibit 
nothing curious or unusual, being similar in every respect to those fouod at DhnH 
in Katak, and the number of other plates of this article compels us to omit them. 

1838.] Notes of a journey to Girn&r. 877 

per pice, known in Cutch, where they are very common, as the Gudha 
ha pyta ; the fable connected with them is evidently as common in Kat- 
tywar, as in the former place, and with many other points of tradi- 
tionary similitude, may I think be admitted in proof of the connection 
between the Rajput tribes of both provinces. 

All my researches tending to the conviction, that, beyond what I have 
detailed, Junagarh could boast of no antiquities within its walls, any 
further description of it as a modern Muhammadan city, would be 
superfluous. I shall therefore proceed to the summit of Guitar, 
the distance of which from the city gates, is calculated by the natives 
at seven kos (about 10 miles)*. The road from the noted rock to the 
Damudar Ktind, and temples before mentioned, is over the causeway, on 
the edge of the nullah, or mountain torrent, which is crossed by a very 
neat and substantial bridge. This nullah runs directly west from the 
foot of the Girnar, to the eastern gate of Junagarh, where it branches 
off, following the walls of the city in a northerly direction. To within 
a short distance of the city, its bed is a succession of immense 
masses of granite, over which I was told, a torrent, fed by smaller 
streams from the hills, rushes with great impetuosity during the rainy 
season. There is no other nullah or river at the foot of the Girnar, 
in this direction. 

A few days previous to my quitting Junagarh, I received, amongst 
other interesting papers from Mr. Prinsep, one which referred to the 
inscription on the eastern side of the rock, in which mention is made 
" of the Paleskini river, with a bridge at the foot of the hill of Girina- 
gar, thrice destroyed by inundations, and repaired with wood and stone, 
400 cubits long and 75 wide, &c." To have discovered the slightest 
remains of this bridge, would have been highly gratifying, and I spared 
no exertion to that end. That the water- course, or large nullah 
which I have described, is the Paleshini " river" alluded to, I feel con- 
vinced, from the fact of its being the only channel for the mountain 
torrents in this direction. Whilst its " inundations" which thrice 
destroyed the former bridge, agree with the present violence of these tor* 
rents. The title of " river" thus given to a large nullah, not more than 
50 yards in width at its greatest extent, must be considered as an allow- 
able exaggeration, probably to enhance the magnitude of the worjc of 
throwing a bridge across it. Again, the present must always have 
been the high road, as it is the only accessible one to Girnar on the 

• Two kos from the city gate to the foot of the mountain, and thence five koe 
to the summit ; this Utter it will be seen from the measurement given, is an 
absurd exaggeration. 

878 Notes of a journey to Girn&r. [Oct. 

western side. Of this the position of the rock with its inscriptions, in- 
tended as they must have been, to attract attention in the vicinity of 
a great thoroughfare, is sufficient proof ; and hence the former necessity, 
as now, of a bridge, to enable travellers to Girnar to cross the ravine, 
or " Paleshini river." In the absence of even the slightest remains, 
(so far as I could trace,) of the ancient bridge, the only difficulty 
in determining its site, is to be found in the measurement given 
(400 cubits long) ; but I think that even this difficulty may be explain- 
ed away, without departing far from local evidence. A bridge to have 
been of any use on the road to Girnar, could only have been erected 
on, or near the site of the present one, as it is the narrowest part of ' 
the valley, and must have stretched the whole breadth of the ravine ; 
which must be crossed at this precise spot. The greatest distance between 
the two hills is here only 120 feet, whilst the length of the bridge, 
according to the measurement in the inscription, calculating the cubit 
at 19 inches, would be 633 feet — a difference too great to allow of j 
the standard of the cubit in those days being altered to adapt itself ; 
to it, But the word "bridge" has, I doubt not, in the inscription, l J \ 
been applied not only to the masonry, &c., spanning the ravine, bat also 


to some portion of the causeway or approach to the same. This I 
think more than probable, for although the present causeway, acts- 
ally crosses the nullah in a bridge at one spot only, yet for its whole 
length, it is necessarily so immediately on the edge of the ravine, and 
indeed in some places may be said so much to overhang it that the 
word " bridge*' would probably be applied by the natives, to a greater 
portion, than that actually connecting the opposite banks of the ravine, at I 
the single point where such connection could be of any use to travel- t J 
lers to Girnar, Unless the " Paleshini Nuddoe" is to be looked for in j' 
another direction altogether, there is no other way than the above, of - 
accounting for the dimensions of the bridge ; but as there happens to 
be only this approach to Girnar from the westward, and as its 
is immediately at the foot of the hill-— coupled with the position of 
rock and inscription&r-there can be no doubt that it is the place 
to. The only remaining pathway to Girnar through the jungle from 
the southward, has no river, torrent, or corresponding feature aboai it** 

• This is an accessible bat unfrequented pathway, considered dangesowa by ' 
natives, from the fear of wild beasts, (lions abound in these hills,) and the 
this tribe of freebooters still infest the jungles around Jnma^arh, as described by tarn, 
author of the Mir at i Iskandari. Even the high and well frequented road frosn 
westward, is not considered safe from these depredators, and all the Tistfcovs 
Qirnar who can afford it, hire Arab and Mekrani guards to escort them '%» ISl : 
temples. Captain Lang and myself were fired on by a party of these oatlavai 
passing through the jungle on the eastern side, and at the foot of the <fl s >a s n 

MM* M 



1888.] Notts of a journey to Girndr. 879 

I could trace nothing approaching " PaleshmC in the names by which 
the ravine is at present known ; these are the Sirsihee, Tribenee, and 
Sonar ekha, — this latter, having some allusion to gold being found in 
its bed, is curious. 

Although I failed to discover the slightest trace of the ancient bridge, 
the remains of an old causeway are to be seen near the present one, 
crossing the bed of the ravine in a diagonal direction. It is only 
traceable for a few yards, but appears to have been connected with 
some former extensive work of the kind, as it is again to be seen for a 
short extent beyond the modern causeway towards Junagarh. From the 
Damodar Kund and temples the Girndr road winds through thick 
jungle, the ascent commencing at the foot of the western spur or 
shoulder*. Here it is necessary to quit the horse, and take to a rude, 
but very convenient conveyance for the purpose ; consisting of a small 
square seat, suspended from two short poles and carried by four men. 
After a winding and fugged ascent of about a mile, the shoulder termi- 
nates at the foot of the scarp, where is a small dharamsdla and 
halting-place. Up to this point, the Girndr is connected with the 
lower range, and its sides, together with the gorges and the valleys 
of the hills beneath, are richly clothed with a most luxuriant jungle, 
diversified only with the black rocks, which occasionally appear through 
the trees and vegetation. But for the rest of the ascent, the sacred 
mount rises an immense, bare, and isolated granite rock, presenting all 
the gigantic masses peculiar to that formation. The whole face of the 
rock is quite black, with occasional white streaks, probably of felspar. 
The sides to the north and south are nearly perpendicular scarps ; on 
flie extreme point of the northern side is an immense pillar or boulder, 
which seems as it were poised on its pinnacle, requiring only a slight 
force to dislodge it. This pillar is sometimes the scene of self- 
sacrifice, and is hence called the Beiru Jhap or leap of deathf. The 
noted Jain temples occupy a small ledge or table land surmounting 
the scarp, and the wall of a kind of fort, which is erected round them, 
is immediately on the edge of the rock. As seen from below, their 
apparently very diminutive size has a curious effect. From the dha- 

* The whole distance from the commencement of the ascent to the summit of 
the Qirndr, I found to be 4691 yard*, or two miles, five furlongs, and 71 yards. 
It* perpendicular height above the level of the sea, is said to be 9600 feet ; but 
this, 1 had not the means of determining. 

f The belief appears to be, that the victim will secure to himself the rank of 
raja in the next stage of his existence. The immense number of eagles which 
nail round this pillar and the scarp, add much to its apparent height. A poor 
wretch had sacrificed himself only a few days before our arrival. 

660 Notes ofajaunuy to Girndr. [Oct. 

ramsdla just mentioned, to the temples, the ascent winds up the face 
of the rock, every trifling ledge or irregularity in the surface of which 
has been most ingeniously turned to account, in the formation of a 
pathway generally about five feet wide, with steps of masonry : these 
latter are said to have been the gift of a rich mahajtm from Beendm in 
Rajputdna. This part of the journey is calculated to try the nerves of the 
traveller, bordering, as the pathway does, upon a perpendicular descent 
of many hundred feet: a false step might be fatal ; and it is quite extra- 
ordinary to observe the case and alacrity, with which the bearers turn 
the sharp corners and difficult passages in this narrow and daagefom 
ascent. In descending, they carry the dooley at a rapid pace; bat 
constant practice has made the road so familiar to these poor people, 
that their dexterity banishes all idea of danger. To attempt any de- 
scription in detail of the lavish richness in the style and architecture of 
the Gimdr temples, would be beyond my limits. Commanding, at 
the sect does by whom they are erected and kept up, much of the 
wealth of India, they have evidently spared stone, to make these 
monuments of their superstition of surpassing magnificence. The 
walls of the fort, to which I have alluded, occupy the whole ledge «m> 
mounting the scarp, and within it are eight temples, a dharemsikt 
and two tanks*. Of the former, the largest and most gorgeous, though 
by no means the most ancient, is sacred to Neemnath, whilst the 
others are erected in honor of the favourite saint Pahisnathji'. The 
figures of the saints, which are very numerous, are generally small, but 
there is one colossal image of RiKHABDBof. There are many 
inscriptions on various parts of the temples, recording the repairs sad 
additions made to them from time to time by the mahajun*. The 
original material in all is granite, but the expense of working it being 
too great, the repairs]: are now carried on with the stone brought 
from below, and quarried in the eastern part of the city of Junagark 
There are three ancient temples, whose peculiar form, with somethingsn- 
proaching to a Ddhgop occupying the whole space in their centre, would 
lead to the conclusion that they are of Buddhist origin. Thedsiei 

* The largest of these was the gift of king Kumar Pal, 8th of the CM** 
Panaris tribe who ruled at AnhUuxtrrah Potto*. 

f Height from the gadee, on, which this figure is sitting, to the top of the heed 
IS feet ; length of foot 3 feet. Material, granite coated with chmnam. 

t Many of these temples have been much mutilated, and one which is now re- 
building, was completely thrown down by Allah on dun, styled JTeeeufc (oris* 
bloody), who is said to have ravaged Gustrat like Mahmuo of old. Ihe tin* 
of this Mohammad an conqueror is obscure, but at titiradr they say about SOS yen* 
ago. 1 think the temples at AM suffered from the same person* 

1888*3 Notes of * journey to Girndr. 881 

of these, with copies of inscriptions upon them, as well as the traditions 
respecting Girndr, and the other noted Jain sanctuaries at Sitmnfik 
or PalUtena, hare been promised me by &jattee 9 whom I had the good 
fortune to meet at Junagarh*, and will, when procured, form the subject 
of a separate paper. The temples at Girndr are under the care of 
Chanmey who spare no trouble to shew strangers all the curiosities of 
the place. The month Phahgun (February and March) is the period 
of the great annual jattrmh at Girndr, when crowds of mahajuns from 
aU parts of western and central India assemble to visit these shrinesf. 
From the temples, to the summit of the mount, the ascent is gradual 
and easy, tbe steps being continued the whole way. A thin layer of 
soil upon the surface of the rock, affords sufficient nourishment to the 
korumder bush and wild fig ; the former grows with great luxuriance J. 
Several small and detached temples occupy sites to the right and left 
of the pathway ; but the only spot of any note, before reaching the sum* 
mit, is the Ghai Mdkh, a spring of beautifully clear water, which issues, 
as the name implies, from the mouth of the sacred animal : some small 
are built near it, and it is believed to possess the property of 

* There ia a small establishment of these men at Junagarh belonging to the 
GtVftdV temples, and from the chapras much curious and interesting matter is often 
so be gained; they are the only annalists in this part of India, and it is evident from 
the perfect coincidence in names and dates, that those Muhammadan historians who 
have written on Quserat, were indebted to the Jain priests and their books (gene* 
rally in the Basha), for all the information they possess respecting Ankttwarr* 
Pattmu sad similar places. Their annals extend as far back as PatHUpwtta, and! 
Chamdmguito, Bindn$ero, and Atoko are familiar names ; but here, their chronology 
fails them, and beyond the mere names and order of succession they can give no 
information. In connection with Asoka's name, I was happy to have it in my 
power to make my friend the jattee (Hasti Wijjah) some return for the assistance 
lie afforded me whilst at Girndr, by enlightening him on the subject of the charac- 
ter on the noted rock, which he confessed had long excited his curiosity. I also gave 
aim one of Mr. Pmnsbp's Sanskrit alphabets ; with the assistance of this, and his 
knowledge of the language, he will be enabled to decipher the edicts of a king, whose 
name figures in his chapras. 

f Although this is the periodical jattrah, GirnAr is always well attended, parti* 
cnlarly by jogies, who take it on their return from Dwarka. The liberal Sudawurtt 
which are established here, act as no little incentive to these people, and every na- 
tural cave or shelter afforded by the rocks in various parts of the summit, is occu- 
pied by one or more of the Sunyasi tribe. They come well provided with Sank* 
from SanHdar (island of Bate near Dwarka) and at sun-set the whole hill is made 
to resound to their shrill sounds. 

X The soil and climate of the Qim&r and neighbouring hills, appear particularly 
congenial to the growth of the mango. On the eastern side of the former, two 
extensive ledges in the side of the mount, are entirely occupied by thickets of this 
tree, and are known as the Sasha Wun, 1000, and Lacka Wun, 100,000— referring 
tw the number of trees in each. The former is said to have been the scene of a 
tupvsya by Nbbmha"th, who was also attended by 1000 devotees. 

5s 2 

889 Note* of a journey to Gimdr. [Oct. 

purifying from sin. The highest point of the Gimdr* is occupied by aa 
ancient temple to Mata, or, as it is styled, Ambavee Mala; originally 
Jain, but at present used by the Hindus, and the only one they possess 
upon the Gimdr. From this temple towards the south, the road and 
steps lead to a slight descent, from which a view is obtained of two 
extraordinary-shaped forks, or peaks of bare granite, which rise from 
considerable and detached bases to an immense height, gradually re- 
ceding to points at their summits ; they are separated from the Gimdr 
by a deep ravine, and the farthest and loftiest is surmounted by a small 
building, and known as the Guru Dutatri. As seen from this side, 
these pinnacles appear perfectly inaccessible ; but the Guru Dutatri is 
gained by a continuation of the steps, and pilgrims from all parts of 
India traverse this dangerous and often fatal pathway, daily f. 

Without enumerating the many small shrines and sacred spots 
on the summit of the Gimdr, it will be sufficient to observe, that the 
whole of this extraordinary mount, is invested with peculiar sanctity, 
the origin of which would seem to be of high antiquity. That the 
present system of worship is a graft of the ancient Buddhist faith 
which obtained here, there can be no doubt. The Edicts of Pyadasi 
testify abundantly that the hill of " Girinagar" and its neighbourhood, 
was originally a stronghold of the monotheists, whose form of worship 
has now degenerated into the modern system of Jainism. 

The neighbourhood of Junagarh has also its share of Muhammadan 
sanctity. A shrine called the Dutar, sacred to the memory of a noted 
saint, (Jumal Sha'h,) crowns the summit of a hill to the southward* 
and is as highly venerated as any in Guzerat. This spot is also said to 
have been the scene of some extraordinary austerities performed by 
this peer, who lived about 100 years ago. The stories connected 
with Jumal Shah are vague and contradictory ; by some he is said to 
have been buried at Junagarh ; by others Tattak in Sindh, is said to 
claim the honor of his remains. But the veneration paid to his me- 
mory is extraordinary. At the foot of the hill various lepers and other 
persons afflicted with loathsome diseases, have taken up their residence, 
and occupy themselves in calling upon the saint's name to release 
them from their afflictions, and restore them to their families ; and I 
have seen the Cutch boatmen make their offerings to this shrine, as they 
pass in view of the Junagarh hills along the western coast of KaU 

• The greatest breadth of the table land at the summit of the Oirmar is oaly 
15 yards. 

t One man lost his life, by failing from the steps leadimg to this pjaaanja, 
whilst we were on the Gimdr* 

1898.] Note on Somndth.. 888 

Note on Somndth. 

History has given to the idol and temple of Somndth a celebrity that 
none other of the places of Hindu worship can boast. The romantic 
account of its destruction given by Ferishta, is the circumstance by 
which to this day Mahmud Ghaznavi's career of victory and blood* 
shed is most remembered— so much so that even Mill has condescend- 
ed to borrow from that historian, the picturesque story of the image 
yielding to successive blows of the warrior king's battle-axe, till his 
seal was repaid by the bursting of the idol's belly, and the discovery 
of the largest and most valuable jewels concealed within its cavity. 
The Rozut oo$-$ufa 9 a history of higher antiquity* and better autho- 
rity than FsaiSHTA, gives an account of Mahmud's expedition, which 
corresponds in the main particulars with that of Ferishta, but omits 
this breaking of the image ; nevertheless, as Ferishta says the pieces 
were to be seen in his day at Ghasmavi, there can be no doubt the 
image was broken, and carried away as a trophy of the conquest 

The account of the idol and temple given by Ferishta is evidently 
borrowed from the Rozut oe*-sufa 9 of which the citation of Sheikh 
Pureed ood desk's couplet in explanation of the name Somndth, is un- 
deniable evidence. As this work may not be in every body's hands, it 
may be useful to insert an extract rendered into English, for comparison 
with the account of the same events which will be found in the 
first volume of Colonel Briggs's Ferishta. The place beseiged by 
Mahmud Ghaznavi must have been the city of Patath the situa- 
tion of which on the sea side, as described by Lieut Postans, exactly 
corresponds with the description in both histories, though the name of 
the town was lost in the greater celebrity of the idol and its temple. 

" Somndth is the name for an idol which, according to the Hindus, 
was lord of all idols. But Sheikh Furebd oon dbbn Utar, the poet, 
says, Somndth is the name of a place, and Lat the name of the idol, for 
he has the following couplet : 

" Historians however agree that Somndth was an idol in a temple 
situated on the sea side, which idol the Hindus worshipped, especially at 
times of eclipse. More than a lakh of people used to come to it on nights 
when the moon was under eclipse : and they believed too, that the 
souls of the deceased came to Somndth, on first leaving the bodies 
they had occupied, and were there assigned to fresh bodies. They 
also believed that the sea worshipped Somndth, and the rise and fall 

* Tke Roxut oot-tvfa was compiled by order of Ambib Ulbb Srbeb, between 
the Hylra years 900 and 903, A D. 1444 and 1496. 

884 Note on Somndth. [Oct. 

of the tides was considered to be proof of this. From the most distant 
parts of India pilgrims used to come to worship at this shrine; 
10,000 Tillages were assigned for its support, and there were so many 
jewels belonging to it, as no king had ever one-tenth part of in ids 
treasury. Two thousand Brahmins served the idol, and a golden 
chain of 200 muns supported a bell-plate, which being struck at 
stated times called the people to worship ; 800 shavers, 500 dancing- 
girls, and 800 musicians were on the idol's establishment, and received 
support from the endowment and from the-gifts of pilgrims. The Ganges 
is a river to the east of Dehlee near Kanouj\ which the Hindus be- 
lieve to flow from heaven, and into which they throw the ashes of the 
burned dead, conceiving that by so doing the sins of their fives are 
washed away. Brahmins, drowning themselves in this stream, believe 
that they secure eternal beatitude. Distant as the river is front 
Somndth, still there were pilgrims employed in continually bringing Ha 
water thither, so that the idol might be regularly washed with it. 

" In Hejira 416 Mahmud Ghaznavi invaded India and des t ro yed 
all the idols ; whereupon the Hindus said, that the idol Somndth had 
in its anger caused their destruction, otherwise the destroyer would 
have perished. Mahmud hearing of this, resolved to proceed against 
Somndth itself, thinking that, when that most sacred image should be 
destroyed, the Hindus would more readily turn to Islam. 

"On the 10th Shaban 416, (12th Oct. 1025,) the king moved 
with 30,000 mounted warriors, lightly equipped, to Afuftsn, where ha 
arrived in the middle of Ramzan, (Nov. 1025.) There, finding that 
between him and Somndth lay a wide desert, without water or forage, ha 
assigned to each trooper two camels, and besides loaded 20,000 camels 
with supplies and water. Having thus passed the desert, he came upon 
a country full of strong forts, (AjmeerJ the holders of which mostly 
submitted ; whereupon the king ordered the men to be put to death* 
and the women and children to be made captives, and he destroyed 
all the idols. Thence advancing, he came to Bhuwara (in Febishta 
Nihurwalajy which was deserted by its chief and garrison, and Mah- 
mud establishing a dep6t there, continued his march, destroying all the 
idols and temples as before, till he came to the neighbourhood of 
Somndth, in the month of Zeekdad, (January, 1026.) There he found 
a strong tort on the sea side, so situated that the waves washed to the 
top of the battlements. The Hindus crowded the ramparts, expecting to 
see the Moosulman army destroyed by the idol god for its presumption* 
The next day the army approached the walls, and commenced the 
assault with such vigour, as the Hindus had never before seen. The 

1888-3 Not * ** Stmndih. S85 

walls were soon cleared by the archers, and ladders being planted, the 
warriors mounted with the cry of * Allah Akbar.' The Hindus 
thereupon turned on the assailants and fought desperately, some fight- 
ing, while others went to the idol, and, prostrating themselves, prayed 
for victory. After fighting aM day, the besiegers retired to their camp ; 
but neit morning they renewed the assault, and cutting off the heads 
of all who opposed them, penetrated to the temple of Somndth. There 
the Hindus alternately prostrating themselves and renewing the battle, 
maintained themselves till night. Many of them were slain, and many 
attempted by embarking in vessels to effect their escape by sea ; but 
M ah mud, embarking part of his army, pursued them, and made great 
slaughter amongst the fugitives, thus completing his victory. The 
temple of Somndth was supported by fifty-six pillars ornamented with 
rubies, emeralds, and other precious stones ; each of these pillars bore 
the name of a different king of India as its embellisher. Fifty thousand 
infidels, and more, were slain round this temple, which was vast in 
dimensions, Sec. &fc," The history then proceeds with the arrangements 
after the conquest. 

Lieutenant Postans, in his very interesting account of the present 
condition of this temple, seems to be of opinion, that he saw it as it was 
left by Mahmud Ghaznavi after his conquest in 416 Hejira or 
1025-26 A. D. This, however, is not the case. Although the great 
image was broken and carried away, and perhaps all the carved images 
about the temple were industriously decollated or otherwise mutilated, 
still as Mahmud left a Hindu prince of sacred character, called in 
the Persian histories Dabishlesn, probably Dbvee Singh, as his 
vicegerent at Somndth, it is most probable that the temple was promptly, 
if not effectually, restored, for the sake of the revenue to be derived 
from its pilgrim tax. The poet Sadi, who lived 200 years after 
Mahmud, gives in his Boston an amusing tale of his own adventures 
at Somndth ; it commences, 

" I saw an idol of ivory at Somndth, jewelled like the idol Mundt 
in the days of superstition and ignorance," &c. The story is illustrative 
of the state of the temple, and of manners, and may therefore be told 
with advantage. Sadi, wondering at the folly of live people paying 
their adoration to a material without sense or motion, ventures to express 
his sentiments to an attendant priest, with whom he has some acquain- 
tance. The priest turns upon him in rage, and excites a commotion, 
which endangers Sadi s life ; whereupon he throws himself upon the 

88* Note on Somndth. [Ocr. 

mercy of the chief priest, stating that, although he had ventured to 
express a doubt, it was merely because he desired conviction. Hie 
priest tells him he is a man of sense and judgment, and shall be con- 
vinced that this idol is superior to all others, and deserving of adoration. 
If he will abide in worship all night, he promises him to see the idol 
raise its arm in the morning in adoration. Sadi consents, and gives an 
amusing account of the inconvenience he experienced from the pressure 
of the unwashed, unsavory crowd. Just before sunrise, the image, si 
the sounding of a bell, raises its arm, to the delight of the worshipping 
thousauds. Sadi assures the chief priest of his perfect convicton, flat- 
ters him and obtains his intimacy, till, finding an opportunity when the 
temple is empty, he gets behind the image, and there discovers a 
concealed, with the rope in his hand for raising the idol's arm. The 
runs, and Sadi follows, trips him up and throws him into a well z 
then, to make quite sure, he drops heavy stones upon him, feeling 
that his own life would assuredly be sacrificed, if his discovery were 
known, and quaintly remarking ^Ja. <xAsj *£>£ ««V« :l iS u Dead 
men tell no more tales." He then hurries away from Somndth, and 
returns to Persia through Hindustan, by a route of great danger 
and difficulty, the troubles of which he says he shall remember to his 
dying day. 

Such is the story, and it shows the temple to have been restored, as 
a place of Hindu worship, after its destruction by Mahmud, and to 
have remained as such, with something like its former renown, for 
200 years after that conquest. It is evident, however, from its present 
appearance, that it has since yielded to other spoilers, and has even been 
converted at one time into a musjid. The minarets on each side of the 
principal entrance, are evidently Muhammadan, and the interior arches 
observable in the sketch No. LI. are also no part of the original Hin- 
du fabric ; but must have been erected at a much later date, to support 
the magnificent roof described by Lieut. Postans, in lieu of the fifty* 
six pillars adorned by fifty-six rajas, which were stripped, if not broken* 
by the destroyer of the 1 1th century. 

The pundits say, that there is nothing in the vedas, puranas and 
other brahmanical text-books to illustrate the origin and history of the 
Somndth temple. Its situation on the shore of the Indian ocean, and the 
corresponding temple of the sun in Katak, known as the Black Pagoda, 
and situated on a like promontory washed by the waves of the eastern 
sea in the Bay of Bengal, will not fail to strike the reader. And Aso- 
ka's selection of rocks on the high road to each, for the promulgation 
of his edicts, would seem to indicate, that both enjoyed in his day a cor* 

1888.] Note by Mr. Kit to*. 887 

responding celebrity ; and that, through the resort of pilgrims, the ap- 
proaches to them afforded the surest means of causing his doctrines 
and injunctions to be universally known. 

In this number, we confine our observations to the Somndth temple. 
The more valuable relics of Girndr must be reserved for more careful 
examination. Lieut. Postans' report and sketches of the rocks, and 
of the valley of Junagarh, will shew precisely the site and outward 
appearance of the natural tablets, upon which the edicts of AsoKa 
have been so carefully and so durably engraved. With that we must 
at present be satisfied. The examination of the facsimiles, and their 
comparison with the previous readings and printed version of this extra- 
ordinary inscription, will be the work of time : and unfortunately the 
drawings and facsimiles of Lieut. Postans reached Calcutta the very 
day after the discoverer of the key for decyphering this ancient charac- 
ter had taken bis departure, in a state of health that prevented his giving 
close attention to any of his favorite pursuits. He had prepared every 
thing before his sickness, for the final comparison which was to be 
made on their expected arrival. He had already corrected the version, 
printed in preceding Numbers of this Journal so as to have completed, 
almost to his perfect satisfaction, the entire restoration and decypher- 
ing of this valuable relic of 20 centuries. It remained only to refer 
to the facsimiles for a few doubtful letters and passages; this la- 
bour, which to him would have been the work, only of a few hours, will 
impose upon any other who undertakes it, the task of mastering the 
character and language of the inscription, and of remaking the colla- 
tions ab initio. The facsimiles are in the museum of the Asiatic So- 
ciety, and the learned and the curious are invited to their examination. 

Since the above note was written Mr. Kittob, who has kindly 
lithographed the sketches of Somndth for the Journal, has favored us 
with the following note on its architecture. 

Note by Mr. Kittob on the Architecture of the temple ofSomndth, 

a$ exhibited in plates XL. and XLL 
Much pains do not appear to have been bestowed by the " Faithful" 
{who converted the temple of Sotnndth into a musjid), to obliterate 
what still remained of its idolatrous features. The minarets and 
domes of the exterior, and the vousoir arches of the interior supporting 
them, seem to be the only parts of Moorish origin ; the pillars now 
occupying the interior of the fabric, and supporting the flat portions of 
the roof, most probably originally adorned the porches, or " Subhas" and 
colonnades, which, even in the present day, characterise some of the 
temples of Orissa and lower down the coast 
5 T 

8SS Population and Mortality in Calcutta. [Oct. 

That part of the Mmc, represented in plate L. as covered by donei 
and flat roofing, is most probably the multangular base of a once 
gigantic conical tower, like those of Kanaruc, Jugunnatk, Bhobanet* 
umr, and of many others in (liferent parts of the continent of India. 
That shape was common to all Brahminical edifices, and is still 
adhered to in the present day. 

The most curious feature is the perfectly Egyptian doorway, built 
within the original sculptured lintels apparent in the plate ; this vsj 
probably constructed when the temple was restored, after its destruction 
by Mahmud Ghaznavi. 

Plate LI. seems to represent the interior of an octagonal apartment 
beneath the principal dome, which appears to have been originally sop- 
ported on eight pillars and architraves taken from different parts of the 
temple ; these being subsequently found too weak to support its weight, 
arches appear to have been turned and built in beneath : the remainder 
of the roof, which seems to be supported by pillars of various shapes with 
brackets and plain architraves, the style of which is precisely the tame 
as of those in the old mosques at Jounprfr, likewise constructed with 
the fragments of demolished temples. Many ef the pillars there are 
elaborately sculptured ; others again are perfectly plain, as represent- 
ed in the plate before us for Somn&th; but the original pillars of 
Mahmud Ghaznavi's time may have been cased with gilt copper 
and jewels, for Colonel Mackenzie in his papers, describes several 
columns thus adorned in the Carnatic. 

The admixture of Moorish and Hindu sculpture and architecture, 
resulting from this practice of converting temples into mosques in the 
manner above described, gave rise to a style, which might well be termed 
" Indo-musjidy," for the proportions are as three of the former to one 
of the latter. 

VI. — Population and Mortality in Calcutta. 
We are indebted to the same anonymous contributor, who furnished 
Capt. Herbert with the statement of protestant deaths, published in the 
Gleanings, vol. III. p. 88, for the enlarged table which we now present, 
and which, although it must necessarily be uncertain as a foundation for 
estimating the mortality of different classes, still, until we have a regu- 
lar municipal record of the inhabitants of all conditions, classed by age, 
these results may be looked upon as a tolerable approximation to the truth* 
We will leave the compiler to make his own remarks on the Mortality 
table. The second table, or that of the population, appears to have been 
taken through the thanahs ; and if the Khdneh thumdri system be re- 
peated every five years or so, we should think that the results compared 
would afford a good average. 









PopmUttion end Mortal**/ i» Calcutta. 

«i ri V 4 « 
8 S 8 8 S 

£ I 

d d d a 

•5 .5 •* •«* ■*• 

S R I 5 g 
S E 3 3 ft 




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CD «o 10 « *• * *> od 10 * r* f*. ** •» ei « © « -- © 






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c«c*c«c«c«ti)c*ei c*wc<ic» — o» — c« 







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Population ami 

in Cedcutta. 


Statement of the average rate of Mortality per cent, among the different 
<tf inhabitant* in Calcutta per census and Table of mortality. 



French, .... 

Western Muhammadans, 
Bengal Muhammadans, . . 



Western Hindus, 
Bengal Hindus, 

Mugs • 

Low Castes, .... 

No. of 




45,067 4 







p. annum. 




per cent* 






3f pr.ct. 




1 ii 

1 in 8 

1 in 36 

1 in 16 
1 in 95 
1 in 14 


Native Christians, 


Jews, . 



The great difference in mortality between the Hindus* and Mosul- 
mans is striking, while the difference to be observed between the For* 
tuguese, as compared with the English and the Eurasians, is equally so. 

Here is much room for speculation, and it cannot be said that as yet 
we have as good means of getting correct information upon this subject 
as they possess in Europe : nevertheless, we may approach as near as 
we can to the point we wish to ascertain, and we may hope to improve 
in such statistical records. 

The Portuguese, among whom so great a mortality is shewn, area 
suffering race very subject to the catalogue of complaints enumerated 
in these papers ; while the English and Eurasians are far more prosper- 
ous in life, and enjoy comforts and happiness in a very high degree, 
as compared with the former section of society. The mortality of the 
English and Eurasians 3£ per cent, per annum, while that of the Portu- 
guese being 12£ per cent, is very great. In 1830 I ascertained, and 
published, in the Gleanings of Science the burials in Calcutta of Protes- 
tant Christians from the year 1820. To shew at that time, that 
although the European population must have greatly increased, yet, that 
the deaths and burials had not encreased, and now that the same 
population is acknowledged to have increased very materially indeed, 
yet we see upon referring to the first column of one of the tables, giving 
the Protestant burials, for the last 20 years, no increase of deaths. 
The years 1833-4, the two years following the sea inundations, shew the 
greatest mortality of late years ; while among the native population 
those two years, shew an extraordinary mortality. The two last years 
shew in respect of both European and Native population that healthiness 

• The difference of Mortality amongst the Muhammadans and Hindus may be ac- 
counted for by the circumstance that the Hindus of Calcutta consisting of families 
include a much larger proportion of Infant Kfe. The same circumstance will ex- 
plain the great difference between the average Mortality amongst the Portuguese 
and the Europeans of Calcutta. — Ed. 


Population and Mortality m Calcutta. 


is restored. The mortality among the other columns of society, the 
Catholic, Greek, Armenian, Hindu Armenian, and Native Christian, 
are for the last 20 years, and I believe them to be nearly correct. The 
Chinese and the Jews keep no account of their burials ; I of course could 
not include them, and they form a minute portion of the population of 
this city. 















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*uejpx!qo utwdoang 






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-sjnSuasBtMi joue£po( SAttvtf 
























•eouLias m sirouirasnH jo *ox 
























"uejpnuo uinainenj^ 








-a^[np« usuqnsnj^ ^uepise^ 


















'eoiAJias oi snpoTjj jo *o>j 















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a - 
























89ft Weight*, Measure* and Coin*, [Oct. 

VIL— Report on the Weight*, Measure*, and Coin* of Cabul end 
Bukhara. By Nowrozjee Fordoonjee. Forwarded by Captain 
Burnbs to Government, and transferred to the Asiatic Society. 

Now that, happily for the interests of British and Indian commerce, 
a more intimate and extensive intercourse is about to commence with 
countries adjoining to India, the following humble attempt to simplify 
and accurately describe the weights, measures, and coins of Cabul and 
Bukhara will not, it is hoped, be thought without use ; the more so, 
since the subject has been hitherto left untouched by European mer- 
chants and travellers, though a knowledge of it is mdispens&bl* to the 
scientific and commercial world. 

Of Cabul Weights. 
General commercial or gross weight. 

6 Nukhods = 1 Shahee. 

4 Shahee = 1 Miscal. 

20 Miscals = 1 Khoord, or Seer i Tabres. 

4 Khoord = 1 Pow or Powee. 

4 Powee = 1 Charuk. 

4 Charuk* «= 1 Seer. 

*2± Charuck or \ , w . m ^ 

^Awl jV=1 MuniTabreet. 
40 Khoord J - 

8 Seer = 1 Munkhanee. 

10 Munkhanee = 1 Khurwar. 

6 Munkhanee =1 Camel load. \ Not Ms* of ai»d 

4 Ditto ditto = 1 Mule or poney load, r proportion these an 

3 Ditto ditto «= 1 Ass load. > S l ™ °"> •* »▼*«**• 

There are two different muns in use at Cabul, vis. : — 

1st. The Mun i Tabreez, which is equal to 2£ charuks of this 

country, or = 9 lbs. 10 oz. 160 grs. troy. 

2nd. Mun % Khanee which is equal to eight seers of this country, 
or = 126 lbs. 2 oz. 320 grs. troy. 

The maund of India is unknown, and the mun of Tabreez is evidently 
that introduced from Persia, where it is universal. 

The seer is also of three varieties and denominations, vis. 1st* 
One seer i cabul, which is equal in weight to 504,888 Bombay rupees 
or tolas, being found by actual experiment to contain 90,880 grs, 
or = 15 lbs. 9 oz. 160 grs. troy. In like manner I found the miscal 
to weigh exactly 71 grains. The latter being the unit of the ponds- 


of Cabul and Bukhara. 


raiy system of Afghanistan and Tartaty, I have preferred it for my 
standard by which all the other weights are ascertained with the utmost 
precision. There are 1280 miscals in a Cabul seer. 

2nd. Seer i Tabreex, which is only the 16th part of a charuk or 
20 miscals = 2 ounces and 460 grains troy. 

3rd* Seer i Hindustan, or that introduced from India. 

4th. Chooraika are foreign measures, and not much used. 

I. The commercial weights of Cabul as compared with British and 
Indian weights. 

Cabul weights & 


e in 


Value in 




their denomina- 

avoirdupois weight. 

Bombay and Guserat. 







tola maaha ruttee dhan. 

1 Nukhoad, 





1 Shahee, 





1 Miscal, 





1 Khoord or seer, 









1 Fow or Powee, 








1 Charuk, 









1 Seer, ••• 








1 Man Khanee,... 









1 Khurwar, 









Besides giving the equivalent of the native weights in British Avoir-* 
dupois weight I have, in the above and other succeeding tables, endea- 
voured to draw a comparison with the Indian weights, particularly those 
of Bombay and Guzerat, which might if required, be easily converted 
into Bengal weights by the following relation. 

Bombay and Guzerat. Bengal. British. 

8 Maunds, = 1 Mun or Stand- 1 ^ ,, . . 

ard Maund, J — ** 1D8 ' av< or * CWU 

2857 Seers = 1 Seer of 80 tolas, = 2057 lbs. 

The tola = 180 grains is uniform in all the presidencies. 

Goldsmith's or Jeweller's weight. 

4 Pa = I Nukhoad. 

6 Nukhoads = 1 Shahee. 
4 Shahee = 1 Miical. 

* This is uted chiefly by Hindu groceri la Cabul ia purchttiog Indian Com- 


Weights, Measures and Coins, 


IL Jeweller's weight compared with Indian & English Troy weights. 

Cabul weights. 

1 Pa, 

1 Nukhoad, 
1 Shahee, 

Indian weights. 

Mashas. ruttees. dhans. 

1 2.315 

1 1 1.891 
4 5 3.465 

English Troy weight*. 






Cloth Measure. 

4 Khoord =3 1 Gheerah. 

4 Gheerahs = 1 Charuk. 

4 Charuks = 1 Guz. 

4 Pow s=s 1 Charuk i guz. 

III. Cloth measure compared with English and Indian measures. 

Cabul measures. 

1 Khoord, 
1 Geerah, 
1 Pow, 

1 Charuk i guz, 
1 Guz i Shah, 


■ a. 

Indian guz. 



English i 

14 or 36 






This guz is called guz 1 shah because it was introduced by Ahmed 
Shah. It is used for measuring all sorts of cloths, goods, &c, and 
is also employed by tailors in their use. It is equal to 1 J guz of 
Bombay and Guzerat, and measures 40£ inches English. 

Carpenters or Timber Measure. 


Mooeebur (hair's 

breadth) = 1 




= 1 




= 1 




= 1 




= 1 




= 1 

Guz i maimer. 

. .This. guz is used by carpenters, bricklayers, and masons, 
timber measuring. 

and lor 


vfCabul and Bukhara. 



Timber measures of Cabul compared. 

Cabal Measures. 

Indian Measure. 


English Inches. 

1 Mooeebur, 

1 Rujja, 

1 Payeen, 

1 Teereea, 

1 Tuasoo, 

1 Charuk, 

1 Gusi Maimer, 



Bhay Gus 











There are only two kinds of guz in Cabul, vis. the guz i shaky 
and matmaree, the former, as already stated, measuring 40£ inches, and 
the latter 38 inches English. 

Measure* of Capacity. 

These are the same as the weights, there being no separate kind 
of measures for liquids nor for coin. 

Land Measure. 
This includes both linear and square measure. 

8 Kudums 

= 1 

20 Biswas or '60 paces = 1 

66 Jureebs* 
12 Kos 

= 1 


Jureeb = also 20 Guz i Shah. 

Kroh or Kos. 

Royal Munzil or day's journey. 

These measures are uncertain, not being fixed to any permanent 
standard: they vary in many parts, cannot be precisely ascertained, 
and must not therefore be depended upon. However, the following 
comparison may give some idea, and convey a pretty good conjecture 
as to their extent : 

1 Biswa sss S£ or 4 feet. 

1 Kudum — 1£ or 1£ to ditto. 

1 Jureeb = 70 or 80 feet. 

1 Kroh or Kos = 2 miles*. 

1 Munzil = 24 miles. 

Taking 14 or 18 inches for one kudum, three of which are said to be 

• The assumption of two miles for the to gives Mjweib of 80 feet, bat this is 
too much for the ordinary to.— Ed. 

5 u 


Weights, Measures and Coins, 


equal to one guz i shah, the Jureeb is about 60 or 70 feet square, or, if 
measured by the guz t shah, it comes to 67 feet, and as a last resource : 
taking a medium of all tfaes results, we hare one jureeb = 70 feet 

8 Kourees 

= 1 

4 Kusseera 

= 1 

2 Ghuz 

= 1 

5 Pysa 
2 Shahee 

= 1 
= 1 

2 Sunwar 

= 1 

9 Abassee or 12 shahee = I 

7 Rupees 

=» 1 

6 Rupees 
15 to 18 Rupees 

= 1 
= 1 

20 Rupees 

= 1 




Pysa, (pookhta.) ^ Copper. 


Shahee. "I Formerly silw blU 

Sunwar. > .* 

A , f now imaginary. 

Abassee. J ° J 

Rupee. — Silver. 

Boodkee or ducat. 1 ~ ,, 
ITL , , > Gold coins. 

Ushurfeeormoniir. J 

Tooman, (an imaginary money 

like the Kory of Bombay.) 

The rupees and pice are either kham or kucha, or pookhta, t. e. puk- 
ka, and where the former is not specified, the latter is always to be 
understood. Their rates are as under. 

6 Pookhta rupees = 7£ Kham rupees* 
6 Pysa khawm = 1 Shahee, or 

72 Ditto = 1 Rupee. 

The Tooman i khawm is worth 18£ rupees. 

In the time of Shah Shooja and Zuman Shah, there were six pice 
pookhta current in a shahee, or 72 pice in a rupee, but they.have bee* 
lessened to 60 in a rupee by the present Ameer. The rupees have also 
been reduced in weight by the present ruler, for Shah Zuaanee rupees 
now bring 14 shahee* in the basar. At present there is n» siher 
coin of lower denomination than a rupee ; but in the time of the kit 
monarchs of Afghanistan, the abassee, shakes and sunwar* were of 
silver. They are not coined any more. 

V. A general Table of Cabul, Indian and English Monies and 
Exchange, showing the produce of the former country's currency » 
Company's rupees at the present rate of exchange, i. e. 1 17 Cabul ru- 
pees for 100 of the E. I. Company : and in pounds and shillings ster- 
ling, at the commercial par of exchange, viz. 1 shilling 1 1.51 pence per 
1 Bombay rupee, or 195 shillings per 100 Bhay Ra. 



ami Bukhara. 

Cabul Cur- 












Rate per 










per 0-0 Rs. 

16,666 R». 

Value In Indian 
currency Com- 

Rs. As. 











Value in British 























Kuseera, . . 



Snanee, .. 


Abbasee, • . 


Tllla. (7 Rs.) 


(6Bi.) 16,666 Rs. 6 3 .615 9 0.048 

117CabulRs 100 9 15 

100 Ditto, . 85 7 6.310 8 6 6.880 

The old Berate* and Shah Zumanee rupees (out of currency now) 
coined at Herat and Cabul respectively in the years 1214, 1216, and 
1217 A. H. weigh each 2 J miscals or 178 grains, being only two 
grains less in weight than the present Bombay and Madras rupees of one 
tola. They contain five grains of alloy. The present Cabul rupee 
weighs 147 grs. and contains the same quantity of alloy though it is 
leas in weight than the former. 

Of Bukhara Weights. 






Poot or Food, (Russian.) 

Mun of Bukhara. 
This is the general commercial weight of Toarkistau or Tartary, 
The pood is a Russian weight used at Bukhara in purchasing Russian 
commodities. The tola obtains currency in Bulkh y Khulum and 
Kunduz, where it is employed in weighing tea, wax, silk, and grocery. 
In Bukhara, grains, flour and such other bulky articles are weighed by 
the mun — meat, butter, milk, &c. by the charuk ; while sugar, fruit, 
ghee, &c, &c, are weighed by the neemcha. 

VI. Table of the weights of Bukhara compared with those of Ca- 
bul, England and India. 


Miscals = 1 


Tolas =1 


Pow = 1 


Neemcha = I 


Charuks = 1 


Doneemseer = 1 


Ditto = 1 

English Avoirdu- 



pois weight. 


lbs. oz. drs. 

Mun seer tola masha ruttee. 

1 Man, 

31} Seers, 
1§ ditto, 

378 13 

13 34 34 11 


l Doneemseer, 

17 6 13 

31 15 6 


1 Neemcha, .. 

5 Khoordor or 

100 miscal 

1 1 H 

1 37 3 


1 Charuk, 

5 Pow, 

4 5 11 

7 34 10 


1 Pood, 

3$ Seers 

34 IS 8 

1 33 8 1 

J 180 

1 Tola, 

4A Miscals, 
3J Khoord, 




1 Pow, 

8 11,375 

37 7 


5 \ 


Weight*, Measures and Coins, 



Cloth Measure. 

4 Pow = 1 Charuk = 7 Ditto. 
4 Charuk = 1 Alcbeen = 28 Inches. 
2 Alcheen = 1 Kolach = 56 Ditto. 

By the kolach f chints, kurbas, and other cloths are measured. The 
Alcheen is a Russian measure. 

Land Measure. 

At Bukhara, in lien of the jureeb, another measure called the tuntab % 
70 paces square, is used in measuring lands, and for long distances the 
sung or measure of three coss, or six miles, is employed in use. 


Money Table*. 

1 1 Poole Seeah 

45 Do. or 4 Meeree 

21 Tungas 

17 Tungas 

3 Soum (roubles) 

VIL Table of the relative value of Bukhara, Cabuly English and 
Indian monies at the commercial par of exchange. 

«■ I 


= I 


S3 1 


= 1 

Boodkee or Ducat. 

= 1 



I Pooli Seeah, 
1 Meeree, 
1 Tonga, 
1 Boodka* 

1 Tilla*, 
1 Soom*. .. 
1 Yamoo*. .. 



in grains 













4 lbs. 4 

dra. and 



Rs. Shahees P. 








Indian currency. 









Rs. as. ft*, 
o o i.sts 










In Kunduz, Bulk, Khooloom, &c. the currency is exactly as above 
stated, with the exception of an additional coin, the rupee (Mahomed* 
shaeej, which also obtains currency there. It is larger than the 
Cabul rupee and exactly of the size of old Heratee rupee, weighing 
on an average 160 grains, or one tola of India. One hundred Room* 
doozee (Mahomeishahee) rupees are equal to 118 or 120 Cahd 

• For further particulars regarding these coins consult my paper on the Russiaa 
articles brought to Cabul. 

J of Cabul and Bukhara. 899 

rupees. They may therefore be stated to be at par with the Com- 
pany's and with Nanukshahee rupees. In the same places a kind of 
brass coin of a very inferior value, called poochhuk, ii also current ; 
lour of which are equal to a pooli seeah. No rupees are current in 


To the weights, measures and coins of Cabul and Bukhara those 
of Peshawur may also be added, as that district formed lately part of 
the Cabul dominions, from which it is at present dismembered by 
the Sikhs. Besides being situated near the Indus, Peshawur is con- 
sidered a great mart of commerce. 


The weights of Cabul current here during the monarchy have now 
fallen into disuse, and those of Lahore have been substituted in their 
room by the conquerers. The seer which weighs 102 rupees Nanuk- 
shah**, of 2£ miscals, each is equivalent to 2 lbs. 9 os. and 6.147 
drams avoirdupois. The other denominations are :— 

lbs. 02. drs. 



= 40 Seers 

= 109 I 13 English. 



= 1 Seer 

= 29 6147 



= 1 Ditto 

= Ditto. 



= 1 Chitah 

= 02 9384 

Jeweller's Weight. 

The jewellers here use the same weight as in Cabul, such as the 
miscal, nakhod, &c which are the same in value. 

Goldsmith's Weight. 

The goldsmiths employ the following in weighing gold, silver, 
coins, &c. &c. 

8 Ruttees = 1 Masha 
12 Mashas = 1 Tola. 

This is purely Indian weight and recently introduced from Lahore. 
The tolas, ruttees, &c. are nearly of the same value as those of India. 

Cloth Measures* 

The guj i shahi of 40 inches and Peshawuree guz of 32 inches were 
current formerly for measuring all sorts of cloths, but they have been 
recently supplanted by the guz i akali of the Sikhs. It is equal to 
37 inches English and subdivided into 16 geerahs. 

Weights, Measures ami Coins, fa 



The currency of Peshawur was formerly the same as that of Cahd; 
bat since the conquest of it by the Sikhs, the money system has under- 
gone a great change and become more intricate on account of the 
introduction of foreign coins, such as the Nanukshahee: Nou Nihal- 
Sunghee and other rupees. The present money system is described 
as under. 

Money Table. 

4 Kourees — 1 

8 Ditto or 2 Gundas = 1 

2 Adhees = 1 

2 Dumrees = 1 
4 Ditto or 2 Adhelas = 1 
4 Pysa = 1 

3 Pysa = 1 
16 Anas or 84 Pysas = I 


Shahee of commerce. 
Anna ditto. 

Rupee Peshawureeehid- 
nee of commerce. 


The different kinds of rupees current in Peshawur, with their 
weights and relative values, are as follows : — 

1st Nanukshahee rupee produces in Peshawur 24 Peshawurree 
annas and weighs 170-172 grains. 
Nou NihaUSinghee rupee, ditto 18 annas, weight 124-130 grs. 
Huri-Singhee rupee, ditto 15 annas, weight 170 grs. 
Peshawuree chulnee or of commerce, ditto 16 annas. 
Cabul rupees, or of commerce, ditto 21 annas, ditto 147 grs. 
The Nanukshahee rupees are at par with the kuldar or Company's 

113 Cabul rupees are equal in currency at Peshawur to 100 Nanuk- 
ihahee rupees. 

122 Peshawuree rupees, ditto ditto to 100 ditto. 
133 Nou Nihal-Singhee rupees, ditto ditto to 100 ditto* 
160 Huri-Singhee rupees, ditto ditto to 100 ditto, 
Lahore, IQth July, 1838. 

1888.] Ancient Inscription*. 901 

WH.— Ancient Inscriptions. 

I. — The first inscription of which we are about to give an abstract 
translation, has been obtained and communicated by Raja Dharma Vbnt 
kata Aswa Rao, who has been for some time in Calcutta, to urge on 
the supreme government of India his claim to the gadi of the raj of Palun- 
cha 9 or Kummumme't, which through some recent arrangements of the 
Nizam's government has been assigned to a rival claimant. The inscrip- 
tion is stated to be engraved on a slab about six or seven feet high, which 
is to be found close to the temple of Rudradeva at Warangal, the 
modern name for the ancient capital of the Telingana rajas, called in 
this inscription Arunakunda-pura y or patana. The inscription, that is 
its commencement and close, excluding the Sanskrit slokas, is in an 
old dialect of mixed Telugu and Oorya. It is 'Valuable as containing 
the genealogy of raja Rudradeva, and as showing that the previous 
dynasty established at Warangal, was overcome, and displaced by his 
father called Proli raja. The inscription gives an authentic date 
also for the reign of Rudradeva in Telingana, viz. 1054 Saka, cor- 
responding with 1 132 A. D., and shows this to be the raja, called in 
the temple annals of Jagannath, Chuhang, or Chorgunga, who is said to 
have overrun Katak, coming from the Carnatic, and to have founded or 
established the Gunga-vansa dynasty, in the very year of this inscription, 
viz. 1054 Saka. Raja Rudradbva is mentioned as a benefactor of 
Jagannath, and Katak is included in the boundaries which are assigned 
to his dominions at that period. These are described in the inscription, 
as extending as far as the sea to the east ; the Sree Saila 9 mountains to 
the south ; as far in another, direction, which must be west, as Bdka- 
taka ; while to the north, his rule extended as far as the Malyavanta, 
now perhaps the Malyagiri, mountain, west of Baleswar. 

The inscription commences thus : 

" The raja Rudradeva, who obtained the five high titles, and was 
sovereign of AiTinakunda-pura, king of kings, and lord of all things, 
virtuous, and fortunate, of the KdkaU race, established the three 
Devatas, Rudreshwara, (after his own name,) Basudeva, and Swriya- 
deva, in Arunakunda-patana, his capital city, for the continuation and 
spread of his dominion, in the year of Saka 1054, and in the year 
Chitrabhanu of the Vrihaspati Chakar or 60 years cycle of Jupiter on 
the 18th of Magh, a fortunate Sunday." 

Then follow three slokas, the first in praise of Hari, the second of 
Ganksha, the third a prayer to Saraswati. The 4th sloka commences 
the genealogy of Rudra Nareshwara as given by Achintendra 

802 Ancient Inscription*. {Oct. 

vara son of Sri Rambshwara Dikshita of the Bharadwaja 

The 5th sloka mentions raja Trirhuvana, a great warrior, to be the 
first ancestor : he was of the Kdkalya race. 

The 6th names Mala Deva as chief of the Kdkalya rajas, and a 
zealous worshipper of Shiva, but does not mention what relationship 
he bore Tribhubana, it is presumed he was the son. 

The 7th sloka names Proli raja as the son of Mala Deva, a 
successful and illustrious king. The four following slokas allude to 
some of his principal achievements. First that he reduced Govird 
raja, king of Tullapa f gave back his kingdom to the king of Erha* ; 
conquered and branded the founder of Nddha 9 in Mantra~kutn*gar f 
and because the Erha raja declined to join iu the expedition, expelled 
him afterwards from his raj. 

(Sloka 12.) " What shall I say of the victorious Proli raja, through 
whom the ruler of Arunakunda ( VarangalJ with its many districts 
was first awed into imbecility, till, taking this raja into his service, he 
was soon after expelled from his wide dominions." 

Sloka 13 describes the chief ranee of Proli raja, by name 
Mupama Devi the mother of Rubra deva, whose praises follow in 
sloka 14. 

Sloka 15 mentions Rudra's victory over Doha, a chief whose 
power lay in cavalry, and 16, his checking the raja Merha ? and 
plundering the Pola f country* 

17 to 21, describe the ascendancy gained by Bhima rija (half brother 
of Rudradeva), consequently upon the death of the Gokuma raja, the 
Chorhddaya raja, and the king of Tailapa ; that, inflated with these suc- 
cesses, he ventured to defy Rudradeva, who thereupon made pre- 
paration to meet him, (sloka 22.) 

Slokas 23 and 24 describe the awe inspired by these preparations ; 25, 
the burning of the town of Vardhamdnaf . 

26 The rija Bhima flies in terror with his family. 

27. Is pursued by Rudradeva and the town of Chorhadttya burnt. 

28. A large tank excavated there. 

29 and 80. In praise of Rudradeva's prowess. 

* The pundits say this is not Orista which always in the old dialect* is written 

f This name might lead to the supposition that raja Rcdradbya had advanced 
as far north as Bvrdwan, bat Choradaya is said to be 7Ym/*rt, which shows that the 
dominions of Bhima raja lay to the south t the Vindhya mountains are indeed men- 
tioned as the northern boundary of this raja's dominions. 

1638] Ancient Inscriptions. 903 

61. The raja Bhima, whose territories lay between Kanchi (Con' 
jeveramji and the Vvndhya mountains, sues for protection. 

82. Praise to Rudra, who adorned and populated Jagannath. 

The succeeding ten slokas are continuations of this praise in a very 
florid style. 

43. Mentions Arunakunda ( VarangalJ as raja Rudra's capital, 
and for three slokas the praises of that city are given ; then follow two 
slokas in praise of the king's horses, and last comes the following de- 
scription of his kingdom, in the old mixed Telugu and Oorya dialect. 

" His kingdom is bounded on the east by the salt sea, on the south 
by the Sree-Saila (mountains). His royal Lakshmi extends as far as 
B&kataka ; and on the north she reaches the mountain Malyawanta" 

" This king endowed this place named Madichetapa Nildma Khetaka, 
that it might long remain undestroyed, for the worship of Mahbswar, 
Ravi Souri (Vishnu), in evidence of his royal duty to the gods." 

4wk muns \^?rs *rc ^tt^ *rih: #k ** *faTO?* 

5 x 


Ancient Inscriptions. 



t&*nr i^ i ^HNnrc^n*^w^TO3TO ^t^aid ungual Pnns 

^ >• ^ ^ 

*jf*r shifts ^nm* 1 ^waf*w* *z m^WKm ro ^pnfii 
?tofto n^ra^fa tK*U1^*KT^ : *tw far iraf^nc 

* «S*N 

1888.] Ancient Inscriptions. 905 

m^ ttotc urcufl f$*ro ftwm $i *w 
■** fwn t* 5d^njnifW»j«n x* ftisjm x* tiy*i x* 

WJT HT»T» V^UKl ft* I V* ' "*&fa 5^ f^W^I 

fkwm vtfraf* rrwnMf ?rffc*t « *$ i \«. i 3*t ^ 

4«*iqfjqj^M g i<t*WttT(Umttf<l I *\ I ^ *fl" 

■iwftr *pRfn fronn fret 3 * ft*am*p I ** I *wr- 


009 Ancient Inscriptions. [Oct. 

ifrRJi 1 IS 1 1WT l^lfow fulfil ^TClf* rWT IT^J^J 91S^n 

xpsnf m^h i ^i i v^fcN}^39¥Prrvftnrar *rt*n ^rr 
f^rra jmjm *tot faarar* i ^ i era toiot ^r ^nrra 

*W4*mSH far *raHf (taw i ^tott 3wn^narare?n ^A 

w^nkI vim? I V I ^nnptwi mitiflwrc* ms}i£<**i*i 
iij^jtaihji(ta^^(^Shiifii*i« i ^Tftrf3?r^rvpnrenra 

1838.] AndmU Inscriptions. 907 

^fww iniwfii *nff ajf*r to? TmTftnnwfttfH $w imw< 

M i mmfM «▼ i»fa« swtoj[t* **w wk* 'bw^t: tot 
nwfl^mfr fain 1 *W* ««mm« iK^frtff l KPf 

qhyww wm 4i^ii«P>mptn<iii f i e« i 

*4U4a4k44tft*l W5prffc<*l%i**i imwt %4Mfara^rafir 
*4<*4yu ^jwwtfr #irfii i ^rriTfa^rar *^nfai 
Tftn* f^^w kroner* 4w{|fti4Fn *ng *nrf?r 
*ffa4*4Tij4 1 b\ 1 ^nr^wrftwrftirctftr srar croft 
^nfr 4 w*t MfVi«iiOi ^farft^rercnqfa w^nf i tut cniftr 

4ftffo U4l44lftV I 8^ I 4 4jllW£ 4**14(4 l*l<MI<ri *ffcT*T- 

w€fc ro Tftnnft cnrrcwiroftrar *roft4 * fttg 
ftwjftflr TWTftro^nftraT u 8* i "s^rf^nfr *r4nc4T44*T*r 

VPH V4l l 44H' | l | WWtl;MlIlB* I *3l!*Wti«4<€llt ft4T 
4114*1141 ^H4l4 4V9^9 9nT ^ ( ^ 4l W t I 88 I 1P4 ftf^JM^IJ 

pHufaw t 4fftF irarfar traro reto whro i imwiy* 


908 Ancient Inscription*. ([Oct. 

*rcr*rcjpi: i 8^ i Km uret «ma ^StMKn^^ja *itg«r 

IL— The next abstract translation we shall present to oar readers is 
of a very old copper grant, made by a raja of the Gajjjara race named 
Pra8Anga raja, grandson of Samanta Datta, and which bears the 
date of the full moon of Kartika in the Sambat year 380 — A. D. 338. 
The seal of copper has the grandfather's name. 

This very ancient and curious grant is one of several communicated 
by Dr. A. Burns from Kaira in Gujrat. Dr. Burns gives the follow* 
ing account of the manner in which the Tamba-patras were found. 
" The Plates, of which I enclose a copy" (he subsequently sent also 
facsimiles) " were found in the town of Kaira, about ten years ago. 
The river Watorua runs close to the walls on the north-west side, and 
was the cause of the discovery by washing down the walls and earth* 
They had been handed about the country among the natives for trans* 
lation, it being supposed they were connected with some deposit of 
treasure. At lost they were brought to me by a Fakir, of whom I 
purchased them/' Dr. Burns has sent transcripts and facsimiles of four 
plates, all of the beginning of the fourth century. That we now gire 
is No. 4, and not the most ancient ; but it was the first decyphered by Mr. 
Jas. Prinsep, and transcribed by him in DevanagarL The original is in 
the character of the fourth line of the alphabet plates of this volume* 

1688.3 Ancient Inscriptions. 909 

corresponding with that ascertained from inscriptions and coins to have 
been in use in Gujrat at the period of the date of these grants. Their 
antiquity is thus assured, but part of the singularity of this particu- 
lar one consists in the style of the eulogium of the raja and his an- 
cestors who made the grant, every word of which has a double meaning. 
The grant is in Sanskrit proBe, upon the model of the Kadamvari by 
Ban a Bbatta, and has been explained and commented upon at length 
by the Pandit Kamalakanta, who regards it as a wonderful com- 
position. It is impossible to give this explanation in these pages, for 
the eulogistic part of the grant, being in this double-meaning style can- 
not be translated, the English language not admitting of the same 

The play upon words commences from the first sentence, which 
plainly translated implies, " There was a person named Samanta 
Datta, born with fortunate auspices in the royal race of Gajjara;" 
but these words admit also of translation : " There was a boundless 
ocean named Gajjara," and this original double meaning has led to the 
use of epithets and qualities for the raja, which will hold equally, with 
different meanings, as applicable to the Gajjara ocean. After wearing 
out the ocean amphibology, serpents, elephants, and women are pressed 
into the service by the ingenious conveyancer, who drew this deed ; and 
it is a pity that such a happy device for multiplying mystifying words 
cannot be more fully explained, for the benefit of the practitioners in 
Chancery lane, who might find their advantage in imitating it. 

Our business however is with the matter of the grant, and the his- 
torical facts deducible from this very ancient record. Dismissing 
therefore the prefatory eulogy to Samanta Datta of the Gajjara 
line, who will be admitted to be a raja without such proof, the grant 

" His son was Vijaya-bhatta, whose other name was Vita raja, 
who was beautiful like burnt gold," &c. &c. 

Then follow his praises in the same florid amphibologistical style : 
The close is peculiar : " His personal beauty prevented not the maturity 
of his good dispositions, nor his youth the practice of strict morality, 
nor his wealth its generous distribution, nor his triwarga (that is 
his enjoyment of love, morality and wealth), the practice of austere 
devotion ; his exercise of sover eignty prevented not his delighting to 
show mercy, nor his living in the Kali yog the possession of all virtue." 

We come now to another historical fact. •' His prosperous son 
named Pkasanga raja Datta, who covered the airy sphere with the 
canopy of his fame like water-lilies blown to fullness by the beams of 
the full moon," &c, &c. &c, " and who proved his possession of winning 

910 Ancient Inscriptions. [Oct. 

grace, by bringing angry women to love him through the force of hit 
bowing and sweet words," &c. &c> "announces to all possessors of estates 
m their own right, and to all managers of the royal lands, and to the vil- 
lage proprietors — Be it known to all of you," (a conveyancer of the pre- 
sent day would write " Now know ye,**) that we (the said raja Pea sang a 
Raja Datta) in the full moon of Kartik, out of respect for those who 
are versed in the four Vedas, and consecrated with {holy) water, 
have presented to A. B. (the names are not legible) inhabitants of 
Giruha padraka in the district of Angkureswara, and to B. C. the 
village named Sirisha poutrakanlaiJh for worship of the five Jagnms, 
Bali, Ckaru, Baiswadeva, and Agnxhotra, and for increase of the virtue 
and fame of our father, our mother, and ourself ; that the said village with 
all the rich produce it affords, may be enjoyed by the said grantees, 
their sons, grandsons and posterity, as long as the sun, and moon, and 
the ocean, and the earth shall endure. 

" After this, let future rajas of our race, or of any other race, that 
may desire to secure to themselves the eternal fame, beautiful as the 
moon-beam, which attaches to donors of lands, reflect that life and wealth 
are fickle as waves of the sea urged by a strong wind ; while fame* earned 
by good deeds is durable without limit ; and so let them respect this 
grant, and confirm the grantees in possession. He only, whose mind is 
blackened by the darkness of ignorance, will resume it, or be pleased at 
Seeing others molest its possessors — reckless of the guilt of the five 
deadly sins, and of other heinous crimes, as described at length in the 
Vida Bynsa. 

" He who grants lands, lives 60,000 years in heaven ; but he who 
confiscates or resumes, or allows others to do so, is doomed to hell for 
a like period. 

" The resumers of grants become as black serpents that dwell in holes 
in the Vindhya forest. The earth has been enjoyed by many kings, as 
the Sagara raja and others, and each in his turn has ruled as a despot 
lord of all. But what generous man will take again the grants made by 
rajas who have gone before him, and whose gifts are like wreaths of 
flowers once used, spreading the fragrance of a good name, and of the 
reputation for wealth and virtue*. 

" By the order of the raja's own mouth this grant has been written 
by Rewa, a servant well tried in peace and in war, in the full moon of 
Kartika of the Sambat year (of Vikramaditya) 380." 

* The correspondence of the terms in which this grant closes, with the latter 
part of the grant obtained by Mr. R. Jenkins in Chnttitgark, as given in 
vol. XV. of the Asiatic Researches, will not fail to strike the reader. The cha- 
racter of that grant seems to be of higher antiquity than was then assigned to it 
by Dr. Wilson. 




2 irwlfr JUju+04* wnnfa *vqwa«uf<igo i Jii% yih: 

^9 ^\ ^# 

10 wh^m: qsn uiuiitmrn fererefircrc * ** * * Pwwiim 
1*1* 1*5 *r inpfwrar i ^wiaTT^ftflr^^ 


I infturnraTi 

5 T 

91 2 Ancient IntcripHm*. [Ocr- 

16 fmftKmiK* WTO5»i ; 

^tPnrannBT: ^jTOiwro *ftTtreT^TTiPn Tnwnro^r^t 

"* >• ^ 

1838.] Ancient Inscriptions. 913 

29 ftWR^K5lM^*^l4f^ft*K*«ll^l(«iJ«^iJ- urn* 

31 wwfti fk w*mr*<**i*u \ *im * +r*ft[b<rnw tt-. 

38 r«rcnt> STtarwrtw finrn4 wfr St* y»«wiitn(t 
40 q^turuu^ g ^K^ftaKfltnlwU*** rnrc 

6 t 2 


Ancient Inscriptions. 


41 WTTW *|1I*MW 

43 iBPrinfwpnt QifttaiioT 

44 iN^Bf^pNT^WNMJl^MtJ 

45 fir*< «nfti<mftifi<«fi4<^^^^^^Him 

47 «mht i *ffc^*r*«Tfli <a»fl> *3ftr*: ^3^»>t ^rw 
•tot * ttt*1* *rc% ws i flnm41*uh«mi 

««fa«U.m ttt trails frofttw w * 
50 flrarfw % ttr wrap Kprcnf^fafa I *f*nn*.iwi*i wjhv 

fVW 41(3*441 >J^<*#1 fafcfl tiPqfau^itiim 

iRSJip** 41h4jjiiik*iijh ^rowr* 

Note.—Tht marginal numbers murk the lines of the copper plates. We owe Dr. 
Burns an apology for not transferring his copy, which is perfect, to a lithographed 
plate. In the following number we propose to give another of 'those grants in its 

original shape, that. the character may bear its own testimony to their antiquity ; 
bnt time, and the number of other plates has prevented the doing so with thin 

1838.] Proceedings of the Society. QlS 



IX.— Proceeding* of the Asiatic Society* 

Wednesday Evening, the lith November, 1838. 

The Hon'ble Sir Edward Ryan, President, in the chair. 

Before proceeding to the general business of the meeting, the President 
rose and stated, that he held in his hand a letter from the Secretary, 
Mr. James Prinsep, the substance of which must be a source of deep 
regret to every member of the Society, for every one must feel the loss 
the Society had suffered in the departure of its Secretary, Mr. Jakes 
Pbinsbp. He assured the meeting, however, and he spoke on the autho- 
rity of a conversation he had with Mr. Pbinsep, before his departure, 
that this gentleman's absence from India would be but for a short period, 
and that on his return he would be ready to take the same interest, and to 
display the same zeal and anxiety, which had so honorably distinguished 
hie discharge of the important duties he had undertaken in connexion with 
the Society. The President said, that the objects of the Society, had un- 
der Mr. Pbinsep's able superintendence, been prosecuted with a vigour, 
which had added largely to its credit and reputation ; and that the results 
produced in every department of science and literature, for which the Socie- 
ty was indebted chiefly to its Secretary's activity and varied powers, had 
sustained its character in a manner, rivalling the periods when it de- 
rived renown from the labours of a Jones, a Colbbbookb, and a Wilson. 
The President took occasion to add, that, in the time of Mr. Jambs 
Pbihsbp, and on his proposition, the name of the Society had been associ- 
ated with a monthly periodical, established by the late Captain Hbbbbbt, 
originally under the name of the Gleanings in Science, The work was 
afterwards extended and ably conducted by Mr. Pbinsbp himself; and at 
his suggestion it was resolved in 1831, that so long as this periodica] should 
be conducted by a Secretary of the Society, it should bear the title of 
" Journal of ike Asiatic Society ;" under that name, it had been since con- 
tinued by Mr. Prinsep with very distinguished success to the present day. 
The Society had no property in the Journal, and no right to prevent 
Mr. Pbinsbp from separating it again from the Society, and conducting it 
on his own account ; but he had no such intention. He (Sir £. Ryan) 
had ascertained that Mr. J as. Prinsep had made arrangements for its 
being continued to the end of the present year from materials in hand ; 
and after that, he meant that his series should be closed ; but he had no 
objection to the Society's continuing the periodical by the same name 
under other management as a concern quite independent. 

Now he (the President) believed, that all the members of the Society 
would regret exceedingly that a periodical so established, and which had ac- 
quired such credit and consideration, should be discontinued. He trusted 
that it would be resumed by Mr. J. Pbinsbp himself, when he returned 
to India ; but in the mean time he should submit to the meeting the 
propriety of taking into consideration the possibility of making some 
arraogemen to carry it on during Mr. Pbinsep's absence. 

916* Proceedings of the Society. [GcT« 

Haying premised thus much, the President stated, that he should 
to the meeting Mr. Jambs Prinsep'b letter, placing the situation of Secre- 
tary at their disposal : but as he had no doubt it would be the unani 
feeling of the meeting to desire to retain Mr. PRnrsBP in official 
nexion with the Society, he should not consider this letter aa an absolute 
resignation, but should propose a resolution, and submit arrangements 
founded upon it, which would enable Mr. Prinskp to resume the office oa 
his return to India. 

The President then read the following letter : 

To the Hon'ble Sir Edward Ryan, JR., Prtrident of the Atimtie Society. 

Hon'blb Sir, 

. Being compelled by Ill-health to proceed to sea and eventually to Europe, I hare 
taken my passage on board the Herefordtkire, with the intention of being absent 
from the country for two, or perhaps three years. I am thus under the necessity of 
placing at the disposal of the Society the situation of its Secretary, which 1 ham 
filled for five years. 

It Is with great reluctance and regret that I thus separate myself from a body, with 
whom I have been associated in labours of much interest and utility, whose favor 
has encouraged my zeal, and through whose credit and reputation in the world, 1 
have obtained the means of making generally known my own humble efforts in the 
cause of science, and my not unsuccessful endeavours to explore the antiquities of the 
country, to whose service we are devoted. 

But the disability of sickness is an accident, to which we are all liable, and from 
which there is no resource, but in temporary departure to a better climate. I am 
thus compelled to leave my incomplete labours to be perfected by others ; and to 
relinquish the place I have held in the Society, that provision may be made for its 
competent discharge under the failure of my own power of longer rendering useful 

I have the hoaor to be, Ac. 
lei November, 1888. (Signed) James Primsbf. 

Proposed by the President, seconded by Mr. Curnin, and unanimously 
resolved,— That the resignation of Mr. Jambs Prdybep he not accepted; 
bat the Society hope that he will return to resume the situation of Secre- 
tary, which he had filled so much to the credit of the Society for a period 
of- five years. 

Besolved,— That the President communicate to Mr. Jambs Pjurssf the 
desire of the Society, that he shall not consider himself as having vacated 
the situation of Secretary to the Society ; and express the hope, that on his 
return to India he will resume the situation of Secretary. 

That, during the absence of the Secretary, a temporary arrangement 
be made for conducting the Secretary's duties, the same to cease open hit 
return and resumption of the office* 

That, during the temporary absence of Mr. Jambs Pbirsbp, the Rev. 
Mr. Maxan, Dr. O'Shauobnbbsy and Babu Ramoomul Sen be requested 
to act as joint Secretaries of the Asiatic Society. 

That, for the purpose of carrying on the financial affairs of the Society, 
a committee be appointed, consisting of the President, the Secretaries, end 
Mr. W. P. Grant. 

That the Secretaries of the Society be requested to report, whether at 
the expiration of the current year they are willing to carry on a new aeries 
of the Journal of the Asiatic Society, and submit to the next meeting a plan 
for that purpose. 

Mr. Jambs Middleton, proposed at the last meeting, was balloted for 
and duly elected a member of the Society. 

1838.] Proceeding* of the Society. 917 • 

Read a letter from Lieut. J. Dunoak, acknowledging his election as an. 
ordinary member of the Society. 

Ditto from Monsieur Jaubebt, President of the Geographical Society. 
of Paris, acknowledging his election as an honorary member. 


Read a letter from J. Bsia, Esq., Secretary to the Agricultural and. 
Horticultural Society, forwarding, for presentation on behalf of the Society, 
three pamphlets, Nos. 1, 2, and 3 on Cochineal. 

The following books were presented : 

Notes on the Agricultural and Rural Economy of the Valley of Nipal, by Dr. 
A. Campbkll of Nipal— by the Author, through the Hon' bit Col. W. Id orison. 

Barometrical and Thermo metrical Observations — ditto by ditto. 

Hourly observations during the laat summer at ditto — by ditto. 

Ifemoires ear Qnelques Coquilles Flnviatiles at terrestres D'Amerique per 
Stefano Moricard, Ceretrail des Memoiret de la Societe* de Physique et d' His to ire" 
Naturelle de Geneve, 1833-34— by the Author. 

The Oriental Christian Spectator, October, 1838— ty Rev. J. Wilson Bsmslby. 

Madras Journal of Science, No. QO—by the Madras Literary Society. 

The following from the Booksellers : 

Lardner*s Cabinet Cyclopedia (Biography), Eminent Foreign Statesmen, vol. 6. 

Ditto ditto (History), Greece, vol. 5. 

Torbbns's Translation of the book entitled The One Thousand Nights and One 
Night, vol. I., five copies— subscribed by the Society. 

Literary and Antiquities, 

Read a letter from Mr. Secretary Phinskp, forwarding copy of a Re- 
port on the Weights, Measures, and Coins of Cdbul and Bukhdra, compiled 
by Nowbojss Furdoonjbe. 

[Notb.— This Report is printed in the present number of the Journal.] 

Lieut. G. C. Hbxlbbigs, presenting his translation of certain chapters of 
the AHMaqi Jallilee, from the Persian into Hindi and English. 

Read a letter from Mr. W. T. Lewis, dated Penan g, 19th Sept. 1838, 
forwarding a piece of the metal of which the bell at Malacca is composed, 
and stated, from what he had learnt from the artists, that the metal in 
question was supposed to contain a large portion of gold. 

Drawings of the Siamese Emperor were presented by Mr. J. Low. 

Three copper coins of Ceylon were presented by Mr. Layard. 


Read a letter from Mr. Secretary Prinsbp, forwarding a list of the 
ornithological specimens collected by Dr. Hblfbb during his sojourn in the 
Tenasserim Provinces. 

A letter from Capt. G. T. Graham, offering to take charge of such 
specimens of natural history as the Society may desire to send to his 
Highness the Pasha of Egypt. 

Resolved,— That the thanks of the Society be presented toCnpt. Graham 
for his kind offer, and that he be informed that the Society has nothing 
at present worthy of being presented to his Highness the Pasha. 

X. — Meteorological Rtgittar 




No. 83.— November, 1838. 

I. — ^n examination of the Pdli Buddhistical Annals, No. 4. By the 
Honble George Turnour, Esq* Ceylon Civil Service. 

An Analysis of thb Dipawanso. 
The design of my last article was to prove, that the chronological 
authenticity of the Buddhistical records was intentionally deranged or 
destroyed at the period of Sakya's advent. In entering now upon the 
examination of that portion of the Pali annals, which professes to 
contain the genealogy of the royal dynasties of India, from the last 
regeneration of the world to the manifestation of G6tamo I have to 
adduce in my own case another instance, to he added to the many already 
on record* of the erroneous and exaggerated estimates, into which 
orientalists may he betrayed in their researches, when they rely on the 
information furnished, by Indian pandits, without personally analizing 
the authorities, from which that information is alleged to be obtained. 
I should, however, be doing the Buddhist priesthood of the present day 
in Ceylon very great injustice, if I did not at the same time avow, that 
the too favorable expectations in which I have indulged, as to the 
continuity, after having fully convinced myself of the chronological 
extravagancies, of the Pfli genealogical annals anterior to the sixth 
century before the birth of Christ, have in no degree been produced by 
wilful misrepresentations on their part. It has been already noticed* 
by me elsewhere, that the study of the Pali language is confined, 
among the natives of Ceylon, almost entirely to the most learned among 
the priesthood, and is prosecuted solely for the purpose of acquiring a 
higher order of qualification, for their sacerdotal functions, than those 
priests possess, who can consult only the vernacular versions of their 

• * Introduction to the UaHwanto. 
5 % 

920 Pdli Buddhiitical Annate. [Nov. 

scriptures. Their attention, therefore! is principally devoted to the 
examination of the doctrinal and religious questions contained in their 
sacred books ; and that study is moreover conducted in a spirit of im- 
plicit faith and religious reverence, which effectually excludes searching 
scrutiny, and is almost equally unfavorable to impartial criticism. The 
tone of confidence with which my native coadjutors sought in the 
Pitakattayan for the several ' resolves' or * predictions' of Bunnae 
which are alluded to in a former paper*, and the frankness of the 
surprise they evinced, when they found that none of those 'resolves' 
were contained in the Pitakattayan, and only some of them in the 
Atthakathd, preclude the possibility of my entertaining any suspicion 
of wilful deception being practised. Confiding in their account of the 
historical merits of Buddhaghoso's- commentaries, which appeared to 
me to be corroborated by the frequency of the reference made in 
the Tikd of the Mahdwanso to those A^hako^hd, for details not 
afforded in the Tikd, I had impressed myself with the persuasion*, that 
the Atthakathd thus referred to were Buddhagh6s's Pali commen- 
taries. Great, as may be readily imagined, was our mutual disappoint* 
ment, when after a diligent search, persevered in by the priests, with a 
seal proportioned to the interest they took in the inquiry, we were 
compelled to admit the conviction that Buddhagh6so iu translating 
the Sihala (Singhalese) Atthakathd into Pali, did not preserve the 
Indian genealogies in a connected and continuous form. He is found 
to have extracted only such detached parts of them, as were useful for 
the illustration of those passages of the Pitakattayan, on which, in the 
course of his compilation, he might be commenting. He himself says 
in his Atthakathd on the Dighanikdyo\ , " for the purpose of illustrat- 
ing this commentary, availing myself of the Auhakathd, which was 
in the first instance authenticated by the five hundred Arahantd at 
the first convocation, as well as subsequently at the succeeding 
convocations, and which were thereafter brought (from Mdgadha) 
to Sihala by the sanctified Mahindo, and for the benefit of the inha- 
bitants of Sihala were transposed into the Sihala language, from 
thence I translated the Sihala version into the delightful (classical) 
language, according to the rules of that (the Pali) language, which 
is free from all imperfections ; omitting only the frequent repetition of 
the same explanations, but at the same time, without rejecting 
the tenets of the theros resident at the Mahawiha'ro fat 
AnuradhapuraJ, who were like unto luminaries to the generation of 

* Journal for September, 1837. 
f Vide Journal of July, 1837* 

1888] P&li Buddhistical Annals. 921 

thsros and the most accomplished discriminators {of the true doc- 
trines)." All, therefore, of these genealogies, excluded from bis Atfha- 
kathd, which are now found only in the Tika of the Mahdwanso, or 
in the Dipawanso, as weU as much more perhaps, illustrative of the 
ancient history of India, which the compilers of these two Ceylonese 
historical works did not consider worth preserving, Buddhagh6so 
must have rejected from his commentaries, to which he gave almost 
delusively the character of a religious work. 

My Buddhist coadjutors are consequently now reluctantly brought 
to admit, that the Mahdwanso^ with its Tika, and Dipawanso are the 
only Pfli records extant in Ceylon, which profess to contain the Indian 
genealogies from the creation to the advent of Sakya ; and that even 
those records do not furnish the genealogies in a continuous form. 
And, now that my mind is divested of the bias which had been created 
by their previous representations, and which led me to attach great 
importance to the historical portions of Buddhaghoso's Afihakajhd 
I cannot but take blame to myself for having even for a time allowed 
that impression to be made on me. The author of the Mahdwanso*, 
in his Tihdy declares more than once that he compiles his work from the 
Sihala Mahdwanso and Afyhakathd of the Mahdwihdro, and from the 
Sihala AUhakathd of the Uttarawihdro fraternities, as well as from 
the Mahdwanso of the Uttarawihdro priests. The last mentioned of 
these works alone, as far as I am able to form an opinion at present, 
was composed in the Pali language, at the time Mahanamo compiled 
his Mahdwanso. I am induced to entertain this opinion from the 
circumstance, that Mahanamo's quotations from that work alone are in 
the metrical form, whereas all the translated quotations made by Pdli 
authors from Sihala authorities are invariably, as might have been 
expected, rendered in prose. One of these quotations consists of the 
identical two verses with which the Dipawanso opens, and at the close 
of the Tika a reference is made to the Dipawanso for explanation of 
the violation of the Mahdwihdro consecration, in the reign of Maha- 
abno. For these reasons, and as that work bears also the title of the 
" Mahdwanso " or " the great genealogy," my Buddhist coadjutors 
concur with me in thinking, that the Dipawanso now extant is the P£ll 
Mahdwanso of the Uttarawihdro fraternity. In fact the titles of 
iHpa and Mahd, are indiscriminately given to both these histories. 
To prevent, however, their being confounded with each other, I shall 
continue to reserve the title of Mahd for Mahanamo's work, and that 

♦ Pages xxxi. xxxii. xlii. xliii. of the Introduction to the Mahdwanso. 
5l 2 

922 JPeifi Buddhistical Annals. [Nor. 

of Dipa for the prior compilation, tbe author of which baa not yet been 

It has been shown in the introduction to the Mahdwmtso, that its 
author Maha'namo compiled his history in the reign of his nephew 
Dh^tasino the monarch of Ceylon who reigned between A. D. 459 sod 
477, from the materials above described, a part of which was the Tor- 
sion of the Atthakathd brought by Mahindo from India in 907 
before Christ, and translated by him into the Sihala language. Hut 
fact, coupled with many other circumstances inadvertently disclosed in 
the histories of the convocations, go far to prove that the Pttabt- 
tayan and Affhakathd were actually reduced to writing from the 
commencement of the Buddhistical era, and that the concealment of 
their record till the reign of the Ceylonese ruler Wattagau nrr, be- 
tween B. C. 104 and 76, was a part of the esoteric scheme of that 
creed, had recourse to in order to keep up the imposture as to the 
priesthood being endowed with the gift of inspiration. The cessaaoa 
of the concealment of these scriptures at that particular period, though 
attributed to the subsidence of the spirit of inspiration, in all probabi- 
lity, proceeded from the public disorders* consequent upon the Cboliaa 
invasion, which led to the expulsion of that king and the priesthood 
from Anurddhapura by a foreign enemy, and to their fugitive exist- 
ence in the wilderness of the island during a period of nearly 15 yean. 

The Dfpawanso from its being quoted by the author of the Mahfr 
wansoy is unquestionably a prior work ; but as its narrative extends to 
the reign of Mahaseno in A. D. 302, its priority cannot exceed 150 
years. In the Journal of December last, I have mentioned the circum- 
stances under which I obtained possession of a Pdli copy of the Ztyw- 
wanso> in a very imperfect state, written in the Burmese character. 
As this work and the Mah&wanso, with its Tikd, are the best Pffi 
records I possess of the Indian genealogies, I shall proceed to make 
extracts from such parts of the Dipawanso as may throw light on this 
subject ; adding a note in those cases, in which the Tikd is either fuller 
than, or at variance from, the Dipawanso, I shall not attempt to tabo- 
larixe these dynasties, as the lists of kings is avowedly and manifestly 
incomplete, and as no continuous chronological results could be safely 
deduced from any table formed from such mystified data. It will be 
observed that the names of even the three r&jas, during whose reigns 
the three Buddh£ who preceded Go 'tamo were manifested in this kapp* 
are omitted in these lists. And yet there are detached notices of those 
kings, as well as of other Indian rajas, both in the text and commen- 
taries of the Buddhistical scriptures, which axe in themselves well 

• Tide Mah&wantQ, Chap. S3. 

1888.] Pdti Buddhisiical Annals. 123 

worthy of consideration, and to which 1 shall advert in future contri- 

The author of the Dtpawanso has certainly spared no pains in his 
endeavours to make the links of the Thiraparampard chain complete, 
and consistent with chronology. He, however, only gives the succes- 
sion of preceptors, who were the guardians of the Windy o section of the 
Pitakattayan, commencing with Upali, whose death is placed in the 
sixth year of the reign of Udayo ; while the incongruities I have dwelt 
upon in the paper No. 2, have reference to Sabhakami, who though a 
cotemporary disciple of Buddho, has been represented to have presided 
at the second convocation, a century after Sakya's death ; when 
he must, from the date of his upasampadd ordination, have been at 
least 140 years old. But even this succession of the Winiyan line of 
preceptors, the chronological particulars of which are pretended to be 
given with so much precision in the following extracts, will not stand 
the test of scrutiny by a person conversant with the rules that govern 
the Buddhistical church. It is an inviolable law of that code, established 
by Buddho himself at an early period of his mission, and adhered to 
to this day — to which rule there are only two well known exceptions— 
that no person, whether a noviciate priest called 8dmandro y or an 
ascetic layman, however learned or pious he may be, can be ordained 
an upasampadd before he has completed his twentieth year. The two 
exceptions alluded to are the instances of Sumano and SopIko who 
were ordained upasampadd at seven years of age. 

It will be seen that this line of preceptors, extending from the date 
of Buddho's death to the third convocation, a term of 286 years, 
is made to consist of five successions. Upa'li the cotemporary of 
Buddho, is stated to have been 60 years old in the eighth year of the 
reign of Ajatasattu, which is the 16th year A. B. He ?s represent- 
ed to have survived Buddho thirty years, and to have died in the 
6th of Udato's reign in A. B. 80. It is not however, mentioned how 
many years he had been an upasampadd, and all these dates work out 
therefore without disclosing any discrepancy. 

Dasako is represented to be his pupil and immediate successor, 
and he is stated to be 45 years old in the 10th of Nagaboko's reign, 
which falls to A. B. 58. He was born, therefore, A. B. 18, and his 
preceptor Upa'li died A. B. 80. Supposing his ordination had been 
put off to the last year of Upa'li's life, he could not have been 
more than 17, when made an upasampadd. So far from being quali- 
fied to be the custos of the Windyo, he wanted three years of the age 
to make him admissable for ordination. But we are further told, that 

924 Pdli Buddhiitical Ann ah. [Not. 

be died at the age of 64 in the eighth of Susunago's reign, which 
falls to A. B. 80 : having then been an upasampadd 50 yean, he ssast 
necessarily have been ordained at 14 years of age. But there is ssani* 
festly some trifling error somewhere ; for, by the latter dates he must 
have been born not A. B. 13, but A. B. 16. 

So'nako was Dasako's successor: he was 40 in the 10th year of 
Kalasoko's reign, which was A. B. 100; he was bora therefore 
in 60, and he is stated to have died at the age of 66 in the sixth of 
the reign of the Nandos, which falls to A. B. 124. He was therefore 
only 20 years old when his preceptor died : but it is specifically stated 
that he had been a learned upasampadd 44 years when he died ; and 
consequently So'hako also could only have been 16 years when ordained. 

Sigoawo and Chandawo or Chandawajji were the co-disciples 
and successors of So'nako. Siogawo was 64 years old in the second 
of Chandagutto's* reign A. B. 164, and he died aged 76 in the 14th 
of that reign A. B. 176. He was born therefore A. B. 100, and yet 
we are told, that it was in this very year, the 10th of the reign of 
Kalaso'ko, they were ordained upasatnpadd, by So'nako. There is 
a manifest error, therefore, in the term of five years assigned for Sig- 
oawo' 8 vpasampadd&hip. As his ordaining preceptor So'nako died 
A. B. 124, he must have been at that time only 24 years old, and at his 
own death an upasampadd of 76 years' standing, — a term co-equal with 
his natural life. In various parts of the Atfhakatha, and in the 
fifth chapter of the Mahdwanso likewise it is stated that they were 
" adult priests" at the time the second convocation was held ; and 
indeed it is specifically stated in page 30, that Sigoawo was 18 years 
old when he was first presented to So'nako. The pretended prophecy, 
delivered to him and Chandawajji si the close of that convocation, 
would consequently be nullified at once, if their birth be not dated 
anterior to A. B. 100: manifestly, therefore, these dates also are an 

Lastly, Moggaliputtatisso was their disciple ; he was ordained in 
the second of Chandagutto A. B. 164, and he was 66 in the sixth 
of DhammaWko A. B. 220 ; he was born, therefore, in A. B. 154, and 
could only have been 14 years old at the death of Siggawo, when he 
became the chief of the WuUjyo preceptors. He is stated to have died in 
the 26th of Dhammaso'ko, A. B. 240, aged 80. This gives A. B. 160 
instead of A B. 154 for his birth, being a discrepancy of six years. 

* I assign in these remarks 34 years to tbe reign of Chandagutto, which wffl 
bring Asoko's accession to A. B. 214, and his inauguration, four years afterwards, 
to A. B. SIS. 

1888.] Pdti BuMkuHoal Annals. ft*5 

Ob pointing out to my pandits, that, even in this elaborate adjustment 
of the succession of preceptors, the number of lives given is found 
to be insufficient to fill up a term of 286 years, without bringing the 
several preceptors into office before they had attained the prescribed 
age, they at once decided, that the author of the Dipawanto has put 
forth an erroneous statement, and that the whole ought to be rejected 
as unfounded. How the discrepancies are to be rectified they do not 
suggest, beyond hazarding a conjecture, that each preceptor, like 
Sabhakami, must have lived to a more advanced age; and that each 
succeeding preceptor consequently had attained a maturer standing at 
the period of his succession. 

It is time, however, that I should proceed to extracts from the 

The Third Bhinawaro of the Dipmomneo. 

" Omitting the rajas who existed in former kappA, I will in the fullest manner 
narrate (the history of) the rajas of the present ereation. 1 shall perspicuously set 
forth the regions in which they existed, their name and lineage, the term of their 
existence, and the manner in which they governed : whatever that narrative may 
be, attend ye thereto. 

*' The first individual who was inaugurated a raja, the protector of the land, was 
named Mara'sam m ato ; he was superlatively endowed with personal beauty ; that 
Khaitiyo exercised the functions of sovereignty. 

" Ro'jo was his son, Waraeo'jo, the monarch Kalya'no ; Warakalya'no, 
Ufo'sathO', Makda'to* the seventh in succession, a supreme ruler of the four 
dipdf, endowed with great wealth; Charo, the raja Upacharo, and Che'tiyo 
abounding in riches; Muchalo; Maba'muchalo, Much a undo, Sa'oaro ; 
Sa'QASADe'wo, Bha'rato, Bha'oi'ratho the Khattiyo ; Rucm'. Maha'ruchi, 
Pata'po, Maha'pata'po, Panado, Maha'pana'do, the Khattiyo Sddassano, 
.Maha'sudassano, and in like manner two of the name of Ne'ru ; and Achchima?, 
(were successively the sons of each preceding ruler.) The term of existence of these 
twenty-eight rajas was an Aeankheyydn ; and the capitals in which these monarch*, 
whose existence extended to an Asmkhtyydn, reigned, were Ku$awd(l t RAjugakan 
and IMAM." 

(Here follows the rule by which an Asankhfyyan is to be computed.) 

•• The descendants of Achchima' were one hundred ; and they ruled supreme in 
their capital called Sahtlaj. The last of these was the Khattiyo Arindaxo; 

* In the MahAwanso, I have been misled by the plural Manddtd, and reckoned 
two kings of that name. I see by the Tiki, the name should be in the singular 
hi and Ato. The twenty-eight rajas who lived for an Aeankkepydn include therefore 

t Jambudipo, Uitarvkvru, Aporag6yA*an and Pubbawidiho. 

X This name also has been erroneously omitted by me in the Mahfaowuo. 
AchchimA was there read Pachchima* The Tiki, however, shows that the JMpa- 
sMmse is correct. 

$ In the TikA, it is further stated : " The eldest son of Achchima' was the 
monarch Watt a p a'ka's a 'ni, though his name be not preserved, quitting Mitheld in 
the same manner that the OkhAk* family quitting BarAnasi founded Kapihwethu in a 

926 Pali Buddhisticol Annals. - £ifor. 

his descendants, fifty-six monarchs in number, reigned supreme in their capital 


" The last of these was Dtjppasaho, a wealthy monarch : his descendants were 
sixty rulers, who reigned supreme in their capital Bar4*atL 

*' The last of these was Ajitajano j his descendants eighty-four thousand in 
number ruled supreme in their capital Kapilanagaran. 

" The last of these was Brahmadatto, greatly endowed with riches ; his deeeen- 
dants were thirty-six rajas in number, who reigned supreme in their capital 

" The last of these was the raja Kambalawasabho ; his descendants were 
thirty- two monarch 8, who reigned supreme in their capital Bkachakkh*. 

*' The last of these was the illustrious Purindade'wo ; his descendants were 
twenty-eight monarchs, who reigned supreme in their capital Wajirdpmra* 

11 The last of these was the raja S6dhano ; his descendants were twenty memnrchs 
and they reigned supreme in their capital Madhurd. 

11 The last of these was the raja Dhammaqutto, powerful in his armies) ; his 
descendants were eighteen monarchs, who reigned supreme in their capital 

" The last of these was the raja Namndasitthi* 1 ; his descendants vert 
seTenteen kings, who reigned supreme in their capital Indapattapwa. 

" The last of these was Brahmede'wo* raja ; his descendants were sixteen 
monarchs, who reigned in their capital Ekachakkhu. 

" The last of these was the monarch Baladatto 8 ; his descendants were foartecu 
rulers, who reigned supreme in their capital K6sambinagaran. 

41 The last of these was celebrated under the title of BhaddadeVo* ; his d« 
dants were nine kings, who reigned in their capital Kannakochchhanagaran. 

" The last of these was the celebrated N a bade wo ; his descendants were 
monarchs, who reigned supreme in their capital Rdjdnanagaran. 

" The last of these was the raja Mahikdo ; his descendants were twelve kings, 
who reigned supreme in their capital Champ&kanagaran. 

" The last of these was the monarch Na'GAde'wo ; his descendants were twenty- 
five rulers, who reigned supreme in their celebrated capital MUkUa, 

" The last of these was Btjddhadatto 5 , a raja powerful by his armies, hisdeaeea* 
dants were twenty-five monarchs, who reigned supreme in their capital RQagafuuu 

" The last of these was Dipankaro ; his descendants were twelve rajas, who 
reigned supreme in their capital Takkatild. 

" The last of these was the raja Talisakaro, his descendants were twelve rulers, 
who reigned supreme in their capital Kusindra. 

" The last of these was the raja Purindo ; his descendants were nine kings, whs 
reigned supreme in TdmaHti. 

" The last of these was the worthy monarch Sa'garade'wo, whose son Makra'- 
DE'wof was pre-eminent for his deeds of charity ; his descendants were eighty-four 
thousand monarchs, who reigned supreme at Mithild. 

subsequent age, established himself at Katawati, raised the Cassia there, and there 
his dynasty flourished. His lineal successors in that empire were ia number ninety* 
nine, the last of whom was Arindam, and they all ruled there under the designa- 
tion of the Ackehimd dynasty." I should infer from this passage that the capital 
called Safaris in the Dipawamo should be Kut&wati. 

* In the Tikd there are the following variations of appellation from the JDtpoieamao ; 
1. Brahmattwa. 3, Brahmadatto, 3. BaUdhoo. 4. EaltMiewo. 5. Samtmd- 

t The Tikd observes in reference to the JtfoMwo»fo, that according to the 

1888.] Pali Buddhutical Annals. 927 

" The last of these wmNb'mi, a monarch who received offerings from the Dhod and 
was a Chakkmoatti (powerful sovereign), whose dominions were bounded by the 
ocean : the son of Ne'mi was Kala'kajanako* ; his son was Sam ankuro : and 
his son was Aso'ko ; and his descendants were eighty-four thousand rulers who 
reigned supreme in their capital Bdrdnasi. 

** The last of these was the raja Wijayo, a wealthy monarch : his son was Wiji. 
tasxno who was endowed with great personal splendor. Dhammase'no, Na'ga- 
srtio, 8abtatho, Disampati, Rainu, Kvso ; Maha'kuso, Nawaratho, Dasaratuo, 


Hipubo, Chin dim a', Chandamukho, Sxrxra ja, Sanjayo, the monarch Wessan- 
tabo, Jalo, Sihawa'bano and Sibassabo. These were enterprising monarch*, 
who upheld the pre-eminence of their dynasty ; and his (SmiasAno's) descendants 
were eighty-two thousand, who (all) reigned supreme in their capital KapUawatthu. 

" The last of these was Jatasb'no ; his son wss Se'hahanu who was endowed 
with great personal splendor. Unto the said Sb'hahanu there were five sons. 
Those five brothers were Suddho'dano, Dh'oto'dano, Sukko'dano, Ghatito- 
Dano and Amitodano. All these rajas were distinguished as Odano{. Siddat- 
tho, the saviour of the world, was the son of Suddho'dano ; and after the 
birth of bis illustrious son Rahulo, finally reliquished (worldly grandeur) for the 
purpose of attaining Buddhohood. 

" The whole of these monarchs, who were of great wealth and power, were in 
number one lakh, four nahutdni$ and three hundred. Such is the number of 
monarchs of the dynasty from which the Bodhisatto (Buddho elect) is sprung. 

" FerishabieU things are most assuredly transitory, it being their predestiny that 
after being produced they should perish ; they, accordingly, being produced, pass 
away. To arrest this (eternity of regeneration and destruction, by the attainment 
of ntfrodaan) is indeed to be blessed. 1 ' 

The conclusion of the Mahdrdjawanso. 

"The raja Suddho'dano, the son of Sb'hahanu was a monarch who reigned 
la the city called Kapila ; and the raja Bha'tiyo was then the monarch who 
reigned at Rdjagahdn, a city situated in the centre of five^f mountains. These two 
rulers of men, Suddho'dano and Bha'tiyo, the descendants (of royal dynasties) 
from the commencement of the kappd, were intimately attached to each other. 

" (By Bimbisa'bo the son of Bha'tiyo) these five wishes were conceived in the 
eighth year of his age. * Should my royal parent invest me with sovereignty : 

Jfthakathd Makha'dbwo is reckoned among the eighty-five thousand successors of 
Sagaradewo, whereas that number should be exclusive of him. 

* Here also the Tikd notices in reference to the Mahdwanso that the eighty- 
five thousand are to be reckoned exclusive of Samankueo and As6ko. 

f Vide Mahdwanso Introduction, p. xxxv. for the establishment of the Sdkyan 
dynasty of Okkdkamukho. 

% This word literally signifies " boiled rice :" no reason is assigned for adopting 
the designation. 

§ In this sense a nahuian is 10,000, making the re fere 140,300 monarchs. Accord- 
ing to the Tikd there were 252,539 rajas from Maha'bammato to Okkako, the 
Jkswakv of the Hindus. 

U This is a passage of the Pitakattaydn as propounded by Sa'eya. 

% The names of these mountains are Isigili, Wibh&ro, in which is situated the 
Bmttapanni cave in which the first eonvoeation was held ; Weputto s Pandawo 
•nd Qtjjhakato, the mountain where Buddho dwelt last in the neighbourhood of 

6 A 

928 Pali BuddhUtical Annali. [No?- 

should a supreme ef men (Bnddho) be bom in my dominions : should a Tatba'oato 
select me for the first person to whom he presented himself : should he 
to me the heavenly dkammo ; nod shonld I comprehend that supreme 
these will he blessings vouchsafed to me.' Such were the fire 
by Bimbisa'bo. 

" Accordingly, on the demise of his father, he was inaugurated in the fifteenth 
year of his age : within his dominioos the supreme of the world was born : 
Tatha'gato repaired to him as the first person to whom he presented ^"»H f : pro- 
pounded the heavenly dhammo : and the monarch comprehended it. 

" Maba'wi'ro was not less than thirty-five years old, and the monarch Bmrni* 
ca'ro, was in the thirtieth year of his age. Go 'tamo therefore wan five yearn 
senior to Bimbisa'ko. That monarch reigned fifty-two years, thirty-aevcn of 
which he passed contemporaneously with Buddho. 

" Aja'tasattu (his son) reigned thirty-two years : in the eighth year of his 
inauguration, the supreme Buddho attained atoodaea. From the time that the omni- 
scient Buddho, the most revered of the world and the supreme of men attained 
Buddhohood, this monarch reigned twenty-four years." 

The conclusion of the third Bhdnawdro. 

Note. — A Bhdnawdro ought to contain 250 gathg). This section m 
only equal to 87, and some of the verses are incomplete. I can how- 
ever detect no want of continuity in the narrative. 

The fourth Bhdnawdro commences with an account of the first con- 
vocation, which is already described in No. 1, of this analysis. Tint 
chapter then proceeds with a chronological narrative of the history of 
India, specifying also the contemporaneous dates of the reigns of the 
monarch8 of Ceylon, and of the death of those inspired Third, who are 
considered to have constituted the connecting links of the chain called 
the Th&dparampard or generation of preceptors. 

The following are the most important passages of this section : 
" The sixteenth year after the nibbdnu* of the saviour of the world was the 
twenty-fourth of Aja'taBattu, and the sixteenth of Wuato (the raja of Lmnki). 
fht learned Upa'li was then sixty years old. Da'sako entered into the upasam- 
padd order in the fraternity of Upa'li. Whatever may be the extent of the doctrines 
of the most revered Buddho which had been promulgated by that vanquisher ns the 
nine integral portions of his dispensation, the whole thereof Upa'li taught. The 
said Upa'li thus taught the same, having learnt, in the most perfect manner, the 
whole of the nine portions of his doctrine, which have been auricularly perpetuated, 
from Buddho himself. Buddho has declared of Upa'li in the midst of the congid- 
gated priesthood, ' Upa'li being the first in the knowledge of tnaeyo, ia the chief 
in my religion.' He who had thus been selected and npproved in the midst of the 
assembled priesthood, and who had a numerous fraternity, taught the three Ptfeie 
to a fraternity of a thousand bikkhus, of whom Da'sako was the chief desciple : he 
taught them (especially) to Da'sako and to five hundred Third, who had overcome 
the dominion of sin, were of immaculate purity and morals, and versed in the teeda 
(history of the schisms). The tkero Upa'li who had a great fraternity continued 
to teach the wintyo tor full thirty years after the nibbanan of the supreme Buddho. 
The said Upa'li taught the whole of the eigbty-four thousand component parts 
* of the doctrines of the divine teacher to the learned Da'sako. 

1*3*.] PdU Buddkistical AnnaU. §» 

•' Da'aako tarring learned the whole of the Pittko in the fraternity of Upa'li, 
amd held the office of UpafpULyo (eonferer of the sacerdotal ordination of vpasam- 
paOJ) propounded the sane. The chief of the great fraternity (Ufa'li) having 
deposited (Upetn*nm) the whole •otneyo in the charge of the learned Da'bako, died. 
The monarch Udayo reigned sixteen years. It was in the sixth year of his reign 
that the thero Ufa'li demised. 

" A certain trader named So'nako who had come from the K4si country, and was 
proad of his high descent, entered the sacerdotal order in the religion of the divine 
teacher (Buddho) at the W6lmu>ano+ wiharo in the mountain-girt city (RAjagahan). 
£>a'sako, the chief of the confraternity, sojourned in the mountain -girt city, the 
capital of the Mafadka nation, thirty-seven years, and initiated S6nako into the 
sacerdotal order. The learned Da'sako was forty-five years old, in the tenth year 
of the reign of the raja Na oada'so, and twentieth of the reign of the raja Panov 

. . "The thero So'nako became an upawmpadd in the fraternity of the thero Da'sako 
and the thero Da'sako taught So'nako the nine component parts of the faith ; and 
having learned the same from the preceptor who ordained him, he also taught the 
name. The thero Da'bako having invested S6nako thero, who whs the senior 
ampil in his fraternity, with the office of chief over the wineyo, died in the sixty- 
fourth year of his age. 

" At the expiration of tea years and half a month of the reign of the raja K a la'- 
soko, the thero named S6nako was forty years old, aad he had then been a thero 
leaned in the doctrines for fourteen years ; aad at the period of the expiration of 
tea years and six months, the thero Sonako, who was the chief of a great fraternity, 
conferred the apaasmpcdd ordination on Siggawo and Chandawo. 

" At that period a century had expired from the time that Bhaoawa' had attained 
motaadn, and certain (bikkhus) of WestH native of Wajji set forth these ten (new) 
tenets of deseipline." 

Here follows an account of the schism, and of the second convoca- 
tion held in consequence, in the tenth year of the reign of Kalasoko, 
with which the fourth Bhdnawdro concludes, the particulars of which 
are given in the paper, No. 2, and in the Mahdwanto. The fifth com- 
mences with recapitulating the principal particulars of the first and 
second convocations and the schisms, and then proceeds : 

** la the second year of the reign of Chundagutto, when Sigoawo was sixty-four 
years old, which was the fifty-eighth year of the reign of Panduka4)hay6, the 
raja (of L**k&) Moogaliputto was ordained an upasampadd in the fraternity of 
Siggawo ; and the said Moogaliputtatisso, having acquired the knowledge of 
the waUjfo in the fraternity of Chandawajji, was released from the sins Insepa- 
rable from liability to future regeneration. Both Sigoawo and Oh and a wajji 
taught the whole of the Pitako, which embraces both (the wineyo, discipline, and 
dkmmmo, doctrine), to the pre-eminently endowed Moogaliputto. Siggawo of 
profound wisdom died at the age of seventy-six, having constituted the pre-eminently 
endowed Moogaliputto the chief of the wineyo. Chakdagutto reigned twenty - 
four years. In the fourteenth year of his reign Siggawo died. 

" In the sixth year of the reign of Dhamma'soko, Moogaliputto was sixty-six 
years old. Mahindo was then ordained an upmtampadd in his fraternity, aad 
acquired a knowledge of the Pitako. 
" Upa'li attained bis seventy-lburth,DA'8AK0 his sixty-fourth,the thero So'nako 

* This word sig niaas-thc bamboo grove. 
6 A 2 

MO PdU BuddhisHcal Annal*. [Nor. 

his sixty-sixth, Siggawo hie seventy- sixth, and MoOGALiruTTO his eightieth 
year. The following are the periods that all of these them were rr , ~~nn rfe t , of 
whom at all times the leaned Upa'li was recognised at the first chief, via. j 
Da'sako was an upatampadd fifty, Sonako, forty-four, Siggawo five*, and 
Mogoaliputto, sixty-eight years. 

" Udato reigned sixteen years, and in the sixth year of Udato's reign, Upa'u 


" Subana'go, the opulent monarch, reigned ten years, U the eighth year of 
Sub an a 'go's reign, Da'sako died. 

" Atf the demise of Susana'go he had ten brothers, who collectively reigned 
twenty-two years, in great celebrity. In the sixth year of their reign Sonako died. 

" Chandagutto reigned twenty.four years, and in the fourteenth year of his 
reign Siggawo died. 

" The celebrated Dhamma's6ko the son of Bindasa'ko reigned thirty-seven 
years. In the twenty-sixth year of his reign, Mogoaliputto died, having eaased 
religion to be glorified, and having completed the foil measure of human rviitrncr 

" The learned Upa'li, the chief of a great fraternity died at the age of seventy- 
four, having appointed his learned disciple Da'sako to the office of chie/essne**. 

" Da'sako, died at the age of sixty-four, having appointed his senior leaned 
disciple So'nako to the office of chief of the wineyo. 

" So'nako, who was endowed with the six abmmd, died at the age of sixty-six, 
having appointed his arahat son (disciple) Siggawo to the office of chief of mmeje. 

" Siggawo who was endowed with the six abinnd, died at the ag* of seventy-six, 
having appointed his son (disciple) Mogoaliputto to the office of chief of iraamsi 

" Moooaliputtatibso died at the age of eighty, having appointed his disdpls 
M a hi N DO to the office of chief of wineyo. 

The conclusion of the fifth Bhdnauriro. 

" PitadabsanoJ was inaugurated in the two hundred and eighteenth year after 
the death of the supreme Buddho. At the installation of Pitadassano preterna- 
tural manifestations took place." 

(For these manifestations I must refer to the Mahdwtauo.) 
" That royal youth, who was the grandson of Chandagutto and the ana of 
Bindusa'ro was at that time the (karamolino) ruler of Vjjeni. 

" In the course of an official circuit he visited Weammagardn t where lived a damsel, 
the daughter of a Silt hi, who became celebrated under the name of Dcwi. By his 
connection with her, an illustrious son was born. (The said sop) Mabindo sod 
(his daughter) Sangamitta' formed the resolution to enter the order of priesthood. 
Both these individuals having been thus ordained, overcame subjection to regene- 
ration. Asoko was then reigning in the illustrious Pataliptttto. In the third year 
of his inauguration he became a convert to the religion of the supreme Buddho 
(If it be asked) what the duration of the term is, from the date of the p*rinibb6nen 
of the supreme Buddho to the date of the birth of Mahindo, who was descended 
from the Moriyan dynasty, (the answer is) two hundred and five years. Id that 
year Mahindo the son of Asoko was born. In Mahimdo's tench year his 
father put his own brothers to death ; and he past four years in reducing Jambmdipe 
to order. Having put to death his hundred brothers, and reduced the dynasty to one 

• This Is evidently a mistake. 

f The reign of Ka'la'soko Is omitted, who was the father of the Nandos who art 
here designated the brothers of Susana'oo. 

t Having erroneously written this name « Piyadabino" in a former paper* 
Vol. VI. p. 1056, you have been led to suppose it was the genitive ease of JPigmiuU 


1638.] PdU Buddhutical Annals. 931 

(family), they (the people) inaugurated him in the fourteenth year of Mahindo 's 
age. As6ko, who was endowed with great perional superiority and good fortune, 
and was destined to rnle the world, was inaugurated under miraculous manifesta- 
tions. They installed Piyadakbano on his completing his twentieth year*." 

The account of the interview with Nigrodho, the expulsion of the 
brahman sects, arid the construction of the wih&ros is then given, to 
the close of the sixth Bhdnawdro. 

The seventh Bhdnawdro begins with the account of Mahindo and 
Samoa mitta being admitted into the order of the priesthood, (the 
former was at once ordained upasampadd, being of the age of 
twenty ; but the latter remained a $amanSri for two years , being only 
eighteen,) in the sixth year of Aso'ko's inauguration. These particu- 
lars will be found in the Mafuiwanso. 

•• A so**: ad ham mo was fifty-four years old at the time of his inauguration, and at 
the time of As/Ikadhammo being inaugurated, Moggaliputtatisso was sixty* 
•is. Mahindo entered into the order of priesthood in the fraternity of Moooali- 
PVtTATisso. Maha'di'wo performed the ceremony of admission, and Mojjhanto, 
the ceremony of the upasampadd ordination. These were the three preceptors who 
qualified Mahindo for the priesthood. The said preceptor Mooo a liputtatisso 
taught Mahindo, who illuminated (Lanka) dipo, the whole of the Pitako, both as 
regards its import and its doctrine. In the tenth year of Mahindo's (ordination) 
having acquired a perfect knowledge of the whole ereed, he became the head of 
a fraternity, and (pachariyo) a subp receptor (under Moogali). The said Mahindo 
having thus acquired a knowledge of the perfectly profound and well arranged 
(Pitakattaydn), containing the two doctrinal portions (the wineyo and the 
ahhidhammo) and the suttako (the parables) as well as the history of the schisms of 
the preceptors, became a perpetuater of the same. Moooaliputtatisso thus per- 
fected Mahindo the son of A»6ko, in the knowledge of the three v>qja and the four 
patisambhida, and (thereby) Moooaliputtatisso permanently established in his 
disciple Mahindo, the whole of the Pitakattaydn which had been thus handed down 
to him. 

" Nige6dho was admitted into the priesthood in the third year of As6ko's reign, 
his brother (Tisso) in the fourth, and in the sixth his son Mahindo. Tisso and 
Sum ITT a ko, the two theros who were descended from the Kunti, and were endowed 
with supernatural powers, died in the eighth year of the reign of As6xo. From 
these two princes having entered the order of priesthood, and from (the manner in 
which) these two theros died, multitudes of the khattiya and brahman castes pro* 
claimed themselves to he devotees in this creed, and great benefits and honors 
resulted to the religion of the vanquisher ; and the heretics, who had been Influential 
achismatics, lost all their ascendancy. The pdndarangd, the j at ild, niganthd, chitakd 
and other sects for seven years continued, however, to perform the up6sathaia 
teparate fraternities. The sanctified, pious, and virtuous ministers (of Buddho) 
would not attend those upfoatha meetings. At this conjuncture, it was the two 
hundred and thirty-sixth year (of the Buddhiatical era)." 

The Dipawanso then gives the account of the third convocation 
and of the dispersion of the missionaries for the promulgation of Bad- 

• This is evidently a clerical error, his son Mahindo being then fourteen years 
old. It was subsequently mentioned that Asdkodhammo was forty -five years old at 
feds inauguration. 

W2 Pali Buddhistical Annals. [Nov. 

dhism through the adjacent kingdoms of Asia, viz. Gandhdro* 

AparantakOy Mahardtthdn, Yond, Hiwawanlo y Smwannabhumi and 


The ninth Bhdnawdro commences with the history of Ceylon, and 

it U singular that the origin of the Sihila race is here divested of the 

fabulous character given to it in the Mahdwenso to the extent formerly 

suggested by me. If the popular legend of the lion (tiho) had not 

been previously known, the account in the Dipawaneo would have 

been rendered, by any unprejudiced translator, into English without 

naming the fabulous monster, literally thus : 

44 Thii island Lanka acquired the bum of SfAefefrom Stibo*. listen to this mot*. 
tive of mine, being the account of the origin of tbi« island and thU dynasty. The 
daughter of a king of Wango t having formed a connection with a certain Siho, who 
found his livelihood in a wilderness, gave birth to two children. These two children 
named Si'HABa'hu and Sb'wali were of prepossessing appearance. The another 
was named Susima', and the father was called Siho, and at the termination of 
sixteen years, secretly quitting that wilderness, he (Si'haba'hu) founded a city, 
to which capital he gave the name of SiAajmro. In that L4la kingdom, thvc son 
of Si'ao becoming a powerful monarch, reigned supreme in his capital Steepsire." 

This Bhdnawdro proceeds with the account of Wijayo landing in 
Ceylon, and the establishment of his dynasty, omitting however, entirely, 
"Wijayo's marriage with Kuwb'ni, and narrates the reigns of the ensu- 
ing kings to Db'wananpiyatisso, assigning to them reigns of the same 
duration, as that given to them in the Mahdwanso. We then find the 
synchronisms in the chronologies of India and Ceylon, which are quot- 
ed in the introduction to the Mahdwanso from the At&hakathd in the 

I do not notice any matter in the Dipawanso, not found in the 

Mahdwanso, till I come to the eighteenth Bhdnawdro. The th^ripa- 

rampard, or succession of preceptresses is there given, taken from the 

Atthakatha on the Wineyo in the following words : 

" She who was renowned under the appellation of Paj&pati, and was of the 
Got a mo family, endowed with six abiuni and with supernatural gifts, the younger 
sister, born of the same mother, of Mahaiia'ya' (the mother of Bvnono) : asm 
who, with the same affection as Ma'ta herself nourished Bhagawa' at her 
was established in the highest office (among priestesses). 

* " Pachchantan," I have translated, " foreign" in the JsfeMs M e e *, an the 
is "compounded of "pati" and " ant an." It would be better rendered as "en 

on the confines. 1 ' 

Wanawdti is here omitted, probably by an error of transcription. 

This passage is important Mttacha Susimdndma, pit&cha Sihasawkayo. If " Sea** 
was intended for a "lion," " Sawhayo" which signifies '•named 9 ' or " called" 
would not be used. 

18Sa] PdU Buddhistieal Annals. 93a 

'* The following are the priestesses who (in succession) acquired a perfect know- 
ledge of the wUeyo, vix. ; Khi'ma' Uppalawanna', two of each name, and PaTa*- 
cha'ri, Dhammadikna', S6bhita', Isida'sika', Wisa'kha', Asoka', Sapala', 
Samshaoa ; ii, gifted with wisdom, NaNDa' and Dhammapa'la', celebrated for 
her knowledge of Wintpo. 

«• The theri Sanghamitta', Uttaea', who was gifted with wisdom, Hk'm apa'sa, 
Da as ax. a', Aggamitta', DaBIKa', Phbgoupabbata', Matt a', Salala', Dhamma- 
Baiita— these juvenile priestesses came hither from Jombmdfpo, aad propounded the 
Wimmypi^ako in the capital designated Amyaradhaptara — they propounded not only the 
five division* of the toineyo, but also the seven Pakaranbni. 

•' The females who were ordained upasampadd by them in this Island were S6ma, 
devoted to Dhammo, Gobidi'pi', Dhamm ada'siyi, Dhammapa'la' versed in the 
Mimya, Mahixa conversant in the dhmtawddd, Sobhana, Dhamm at a, Passanaga* 
mima 1 , abo versed in the sriaeye, and Sa'ta ka'li profound in the theri contro- 
▼eray , aad Uttajla'. 

44 Under the instructions of A'bhayo* celebrated for his illustrious descent, the 
aforesaid priestesses as well as SuMANA'f renowned for the doctrinal knowledge 
among her sisterhood, a maiatainer of the DhlUongd, a vanquisher of the passioas, 
of great parity of mind, devoted to dhamno and srincyo, aad Uttaea' endowed with 
wisdom, together with their thirty thousand priestesses, were the first priestesses 
who propounded at A*ur&dhapura f the wineyo, the five Nik&ye (of the Suttapitako) 
and the Suiiapahorand of the Abkidhammo. 

" Maha'ul equally Ulaatrious for her knowledge of the dhmnmo and for her 
piety, was the daughter of the monarch Ka'kawanno Gieika'li, profoundly versed 
by rote, was the daughter of his Poor6kUo (the almoner of Ka'kawanno') ; 
K a'lada'si and Sabbapa'pika' were the daughters of Gutto. These priestesses, 
w/bo always maintained the orthodox texts, and of perfect purity of mind, were 
•versed in the dtonmo aad wtatye, and having returned from the Rdhana division 
maintained by the illustrious ruler of men AbhayoJ, propounded the Wim6yo f 
at Anwr&dhapvra." 

The remainder of this passage is so confused as not to admit of a 
continuous translation. 

In the twentieth Bhdnawdro is specified the reducing the scriptures 
to record, in precisely the same two verses as in the Mahdwanso / and 
in the twenty-second it is mentioned that Wasabho the raja of Ceylon 
between A. D. 66 and 110, brought water into the town of Anurd- 
dhapura through a tunnel " ummaggo" and with this Bhdnawdro, 
the Dipawanso terminates at the close of the reign of Maha'se'no. 

• Abbato, the brother of DfWAMANPiYATisso. 
t Vide Index of the JfoAdieaafe for this name. 

% Vide Index for Gdmini Abhayo, the name of Dutthaga'mini before he 
recovered the kingdom. 

984 Report <m the Copper mines ofKtmmon. [Nor. 

II. — Report on the Copper mines of Kumaon* By CapU H. Daux* 

mond, 3rd, B. L. C. 

Many of our readers will be aware, that Capt. Drummomd of the 
3rd Light Cavalry, brought with him to this country when he returned 
about two years ago from furlough, a practical miner from Cornwall, 
and that, upon his application, the sanction of Government was givea 
to the employment of this person, under Capt. Drummond's supera- 
tendence, in the examination of the capabilities of the mines of copper 
in Kumaony with a view to the introduction eventually of a better 
method of working them. These mines were reported upon at length 
by Capt. Herbert teit years ago, but as the observations of a prac- 
tical workman upon their present condition, and upon the methods of 
extracting the ore which are in use, cannot be without interest, the 
Government has permitted the following report by Capt. Dbummovd 
of his proceedings to be printed in these pages. 

Mines of copper in the eastern districts ofKumaou* 

Of the mines of copper situated in the eastern division of this pro- 
vince only two are now worked, one at Rye in the pergonn&h of Gun- 
gowly, the other at Sheera in Barrabeesy, the rest, namely, Beiar, 
Shwe, Goorungt and Chincacolee, have all fallen in, and been abandoned, 
and are consequently inaccessible at the present moment. 

The mines of Rye and of Sheera have been worked nearly to the 
extent available, that is to say, available so far as native mining (or 
rather burrowing) can accomplish ; not that the resources of these mines 
are by any means exhausted, but only that part, which being near the 
surface, can be obtained without the aid of skill and capital. 

From the length of time that these mines have been worked, the 
appearance of the ground about them could not be expected to be very 
different from the condition in which it was found, but their poor state 
at present is no argument, why they should not become very profitable 
when prosecuted to a greater depth. 

• In other countries it seldom happens, I believe, that mines of copper 
are found to be productive near the surface, and in Cornwall few of 
them ever yield a return till a considerable depth underneath is 
reached, as much as 30 or 40 fathoms. And the greater part of tins 
distance consists generally of little else than the mere ferruginous 
substance, termed gossan, which covers the ore, whilst scarcely any of 
the latter can be discerned. By analogy therefore the same may be 
expected- here, and this is so far confirmed by* the -native miners, as 
well as by the present and former lessees of the mines, who assert 

1688.] Report on the Copper mines of Kumaon. 996 

that the quantity of ore increases considerably in the downward direc- 
tion. In no instance have I yet learned of a mine having been given 
up on account of deficiency of copper ore : all concur in the belief 
that there it no want of ore, but a great want of the means for extract- 
ing it. 

Rye mine—Pergvnah of Gungowlee. 

Thia mine is opened on the eastern side of a hill of moderate eleva- 
tion. The rock formation is composed of dolomite and talc* The 
dolomite* occurs compact, slaty and crystalline, and might frequently 
be mistaken for common primary limestone, but its feeble effervescence 
in acids readily distinguishes it as a magnesian carbonate of lime. The 
talc occurs in beds, both indurated and slaty (the soapy killas of Corn* 
wall) ; and it is in these beds that the ores of copper are found in nume- 
rous strings, having every appearance of being leaders, as they are 
called, to solid ore, and maintaining a distinct course, which I shall 
accordingly denominate lode, agreeably to the term used in mining. 
The strike, or direction, of the strata, is nearly W. N. W. and 
E. S. E. dipping at an angle of about 45 g to the N. N. £. 

The present entrance is by an adit or passage, whioh serves as a 
drain. The adit is driven on the course of one of these lodes, which 
continues west about 10 fathoms, when it fells in with another lode, 
that altera its direction to 15°, and afterwards to 30° north, inclining 
nearly 50° to the east of north. At the time I penetrated to the working 
part of the mine, it was then about 58 fathoms from the entrance. The 
lode had been.taken away from underneath, as deep as the miners could 
sjaanage to excavate, and its place filled up with rubbish. Above also 
they had taken it away as high as it was found to be productive ; and, 
when I saw them at work, they were then extending their operations in 
the same westerly direction, the lode being about two feet wide, and 
containing good yellow copper ore, but with a large proportion of its 
talcous matrix, 20 per cent, only being metalliferous. 

The passage varies from two to four feet in height, and from two to 
two and a half in width ; the superincumbent hard dolomitic rock not 
allowing the labourers to make it higher, without having recourse to 
blasting, with which they are totally unacquainted. A short distance 
above the entrance is an old adit, which has been carried on the course 
of the same lode, and is now kept open for the purpose of ventilation. 

• Dolomite Is not a rock producing copper in England, but It is known in other 
countries to contain ores of this mtlal and of iron* The rich mint* of Cuba ace sni4 
to be in it. 

6 • 

- I 

986 Report on the Copper mine* o/Kumaon. [Hot. 

The yellow suLphuret of copper, or copper pyrites, m ite perfectly 
pure state yields about 30 per cent, of metallic copper ; and though not a 
rich ore, is the most important of any from its abundance, mad from being 
generally more to be depended on for continuance than the richer 
varieties*. In England, more copper is obtained from it than from all the 
other ores together ; and, should this mine be prosecuted to a greater 
depth, I have no doubt, that the strings of ore above mentioned, will 
be found to lead eventually to solid ore, when data as to the actual 
capabilities of the mine may with certainty be obtained. 

In the event of an experimental mine being established here, a new 
adit, 80 fathoms in length, wiU require to be brought in lower down 
the hill, so as to reach the present mine 10 fathoms below the entrance, 
and drain the whole of it, along with a considerable quantity of new 
ground, which the natives report to be very rich, but say they cannot 
work it on account of the accumulation of water. 

About a couple of hundred yards to the north, and in the Mae hill, 
is another deposit of copper. This is laid open to the surface during 
the rainy season, and allowed to mil together again, as soon as the 
water, employed by the natives to carry off the Ulceus mud from the oie 
ceases to be plentiful. An awkward attempt had been made by the 
present teekadar (lessee of the mine), to mine this with timber, bet 
without success ; and it was at the time I visited the spot abandoned, 
and the works lying full of water. To have aa effective mine here, * 
will be necessary to sink a perpendicular shaft of 12 fathoms, and to 
bring m an adit about 50 fathoms in length, so as to come under the 
works above described about eight fathoms, and lay open a space of 
ground, also believed to contain a considerable quantity of ore. 

Sheerafwne—Pergvnah of Barrabteiy* 

The mine of Skeera is situated on the northern side of a hill, some- 
what higher than the one at Rye> and is entered by an adit, which is 
driven south in the course of an evidently non-metallic vein, (no traces 
of copper being found in it :) and this the natives must have made use of, 
to assist them in penetrating the dolomite rock, which, with beds of tale, 
constitutes here likewise the formation where in the ores of copper are 
discovered. Nearly 38 fathoms from the entrance, the adit strikes 
a copper lode, on which a level passage is driven, that continues west- 
ward, its course being about 10° south of west, and dip northerly from 
45 to 50°. Scarcely any thing could be seen of this lode, which has 
been all taken away, and its place supplied with timber, until I arrived 
at the end of the level, (18 fathoms in length,) where it seems to inter* 

* JSztenaWe beds of copper pyrites occur in the mining districts of Sweden. 

1838.] RfH on t\* Capper mmu of Kummm. tt? 

see* another lode, running in a northwest and southeasterly direction, 
which is poor at this particular locality. The former lode resembles the 
ore at Bye, bat the ore is harder and more contaminated with iron 

The adit is also continued south from the strike of this lode a few feet, 
when it enters a confused mass of timbering and stones, having the* 
appearance as if ore had been excavated in every direction ; it then runs 
15* west of south, and is about 10 fathoms in length. At the end of 
this passage, a pit is sunk (said to be 35 feet deep) on a lode 
running 5° north of west. When I penetrated to the spot, it was half 
full of water, which six men were constantly employed in lifting up 
in small buckets, to prevent the flooding of the working part of the 
mine, with which there is a communication, as is evident from the 
currents of water and air that come from that quarter. 

The teekadar reports the lode at the bottom of the pit to be very 
rich, but complains of deficiency of hands to work it. Should the passage 
of the mine be enlarged, men of a different caste from the miners might 
bo employed to draw off the water, and the whole of the miners set to 
work at the ores. There is no want of ventilation, as the air is constant- 
ly circulating from the works to the pft, and from thence to the strike 
of the first lode, not far from which are two holes brought down from 
an old adit, formerly the drainage of the mine. The appearance of this 
mine warrants the repairing and enlarging of the adit, which is the first 
thing to be done : more satisfactory data will then be obtained as to the 
character and number of the lodes, than can be hoped for in its present 
wretched state ; the bringing in of a new adit may then be taken into 

I shall now offer a few practical observations by my mining assistant, 
contrasting the modes of working here with what he has been accustomed 
to witness in Cornwall. 

1. " The mode of excavation— This is performed with a very indif- 
ferent kind of pick-axe ; the handle being made of a piece of wood with a 
knob at one end, into which a piece of hard iron -is thrust and sharpened 
at the point. This, with a miserable iron hammer, wedge and crowbar, 
constitutes all the apparatus that the native miner has to depend upon. 
It is plain that with such tools no hard rocks can be penetrated, 
nor can the softer ones be worked with much facility ; and to this fact 
may be attributed the universal smallness of the passages throughout the 
mines ; as the native miner can have his passage no larger, than the 
reck which encloses the ore and its matrix will admit of. 

u l would" therefore suggest that proper pickaxes and steel gads 

988 Report oft ike Copper mints o/Smtuum. [»•*. 

(wedges) be substituted instead of the inefficient took in use, and 
Masting may be required the necessary materials should be provided* 
On the other hand, where timber may be requisite, sawn wood should 
be used to render the passages permanent and secure, in place of the 
branches of trees now employed for that purpose ; and I judge from 
experience, that a man accustomed to work under these improved cs> 
enmstances will excavate and extend a large and commodioaa passage 
in a less time by one-third, than that occupied for the same distance 
in excavating the miserable holes under the native mode of working. 

2; " The conveying the ores and refuse from the mine. — This is 
performed by boys, who pick up the stuff with their hands, and put h 
into skins, which they drag along the floor to the entrance of the mine. 
In place of this method, wheel-barrows and shovels should be used, 
when the passages are enlarged ; and a boy might then easily discharge 
Jour times as much as he can at present. 

9. " The pulverising of the ores, — This is performed by women s 
a large hard stone being placed on the ground on which they lay the 
ores ; they then either with a stone, or hammer, more frequently the 
former, proceed to pulverize them and to pick out the impurities : in 
this manner a woman may manage from one to two maund* per day, 
according to the hardness of the ores. In Cornwall, a woman will pul- 
verise from 10 to 15 hundredweight per day, according, as in the 
former case, to the nature of the ores. The method in practice there 
is, first to dispense with the picking: — secondly, to have the ores 
elevated, so as to enable the individual to stand while working, and 
to have a plafee of iron about a foot square and two inches thick en 
which the ores are broken with a broad flat hammer : the impurities are 
then finally separated by a peculiar mode of dressing the ores with a 
sieve, by which a boy gets through with from one and a half to two 
tons per day. The ores are conveyed to the women, and from them to 
the boys by a man who attends for that purpose. 

- 4. " The washing and cleansing of the poorer ores' from slime and 
other impurities. — This also is performed by women, who carry the 
stuff from the entrance of the mine to a stream in baskets, where they 
contrive, by dabbling with their hands, to wash off the mud and finer 
particles of earth. They then proceed to pick out all the pieces of ore 
they can get hold of; or in the case of what may be submitted to the 
water in a comminuted state, they work this against the stream, so as 
to gather it clean at the head of a small pit by handfulls ; but, from the 
bad construction of the pits, it is with difficulty that this is performed. 
After picking up any larger pieces of ore, which may have gone back 

1886.] Report *» ths Capper mmus tfKumaon* 989 

with the stream, they tooop oat the refuse with their hands, and then 
proeeed with another charge. In Cornwall, one woman provided with a 
wheel-barrow and shovel for the conveying and washing of the ores, 
and a boy with a sieve for dressing them, as formerly mentioned, would 
accomplish an equal task to that of ten women on the system described. 

& " The drainage of the mine.— In the first place, this is managed 
in * proper manner by an adit. But whenever any attempt is made to 
go below it, as is the case in most, if not all the mines, the water is then 
raised in wooden buckets handed from one man to another, until they 
reach the adit into which they ere emptied. In this manner six, 
ten or even more men may be employed, whilst only an inferior num- 
ber can be spared for excavating the ores. At the Sh&era mine, for 
instance, six men are constantly engaged in lifting up the water, and 
there are only two at the ores : the water raised by these six men, could 
he effected with a hand-pump by one man : but, in order to keep the 
pomp constantly going, two men might be required, and the remaining 
four added to the number of those who are excavating. 

Lastly* — " To obtain sawn wood for rendering the passages perma- 
nent and secure, the art of sawing, which is entirely unknown to the 
people here, ought to be introduced*" — 

The foregoing remarks having reference simply to the rude and 
inefficient mode of work now actually in practice in this province, the 
rectifying of them will form the first stage of improvement. No 
allusion has hitherto been made, to the vast results from machinery, 
which in England may be, witnessed in almost every mine ; nor have 
the important processes of reducing the ore to the metallic state, been 
yet adverted to, though these are on a parallel with what has been 
said on the . subject of extraction*. However, from the statements 
which have been made, it may be seen, that notwithstanding the 
mountaineer receives but a very slight remuneration for his labor, 
yet considering the extravagant manner in which that labor is ex* 
ponded, an exorbitant rate is paid for the really serviceable work 
performed- Thus it is not so much the grinding avarice of the. 
teekadar, that oppresses the miner, as the system upon which he 
works, that cannot admit of his being much better paid* To relieve 
this class of people, therefore, and raise their condition, it is much to be . 
desired, that a new management should be adopted ; while, on the other 
hand, were the mines equal to the very best in Cornwall, no great pro- 
fit could ever accrue from them, worked as they are at present. 

• The charcoal smelting furnaces of Sweden appear to me to bs the best 
suited for theae mouotsini. 

940 ^ Report on th* Ckpper mm* e/Xtsmoo*. ' [Nov. 

The almost inaccessible stale of these mines, and the great difficulty of 
making any observations at all in each places, as well as the interruption 
alluded to heretofore, namely, the illness of my assistant whom I' 
was obliged to bring back to cantonments in a very precarious state of 
health, have prevented me from making this report so fall as I should 
have wished. It appeared to me desirable ie take, in the first instance* 
merely a rapid glance at the whole of the copper mines throughont the 
province, before the setting in of the rams, (when they become inac- 
cessible,) with the view of determining the most eligible locality for 
bringing the question of their productiveness to the test of experiment. 
The mines of the western purgunahs, which, by all accounts, are the 
richest, I have not yet had an opportunity of examining ; but though say 
plans have been frustrated in that respect, I can nevertheless recosn* 
mend a trial of one of those I have already visited ; to wit, the i2y« 
mine. It is unfavorably situated for a new adit ; but from the appear* 
aace of the ground, and the probability of cutting new lodes underneath 
by traverses from the one now worked, the superior quality of the ore, 
together with what information I have been able to gather from the 
natives, as to the character of the lode at a greater depth, I consider it- 
in every way the best Buited for an experiment, an estimate of the pro- 
bable expense of which is herewith annexed*. Should the government 
deem it expedient to authorise the work being commenced, my mining 
assistant, Mr. Wilkim, is fully competent to carry on the detail; and 
Lieut. Glasford, executive engineer of Kumaony has offered his 
services to superintend, as far as his other duties in the province wul 
permit, and to further the undertaking by every means in his power. 

I shall now conclude with a summary of the different points of 
inquiry* upon which I should wish to ground my next report of the 
mines of copper in this province. 

Some account of the rockB, considered in an economical point of 

The ores seem to be of the usual varieties, and need merely to be speci- 
fied. Assays from selected specimens hardly give a correct estimate of 
producef . 

The important thing to be noticed is, the quantity that may be ob- 
tained. This will depend principally on the width of the lodes, and 

* It is estimated by Capt. D., that the cost of the proposed new adit at Rye 
will be above 2400 rapeei. 

t The working ore 1 hare hitherto seen haa been copper pyrites, grey copper 
ore, and the green carbonate I have met with, but ha toe inconsiderable quantity 
to deserve notice. 

1888.] New *peci&y>f CyprmU*. 941 

bow far that width is occupied h y solid ore, or how much it is intermix- 
«d with spar, talc and other matters*. Also, on the continuity of 
branches of ore to a reasonable extent, or, on the other hand, on their 
.being short and occurring at considerable intervals. 

Again, the character of the lodes will have to be described, — whether 
beds conforming with the stratification of the country, or veins travers- 
ing the same. — Whether numerous, parallel to each other, or crossing. 
—What their direction usually is by the compass.— -Whether vertical, 
or at what angle they deviate from being vertical.— Whether they are 
rich at particular places, as where veins intersect each other.— What 
is the character of the mineral matter, filling the lode where ore is de- 
ficient.— Whether this character is different, when near the surface, or 
when observed at greater depths.— -What proportion of the lode appears 
to be metalliferous, and what barren. 

Facilities for working. 

Many considerations come under this head— character and habits 
of too natives — rate of payment for labor— state of roads and means 
of transport — supply of timber and other articles required — means of 
drainage, such as levels for obtaining adits — nils of water for machi- 
nery— -streams whether constant and sufficient. As no mining opera- 
tions upon an extended scale can be carried on without a command of 
cheap and good iron, I shall next advert to the mines and manufacture 
of this metal, and point out the peculiar advantages possessed by these 
mountains, over other parts of India, for improvements in that valuable 
branch of the natural resources of the country. 

September, 1888. 

III. — Observation* on six new species of Cyprinida, with an outline 
of a new classification of the family. By J. McClelland, Esq* % 
Medical Establishment. 

It is almost unnecessary to refer to the following passage which 
is inserted under the head of European correspondence, page 110, 
volume I. of this Journal, but it is so apposite to my subject that I 
must be excused for quoting it as it stands. " I spent some time in 
Paris this summer and saw a good deal of M. Cuvibr. I used the 
freedom of mentioning your name to him and your desire of taking 

* In the western pergnnaha, Captain Hb&bikt, in his geological report 
particularises grey, purple, and ▼itrions copper ore. 

942 New spmei ofCyprmiim. [Nor. 

advantage of your position to forward the interests of science. I asked 
him if there was any particular object in natural history which I night 
suggest to you as a desideratum which could be supplied from fans. 
He immediately replied emphatically 'ah certainement, les poissoas 
d'eau douce ;' he added that some gentleman in Calcutta had already 
sent him a good many of those of the lower rivers and parts of the 
country, but that they had no account of those of the higher parts." 

Buchanan states, that while engaged in the provinces remote from 
the sea he met with few species he had not before seen, but previous to 
his departure for Europe, on returning to the vicinity of the laige 
estuaries he daily met with unknown species. In the large rivers above 
the influence of the tides he therefore supposed that not more than one 
species in five escaped his attention, while of those of the estuaries be 
had not described above one half. These last have recently engaged 
the attention of Dr. Cantor, who during the season of 1836-7 accom- 
panied the surveying expedition under Capt Lloyd as medical officer, 
while I have been engaged in the former since my journey to Anon 
in 1835. 

The results prove the accuracy of Buchanan's remarks, for whik 
most of those obtained by Dr. Cantor in the ' Sunder buns have 
proved to be new, not more than one in five of the fresh water species 
inhabiting the large rivers in the interior, escaped the observation of 
Buchanan; but when we trace those rivers upwards from the com- 
mencement of the rapids into the mountains, the number of unknown 
forms augments in proportion to those that have been described, so that 
we may reverse the ratio given by Buchanan, and consider not more 
than one in five as having hitherto been made known, thus correspond- 
ing with Cuvibr's notion * that we have no accounts of those of higher 
parts/ Still, if Cuvier had been acquainted with the extent of Bu- 
chanan's labours on the subject, he would have seen that the whole of 
that author's Garra are Alpine forms. This peculiar group which I 
have incorporated with the genus Gonorhynchus is fully described in the 
Gangetic fishes, but the drawings having been retained with the author's 
extensive collections of papers in every department of natural history 
at the library of the botanic garden, no figures of them were gives 
to the public by Buchanan, and unfortunately Cuvier and other 
icthyologists only adopted such of his species as were figured in the 
work referred to. 


One dorsal fin, stomach without caecal appendages* branchial mem- 
brane with few rays* 

1688.] New classification of Cyprinidm. ft* 

I* Sub-Jam. PJEONOMliE, J. M. 


Moath slightly cleft, either horizontal or directed downwards ; the 
stomach is a lengthened tube continuous with a long intestinal canal » 
colours plain, branchial rays three. 

1. Gen. Cirrhinus. Lower jaw composed of two short limbs loosely 
attached in front where, instead of a prominent apex there is a depres- 
sion ; no spinous rays in the dorsal, lips soft, fleshy, and furnished with 

Sub-gen. Labee f Cuv. Cirri small or wanting. 

2. Gen. Bar bus. Lower jaw composed of two lengthened limbs. 
united in front, so as to form a smooth narrow apex. Dorsal fin pre- 
ceded by a strong bony spine, lips hard, four cirri, intermaxillaries 

Sub-gen. Oreinut, J. M. Mouth vertical, lower jaw shorter than 
the upper, snout muscular and projecting, suborbitar plates concealed. 

3. Gen. Cyprinus prop. Body elevated, lower jaw short and round- 
ed in front, lips hard, thick, and without cirri ; dorsal long. 

4. Gen. Gobio. Dorsal placed over the ventrals and like the anal 
short, and without spines. Lower jaw shorter than the upper, and either 
round or square in front ; lips thin and hard* 

5. Gen. Gonorhynchus. Mouth situated under the head which is 
long and covered with thick integuments. Body long and sub-cylindri- 
cal, snout often perforated by numerous mucous pores. Dorsal and 
anal short, opposite, and without spines. 

II. Subfam. SARCOBORINiE, J. M. 


Mouth directed upwards, widely cleft and horizontal, with a bony pro- 
minence more or less distinct on the symphysis of the lower jaw, 
serving as a prehensile tooth. Colors bright, disposed in spots and 
streaks, or displaying a uniformly bright lustre. The stomach is a 
lengthened sack ending in a short abdominal canal. Branchial rays 

1. Gen. Systomus, J. M. Intermaxillaries protractile; dorsal and 
anal short, the former opposite to the ventrals. Body elevated and 
marked by two or more distinct dark spots. Diffuse bright spots either 
on the fins or opercula, prominence on the jaw obscure ; scales large. 

2. Gen. Abramisf Cuv. Body short and elevated, a short dorsal 
is placed opposite to the ventrals, anal long. Intestine of the only 
Indian species short as the body. 

3. Gen. Perilampus, J. M. Head small, obliquely elevated above 


944 N$w ehut^kmMom efCyprimuU. £N6v. 

the axis of the body. Dorsal opposite the anal which is die longer fit; 
apices of the jaws raised to a line with the dorsum which m straight, 
while the body below is much arched. Sides often streaked with height 
colors, particularly blue, abdominal tube small, and tittle longer than 
the body. 

4. Gen. Leucucus. Dorsal small, opposite the ventrak, mouth and 
head horisontat and placed in the axis of the body, scales and epercnla 
covered with a silvery pigment. 

5. Gen. Opsariu$, J. M. Mouth widely cleft ; body slender and 
usually marked with transverse green bars or spots. Dorsal small, 
without spines and placed behind the middle ; anal long. Intestinal 
canal very short and extending straight from the stomach to the vent 

III. Sub-Jam. APALOPTERIRffi, J. M. 
Body elongated ; sub-cylindric, and enveloped in mucous ; all the 
fin rays soft ; intestines short. Branchial rays vary from two to six. 

1 • G&*. PaCIIiIAN Mt Schn. 

Sub-gen. Aplocheilu$> J. M. Head flat, with the eyes placed on its 
edges, and the mouth broad and directed upwards, with a single row of 
minute teeth placed along the edges of the jaws ; caudal entire. 

2. Gen. Platycara, J. M. Head flat, with the eyes placed on its 
upper surface, fins thick and opaque. Pectorals large, anal small, randal 
bifid, mouth without teeth and directed downwards. Stomach and in- 
testine form a continuous fleshy tube little longer than the body. 

3. Gen. Psihrhynchu9> J. M. Muzzle elongated and flattened, 
eyes placed far back on the edges of the head, mouth small and suctorial, 
without cirri? opercula small, caudal bifid, dorsal opposite to the 

Cobitis, Linn. 
Head and body elongated and little compressed or elevated, the 
snout is long, directed obliquely downwards, and projecting slightly in 
front of the mouth, which is surrounded with short muscular filaments. 

4. Gen. Cobitis propria, J. M. Caudal entire, large, and orna- 
mented with bars or spots ; prevailing colour various shades of brown 
disposed in more or less dense nebulae. 

5. Gen. ScMstura, J. M. Caudal bilobate, prevailing colors green, 
usually disposed in zones and cross-bars. 

It would be unnecessary here to offer any remark on the foregoing 
outline of the arrangement to which I have resorted in this family, with 
the view of introducing our Indian species to such groups as might har- 
monise with those of the Regne animal. This task however easy it 
may seem was one that could only be attempted after long study in 

l*d&] Nw qȣe> & CyprthUUo. Ms) 

India, since Ctrvinn himself in referring such of Boca ah ah's species an 
are figured in. the Gangetic fishes to his groups, generally misplace* 
them even according to his own principles, for want of sufficient infer* 
nation regarding their forms, to say nothing of habits and structure f 
and there can he no doubt that if Covin* had been possessed of suffi- 
cient knowledge of our Indian species he would have subdivided the 
family and characterised its groups nearly as I have done* 

In collecting materials I have hitherto been chiefly indebted to 
life* Ghmtitw. I hare now however to acknowledge my obliga- 
tion to Dr. MacLokd, Inspector General of H. M. hospitals, whose 
collection consists of six different kinds caught promiscuously in the 
streams at Simla, and these form as many species not before known, 
thus promising an unprecedented acce